Tajiks are a Persian-speaking Iranian ethnic group native to Afghanistan and Uzbekistan. Tajiks are the largest ethnicity in Tajikistan, the second largest in Afghanistan which constitutes over half of the global Tajik population, they speak varieties of a Western Iranian language. In Tajikistan, since the 1939 Soviet census, its small Pamiri and Yaghnobi ethnic groups are included as Tajiks. In China, the term is used to refer to its Pamiri ethnic groups, the Tajiks of Xinjiang, who speak the Eastern Iranian Pamiri languages. In Afghanistan, the Pamiris are counted as a separate ethnic group; as a self-designation, the literary New Persian term Tajik, which had some previous pejorative usage as a label for eastern Persians or Iranians, has become acceptable during the last several decades as a result of Soviet administration in Central Asia. Alternative names for the Tajiks are Eastern Persian, Fārsīwān, Dīhgān which translates to "farmer or settled villager", in a wider sense "settled" in contrast to "nomadic" and was used to describe a class of land-owning magnates as "Persian of noble blood" in contrast to Arabs and Romans during the Sassanid and early Islamic period.
The Tajiks are an Iranian people, speaking a variety of Persian, concentrated in the Oxus Basin, the Farḡāna valley and on both banks of the upper Oxus, i.e. the Pamir Mountains and northeastern Afghanistan and western Afghanistan. The ancient Tajiks were chiefly agriculturalists before the Arab Conquest of Iran. While agriculture remained a stronghold, the Islamization of Iran resulted in the rapid urbanization of historical Khorasan and Transoxiana that lasted until the devastating Mongolian invasion. Several surviving ancient urban centers of the Tajik people include Herat, Bukhara, Khujand and Kabul. Contemporary Tajiks are the descendants of ancient Eastern Iranian inhabitants of Central Asia, in particular, the Sogdians and the Bactrians, other groups, with an admixture of Western Iranian Persians and non-Iranian peoples. According to Richard Nelson Frye, a leading historian of Iranian and Central Asian history, the Persian migration to Central Asia may be considered the beginning of the modern Tajik nation, ethnic Persians, along with some elements of East-Iranian Bactrians and Sogdians, as the main ancestors of modern Tajiks.
In works, Frye expands on the complexity of the historical origins of the Tajiks. In a 1996 publication, Frye explains that many "factors must be taken into account in explaining the evolution of the peoples whose remnants are the Tajiks in Central Asia" and that "the peoples of Central Asia, whether Iranian or Turkic speaking, have one culture, one religion, one set of social values and traditions with only language separating them." Regarding Tajiks, the Encyclopædia Britannica states:The Tajiks are the direct descendants of the Iranian peoples whose continuous presence in Central Asia and northern Afghanistan is attested from the middle of the 1st millennium bc. The ancestors of the Tajiks constituted the core of the ancient population of Khwārezm and Bactria, which formed part of Transoxania. Over the course of time, the eastern Iranian dialect, used by the ancient Tajiks gave way to Farsi, a western dialect spoken in Iran and Afghanistan; the geographical division between the eastern and western Iranians is considered and to be the desert Dasht-e Kavir, situated in the center of the Iranian plateau.
According to John Perry The most plausible and accepted origin of the word is Middle Persian tāzīk'Arab', or an Iranian cognate word. The Muslim armies that invaded Transoxiana early in the eighth century, conquering the Sogdian principalities and clashing with the Qarluq Turks consisted not only of Arabs, but of Persian converts from Fārs and the central Zagros region. Hence the Turks of Central Asia adopted a variant of the Iranian word, täžik, to designate their Muslim adversaries in general. For example, the rulers of the south Indian Chalukya dynasty and Rashtrakuta dynasty referred to the Arabs as "Tajika" in the 8th and 9th century. By the eleventh century, the Qarakhanid Turks applied this term more to the Persian Muslims in the Oxus basin and Khorasan, who were variously the Turks' rivals, models and subjects. Persian writers of the Ghaznavid, Seljuq and Atābak periods adopted the term and extended its use to cover Persians in the rest of Greater Iran, now under Turkish rule, as early as the poet ʿOnṣori, ca.
1025. Iranians soon accepted it as an ethnonym, as is shown by a Persian court official's referring to mā tāzikān "we Tajiks"; the distinction between Turk and Tajik became stereotyped to express the symbiosis and rivalry of the nomadic military executive and the urban civil bureaucracy. According to the Encyclopaedia of Islam, the oldest known usage of the word Tajik as a reference to Persians in Persian literature can be found in the writings of the Persian poet Jalal ad-Din Rumi; the 15th century Turkic-speaking poet Mīr Alī Šer Navā'ī used Tajik as a reference to Persians. An exampl
Arkady Borisovich Borisov was a Soviet corps commander. He was born in, he fought for the Bolsheviks against the White movement during the civil war. He was a recipient of the Order of the Red Banner. During the Great Purge, he was imprisoned in Rostov. While he was imprisoned, his predecessor Ivan Kosogov and successor Yakov Sheko were executed, he was released and died on May 27, 1942. Свердлов Ф. Д.. Советские генералы в плену. М.: Издательство фонда «Холокост». P. 246
Novocherkassk is a city in Rostov Oblast, located near the confluence of the Tuzlov River and Aksay River, the latter a distributary of the Don River. Novocherkassk is best known as the cultural capital of the Cossacks, as the official capital of the Don Cossacks. Population: 168,746. Novocherkassk was founded in 1805 by Lieutenant-general Matvei Platov, the Ataman of the Don Cossacks, as the administrative center of the Don Host Oblast, it was established in reaction to the original administrative center, the stanitsa of Cherkassk, being deemed unsuitable as the capital for the Don Cossacks for several reasons. Cherkassk was flooded for long periods of time due to its low-lying location on the banks of the Don River, attempts at constructing levees to protect the town were found to be too costly and ineffective. Additionally, Cherkassk was prone to destructive fires due to its chaotic layout and wooden buildings, was located far away from any major roads. Despite the fact that ten of the eleven representatives of the villages that were part of the Cherkassk refused to move the capital, Platov still made a presentation to Tsar Alexander I asking him to allow the capital of the Don Cossacks to be moved to another location, was granted permission in a decree from the Tsar on August 23, 1804.
Platov and the engineer François Sainte de Wollant developed Novocherkassk as a planned city, deciding to build it on a location at the top of a hill known as the "Wolf's Lair" to the north of Cherkassk, near the confluence of the Tuzlov River and Aksay River. On November 7, 1804, De Wollant and Platov presented to Tsar Alexander a plan for the future of the city and an extensive report, in which the embellished merits of the area chosen for construction were described; the city was designed in the popular traditions of European models of urban development, with spacious areas, wide avenues and boulevards full of greenery. De Wollant, calling the future Novocherkassk "little Paris" on the basis of numerous town squares, each of, supposed to feature a church, to have streets beginning radially around each square. On December 31, 1804, after reviewing the plan and the report of Platov and De Wollant, Tsar Alexander inscribed: "To be according to this. Alexander"; the construction of the city was slow because of the reluctance of most Don Cossacks to leave their homes in Cherkassk, the new capital being 20 kilometres from the River Don, with which the Cossacks were connected throughout its history.
To compensate, there were plans to deepen the Aksay River where the new city was located to alter the course of the Don through the city. This plan was abandoned due to lack of funds, for more than three decades the question of the place of the capital of the Don Cossack remained unresolved, while growth of Novocherkassk stagnated. By 1837, an alternative to transfer the capital to the village of Aksayskoy, on a hill and near the Don, gained popularity. However, Tsar Nicholas I inspected Novocherkassk and the village of Aksayskoy that same year, after returning to Saint Petersburg ordered the Don Cossacks to keep the capital in Cherkassk because of the difficulties and uselessness of the transfer. In the first half of the 19th century, Novocherkassk was built only as an army center, administrative buildings, guest yards, wine cellars and generals and noblemen's houses. In the 1850s, industrialization reached Novocherkassk and industrial enterprises were formed, however only one-thousand of the city's twenty-thousand residents worked in them.
On the eve of the February Revolution, Novocherkassk had a population of about sixty thousand people, about twenty-five thousand of which were serving Cossacks and their families, three thousand were noblemen, about five-hundred were clergymen. Novocherkassk, unlike many Russian cities at the time, had no permanent merchants or peasants. During the Russian Civil War from 1917 to 1922, Novocherkassk was the center of the Don Army counter-revolution and came under the command of General Alexey Kaledin; the Red Army defeated ousted the White-aligned Don Army from Novocherkassk on January 7, 1920. During World War II, the Wehrmacht of Nazi Germany occupied Novocherkassk between July 24, 1942 and February 13, 1943. On June 1-2, 1962, events known as the Novocherkassk massacre occurred when food riots and workers rights protests broke out following a labor strike at a locomotive factory in the city; the protests were brutally suppressed by troops of the Soviet Army, resulting in 26 protesters being killed and 87 being wounded.
On November 20, 1990, Andrei Chikatilo, one of the Soviet Union's most prolific serial killers with 56 convicted murders, was arrested in Novocherkassk. On October 5-6, 1991, a meeting of the Grand Circle of the Union of Cossacks of the Don Military Region took place, where the status of the historical and modern center of the Don Cossacks was established in the city making Novocherkassk the capital of the Don Cossacks. On July 17-18, 1993, a meeting of the United Supreme Circle of Cossack troops of Russia and abroad was held in Moscow, where Novocherkassk was proclaimed the world capital of the Cossacks. Within the framework of administrative divisions, it is incorporated as Novocherkassk Urban Okrug—an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the districts; as a municipal division, this administrative unit has urban okrug status. Novocherkassk NEVZ ElektroVagon Plant, trains Novocherkassk was once an archiepiscopal see of the Greek Orthodox Ch
Degtyaryov machine gun
The Degtyaryov machine gun or DP-27 is a light machine gun firing the 7.62×54mmR cartridge, used by the Soviet Union, with service trials starting in 1927 followed by general deployment in 1928. Besides being the standard Soviet infantry light machine gun during WWII, with various modifications it was used in aircraft as a flexible defensive weapon, it equipped all Soviet tanks in WWII as either a flexible bow machine gun or a co-axial machine gun controlled by the gunner, it was improved in 1943 producing the DPM, but it was replaced in 1946 with the RP-46 which improved on the basic DP design by converting it to use belt feed. The DP machine gun was supplemented in the 1950s by the more modern RPD machine gun and replaced in Soviet service by the general purpose PK machine gun in the 1960s; the DP-27 was a light machine gun designed for the Soviet Red Army in the 1920s under the leadership of Vasily Degtyarev, the first test model being the DP-26. Two test guns were manufactured and fired 5,000 rounds each from September 27 -29, 1926, during which weaknesses were discovered in the extractor and firing pin mechanisms.
After design improvements, two more guns were made and tested in December of 1926, firing 40,000 rounds under adverse conditions, resulting in only.6% stoppages. However, changes to the bolt carrier and the chamber locking mechanism were still required. After this redesign the improved gun, now called the DP-27, was tested by the Red Army at the Kovrov plant on January 17-21 of 1927, passing all tests and being approved for manufacture. A full year of service testing followed, after which the primary requested change was the addition of the large flash suppressor, now considered one of the recognition features of the design. With further refinements, the DP was to be the primary light machine gun of the Red Army during WWII; as with most other light machine guns of WWII, the DP-27 was designed to fire the same 7.62×54mmR ammunition as the main Soviet infantry battle rifle, the Mosin-Nagant, much simplifying ammunition logistics for Soviet infantry units. Of typical Russian design philosophy, the DP-27 was a sturdy and simple gun, easy and cheap to manufacture, could be relied upon to perform in the most adverse conditions.
However it had a low rate of fire when compared to its main wartime rival, the German MG 34/MG 42 series, firing at a rate of 550rpm as compared to the 800-1200rpm of the German light machine guns. The operating mechanism of the DP-27 was gas-operated, using a Kjellmann-Friberg flap locking design to lock the bolt against the chamber until the round had left the barrel, aided by a recoil spring. Ammunition came in the form of a 47-round circular pan magazine that attached to the top of the receiver, it was this disc-shaped, rotating magazine that led Soviet soldiers to call the DP, in typical soldier slang, the "record player". Its main parts were a removable barrel with an integrated flash suppresor and gas cylinder, a receiver with the rear sight, a perforated barrel shroud/guide with the front sight, the bolt and locking flaps, the bolt carrier and gas piston rod, a recoil spring and trigger mechanism group, a bipod for firing from prone positions, the previously-mentioned pan magazine.
The use of bipod makes the controlling of the DP-28 easy. Its recoil becomes negligible. In total, the first versions contained only 80 parts, indicating both the simplicity and ease of manufacture of the design. Early versions had 26 transverse cooling fins machined into the barrel, but it was found that these had little cooling effect and so were deleted in 1938, further easing manufacture, its main weaknesses besides the somewhat low rate of fire were that the pan magazines were prone to damage while being carried, the bipod mechanism was known to be weak and to fail if not handled with care, the recoil spring's location near the barrel led to overheating of the spring causing it to lose proper spring temper and thereby most of its strength as a spring, the 47-round magazines made sustained fire impossible. Since the German MG-34/MG-42 were continuous belt-fed, they had both a much higher rate of fire as well as a sustained fire capability that the DP series could not match. Further, the pan magazines were time-consuming to reload.
The Degtyaryov machine gun was accepted for Red Army service in 1927 with the official designation 7,62-мм ручной пулемет обр. 1927 г. It was called the ДП-27 or just DP in use, besides the aforementioned soldier slang name of "Record Player" due to the disc-shaped magazine. For reasons that are unclear, it is called the DP-28 in the west though no Soviet sources used that designation, it is possible, since the Soviets named equipment referring to the first year of use, that western sources became confused between the initial service testing date of 1927 and the general service distribution date of 1928 and assumed it would be called the DP-28. Despite its numerous problems, the DP had a reputation as a effective light support weapon, it was nicknamed the "Record player" by Red Army troops because the disc-shaped pan magazine resembled a gramophone record and its top cover revolved while the weapon was fired. Many were captured by the Finnish army in the Winter War and the Continuation War and replaced the Lahti-Saloranta M/26.
The DP received the nickname Emma in Finnish service after a popular waltz, again due to the magazine's resemblance to a record player. In the summe
The Kazakhs are a Turkic people who inhabit the Ural mountains and northern parts of Central Asia, the region known as the Eurasian sub-continent. Kazakh identity is of medieval origin and was shaped by the foundation of the Kazakh Khanate between 1456 and 1465, when several tribes under the rule of the sultans Zhanibek and Kerey departed from the Khanate of Abu'l-Khayr Khan; the Kazakhs are descendants of the Turkic and medieval Mongol tribes – Argyns, Naimans, Keraits, Qarluqs. The Kazakhs began using this name during either the 15th or 16th century. There Qazaq; some speculate that it comes from the Turkish verb qaz, because the Kazakhs were wandering steppemen. Another theory on the origin of the word Kazakh is that it comes from the ancient Turkic word qazğaq, first mentioned on the 8th century Turkic monument of Uyuk-Turan. According to the notable Turkic linguist Vasily Radlov and the orientalist Veniamin Yudin, the noun qazğaq derives from the same root as the verb qazğan. Therefore, qazğaq defines a type of person who seeks gain.
Kazakh was a common term throughout medieval Central Asia with regard to individuals or groups who had taken or achieved independence from a figure of authority. Timur described his own youth without directory authority as his Qazaqliq. At the time of the Uzbek nomads' Conquest of Central Asia, the Uzbek Abu'l-Khayr Khan had differences with the Chinggisid chiefs Giray/Kirey and Janibeg/Janibek, descendants of Urus Khan; these differences resulted from the crushing defeat of Abu'l-Khayr Khan at the hands of the Qalmaqs. Kirey and Janibek moved with a large following of nomads to the region of Zhetysu/Semirechye on the border of Moghulistan and set up new pastures there with the blessing of the Moghul Chingisid Esen Buqa, who hoped for a buffer zone of protection against the expansion of the Oirats, it is not explicitly explained that this is why the Kazakhs took the name permanently, but it is the only verifiable source of the ethnonym. The group under Kirey and Janibek are called in various sources Uzbek-Qazaqs.
The Russians called the Kazakhs'Kirgiz' and Kirghiz-Kaisak to distinguish them from the Kyrgyz proper. In the 17th century, Russian convention seeking to distinguish the Qazaqs of the steppes from the Cossacks of the Imperial Russian Army suggested spelling the final consonant with "kh" instead of "q" or "k", adopted by the USSR in 1936. Kazakh – Казах Cossack – КазакThe Russian term Cossack comes from the same Kypchak etymological root: wanderer, independent free-booter. Due to their nomadic pastoral lifestyle, Kazakhs kept an epic tradition of oral history; the nation, which amalgamated nomadic tribes of various Kazakh origins, managed to preserve the distant memory of the original founding clans. It was important for a Kazakh to know his or her genealogical tree for no less than seven generations back. In modern Kazakhstan, tribalism is fading away in government life. Still it is common for a Kazakh man or woman to ask another one which tribe he or she belongs to when getting acquainted with each other.
Nowadays, it is more of a tradition than necessity. There is no hostility between tribes. Kazakhs, regardless of their tribal origin, consider themselves one nation; those modern-day Kazakhs who yet remember their tribes know that their tribes belong to one of the three Zhuz: The Senior Horde The Middle The Junior There is much debate surrounding the origins of the Hordes. Their age is unknown so far in extant historical texts, with the earliest mentions in the 17th century; the Turkologist Velyaminov-Zernov believed that it was the capture of the important cities of Tashkent and Sayram in 1598 by Tevvekel Khan that separated the Qazaqs, as only a portion of the Century possessed the cities. This theory suggests that the Qazaqs divided among a wider territory after expanding from Zhetysu into most of the Dasht-i Qipchaq, with a focus on the trade available through the cities of the middle Syr Darya, of which Sayram and Yasi belonged; the Junior juz originated from the Nogais of the Nogai Horde.
The Kazakh language is a member of the Turkic language family, as are Uzbek, Tatar, Turkish, Azeri and many other living and historical languages spoken in Eastern Europe, Central Asia and Siberia. Kazakh belongs to the Kipchak group of the Turkic language family. Kazakh is characterized, in distinction to other Turkic languages, by the presence of /s/ in place of reconstructed proto-Turkic */ʃ/ and /ʃ/ in place of */tʃ/. Kazakh, like most of the Turkic language family lacks phonemic vowel length, as such there is no distinctio
Battle of Kursk
The Battle of Kursk was a Second World War engagement between German and Soviet forces on the Eastern Front near Kursk in the Soviet Union, during July and August 1943. The battle began with the launch of the German offensive, Operation Citadel, on 5 July, which had the objective of pinching off the Kursk salient with attacks on the base of the salient from north and south simultaneously. After the German offensive stalled on the northern side of the salient, on 12 July the Soviets commenced their Kursk Strategic Offensive Operation with the launch of Operation Kutuzov against the rear of the German forces in the northern side. On the southern side, the Soviets launched powerful counterattacks the same day, one of which led to a large armoured clash, the Battle of Prokhorovka. On 3 August, the Soviets began the second phase of the Kursk Strategic Offensive Operation with the launch of Operation Polkovodets Rumyantsev against the German forces in the southern side of the Kursk salient; the battle was the final strategic offensive that the Germans were able to launch on the Eastern Front.
Because the Allied invasion of Sicily had begun, Adolf Hitler was forced to have troops training in France diverted to meet the Allied threat in the Mediterranean, rather than use them as a strategic reserve for the Eastern Front. Hitler canceled the offensive at Kursk in part to divert forces to Italy. Germany's extensive losses of men and tanks ensured that the victorious Soviet Red Army enjoyed the strategic initiative for the remainder of the war; the Germans hoped to weaken the Soviet offensive potential for the summer of 1943 by cutting off the forces that they anticipated would be in the Kursk salient. The Kursk salient or bulge was 250 kilometres long from north to south and 160 kilometres from east to west; the plan envisioned an envelopment by a pair of pincers breaking through the northern and southern flanks of the salient. Hitler believed that a victory here would reassert German strength and improve his prestige with his allies, who were considering withdrawing from the war, it was hoped that large numbers of Soviet prisoners would be captured to be used as slave labour in the German armaments industry.
The Soviet government had foreknowledge of the German intentions, provided in part by the British intelligence service and Tunny intercepts. Aware months in advance that the attack would fall on the neck of the Kursk salient, the Soviets built a defence in depth designed to wear down the German armoured spearhead; the Germans delayed the offensive while they tried to build up their forces and waited for new weapons the new Panther tank but larger numbers of the Tiger heavy tank. This gave the Red Army time to construct a series of deep defensive belts; the defensive preparations included minefields, artillery fire zones and anti-tank strong points, which extended 300 km in depth. Soviet mobile formations were moved out of the salient and a large reserve force was formed for strategic counter-offensives; the Battle of Kursk was the first time in the Second World War that a German strategic offensive was halted before it could break through enemy defences and penetrate to its strategic depths.
The maximum depth of the German advance was 8–12 kilometres in the north and 35 kilometres in the south. Though the Red Army had succeeded in winter offensives their counter-offensives following the German attack at Kursk were their first successful strategic summer offensives of the war; as the Battle of Stalingrad ground to its conclusion, the Red Army moved to a general offensive in the south, in Operation Little Saturn. By January 1943, a 160 to 300 km wide gap had opened between Army Group B and Army Group Don, the advancing Soviet armies threatened to cut off all German forces south of the Don River, including Army Group A operating in the Caucasus. Army Group Center came under significant pressure as well. Kursk fell to the Soviets on 8 February 1943, Rostov fell on 14 February; the Soviet Bryansk and newly created Central Fronts prepared for an offensive which envisioned the encirclement of Army Group Center between Bryansk and Smolensk. By February 1943 the southern sector of the German front was in strategic crisis.
Since December 1942 Field Marshal Erich von Manstein had been requesting "unrestricted operational freedom" to allow him to use his forces in a fluid manner. On 6 February 1943, Manstein met with Hitler at the headquarters in Rastenburg to discuss the proposals he had sent, he received an approval from Hitler for a counteroffensive against the Soviet forces advancing in the Donbass region. On 12 February 1943, the remaining German forces were reorganised. To the south, Army Group Don was placed under Manstein's command. Directly to the north, Army Group B was dissolved, with its forces and areas of responsibility divided between Army Group South and Army Group Center. Manstein inherited responsibility for the massive breach in the German lines. On 18 February, Hitler arrived at Army Group South headquarters at Zaporizhia just hours before the Soviets liberated Kharkov, had to be hastily evacuated on the 19th. Once given freedom of action, Manstein intended to utilise his forces to make a series of counterstrokes into the flanks of the Soviet armoured formations, with the goal of destroying them while retaking Kharkov and Kursk.
The II SS Panzer Corps had arrived from France in January 1943, refitted and up to near full strength. Armoured units from the 1st Panzer Army of Army Group A had pulled out of the Caucasus and further strengthen
The DShK 1938 is a Soviet heavy machine gun with a V-shaped "butterfly" trigger, firing the 12.7×108mm cartridge. The weapon was used as a heavy infantry machine gun, in which case it was deployed with a two-wheeled mounting and a single-sheet armour-plate shield, it took its name from the weapons designers Vasily Degtyaryov, who designed the original weapon, Georgi Shpagin, who improved the cartridge feed mechanism. It is sometimes nicknamed Dushka from the abbreviation; the requirement for a heavy machine gun appeared in 1929. The first such gun, the Degtyaryov, was built in 1930, this gun was produced in small quantities from 1933 to 1935; the gun was fed from a drum magazine of thirty rounds, had a poor rate of fire. Shpagin developed a belt feed mechanism to fit to the DK giving rise, in 1938, to the adoption of the gun as the DShK 1938; this became the standard Soviet heavy machine gun in World War II. Like its U. S. equivalent, the M2 Browning, the DShK 1938 was used in several roles. As an anti-aircraft weapon it was mounted on pintle and tripod mounts, on a triple mount on the GAZ-AA truck.
Late in the war, it was mounted on the cupolas of IS-2 tanks and ISU-152 self-propelled guns. As an infantry heavy support weapon it used a two-wheeled trolley which unfolded into a tripod for anti-aircraft use, similar to the mount developed by Vladimirov for the 1910 Maxim gun, it was mounted in vehicle turrets, for example, in the T-40 light amphibious tank. In 1946, the DShK 1938/46 or DShKM version was introduced. In addition to the Soviet Union and Russia, the DShK has been manufactured under license by a number of countries, including the People's Republic of China and Romania, it has been replaced in favour of the more modern NSV and Kord designs. The DShK is still one of the most used heavy machine guns. In June 1988, during the conflict in Northern Ireland known as "the Troubles", a British Army Westland Lynx helicopter was hit 15 times by two Provisional IRA DShKs smuggled in from Libya, forced to crash-land near Cashel Lough Upper, south County Armagh. DShKs were used in 2004, against British troops in Al-Amarah, Iraq.
In the 2012 Syrian civil war, the Syrian government said. It claimed to have destroyed, on 40 such cars on a highway in Aleppo and six in Dael, it is claimed that the DShK could fire US/NATO.50-caliber ammunition, but the M2 Browning could not fire 12.7mm ammunition. This is untrue. Neither round is interchangeable, with their case length and head dimensions different and will not chamber or function in the other weapon; the Russian ammunition is 12.7×108mm and the US is 12.7×99mm. The myth began in US weapons intelligence manuals referring to the DShK as being "12.7mm" and the assumption made that this was intentional to accommodate interchangeable ammunition. DShKM: modernized version Type 54: Chinese unlicensed production. Produced in Pakistan with a Chinese license. Many DShKs intended for the close anti-aircraft role were fitted with a simple mechanical sighting system that helped the gunner properly account for "lead" in order to hit fast-moving targets; the system consisted of two circular disks mounted side-by-side in a common framework.
On the right, in front of the gunner, was a large "spider" sight that contained a line of small metal rings running from the center to the outer edge. On the left, in front of the loader, was a smaller disk with several parallel metal wires. In some examples, the sight was installed with the loader's sight on the right. To use the sight, the loader/observer would spin his disk so the wires were parallel to the target's direction of travel. A shaft running between the two turned the gunner's sight to the same angle; the gunner would sight through one of the metal rings based on the estimated range and speed. Browning M2 FN BRG-15 KPV heavy machine gun List of Russian weaponry NSV machine gun Leszek Erenfeicht. "Dushka: The Soviet Fifty Caliber". Small Arms Defense Journal. Vol. 4, No. 3. Koll, Christian. Soviet Cannon: A Comprehensive Study of Soviet Arms and Ammunition in Calibres 12.7mm to 57mm. Austria: Koll. p. 53. ISBN 978-3-200-01445-9. DShK and DShKM at guns.ru. Video of Operation