Battle of Monmouth
The Battle of Monmouth was an American Revolutionary War battle fought on June 28, 1778, in Monmouth County, New Jersey. The Continental Army under General George Washington attacked the rear of the British Army column commanded by Lieutenant General Sir Henry Clinton as they left Monmouth Court House, it is known as the Battle of Monmouth Courthouse. Unsteady handling of lead Continental elements by Major General Charles Lee had allowed British rearguard commander Lieutenant General Charles Cornwallis to seize the initiative, but Washington's timely arrival on the battlefield rallied the Americans along a hilltop hedgerow. Sensing the opportunity to smash the Continentals, Cornwallis pressed his attack and captured the hedgerow in stifling heat. Washington consolidated his troops in a new line on heights behind marshy ground, used his artillery to fix the British in their positions brought up a four-gun battery under Major General Nathanael Greene on nearby Combs Hill to enfilade the British line, requiring Cornwallis to withdraw.
Washington tried to hit the exhausted British rear guard on both flanks, but darkness forced the end of the engagement. Both armies held the field, but the British commanding general Clinton withdrew undetected at midnight to resume his army's march to New York City. While Cornwallis protected the main British column from any further American attack, Washington had fought his opponent to a standstill after a pitched and prolonged engagement; the battle demonstrated the growing effectiveness of the Continental Army after its six-month encampment at Valley Forge, where constant drilling under officers such as Major General Friedrich Wilhelm von Steuben and Major General Gilbert du Motier, Marquis de Lafayette improved discipline and morale. The battle improved the military reputations of Washington and Anthony Wayne but ended the career of Charles Lee, who would face court martial at Englishtown for his failures on the day. According to some accounts, an American soldier's wife, Mary Hays, brought water to thirsty soldiers in the June heat, became one of several women associated with the legend of Molly Pitcher.
By the second phase of the battle the temperature remained consistently above 100 degrees Fahrenheit, heat stroke was said to have claimed more lives than musket fire throughout the battle. In 1777, some two years into the American Revolutionary War, the British launched the Philadelphia campaign. In the fall of that year, they inflicted two significant defeats on General George Washington and his Continental Army, at Brandywine and Germantown, occupied the colonial capital, forcing the Second Continental Congress to hurriedly decamp to York, Pennsylvania. For the rest of the year, Washington avoided giving battle, in December he withdrew to winter quarters at Valley Forge, over the objections of Congress which wanted him to continue campaigning, his defeats and subsequent refusal to engage the British was in stark contrast to the success of his subordinate, General Horatio Gates, who had won major victories in September and October at the Battles of Saratoga. Washington was criticized in some quarters within the army and Congress for relying on a Fabian strategy to wear the British down in a long war of attrition instead of defeating it and decisively in a pitched battle.
In November, Washington was hearing rumors of a "Strong Faction" within Congress that favored replacing him with Gates as commander-in-chief. The congressional appointments of the known critic General Thomas Conway as Inspector General of the Army and of Gates to the Board of War and Ordnance in December convinced Washington there was a conspiracy to take command of the army from him. Over a winter in which supplies were scarce and deaths from disease accounted for 15 per cent of his force, he battled to keep both the army from dissolution and his position as its commander-in-chief, he waged a "clever campaign of political infighting" in which he presented a public image of disinterest, a man without guile or ambition, while working through his allies in Congress and the army to silence his critics. The doubts about his leadership remained, he needed success on the battefield if he was to be sure of his position; the British, had failed to eliminate the Continental Army and force a decisive end to the American rebellion, despite investing significant resources in North America to the detriment of defenses elsewhere in the empire.
In Europe, France was maneuvering to exploit the opportunity to weaken a long-term rival. Following the Franco-American alliance of February 1778, French forces were sent to North America to support the revolutionaries; this led to the Anglo-French War, which Spain would join on the French side in 1779. With the rest of Europe moving towards a hostile neutrality, Great Britain would come under further pressure in 1780 when the Dutch allied with France, leading to the Fourth Anglo-Dutch War. Faced with military escalation, increasing diplomatic isolation and limited resources, the British were forced to prioritize the defense of the homeland and more valuable colonial possessions in the Caribbean and India above their North American colonies, they abandoned their efforts to win a decisive military victory, repealed the Intolerable Acts which had precipitated the rebellion and, in April 1778, sent the Carlisle Peace Commission in an attempt to reach a negotiated settlement. In Philadelphia, the newly installed commander-in-chief of British forces in North America, General Henry Clinton, was ordered to redeploy 8,000 troops, nearly half his army, to the Caribbean and the Floridas, consolidate the rest of his army in New York and adopt a defensive posture
Valley Forge functioned as the third of eight military encampments for the Continental Army's main body, commanded by General George Washington. In September 1777, British forces had captured the American capital of Philadelphia. After failing to retake the city, Washington led his 12,000-man army into winter quarters at Valley Forge, located 18 miles northwest of Philadelphia, they remained there for six months, from December 19, 1777 to June 19, 1778. At Valley Forge, the Continentals struggled to manage a disastrous supply crisis while retraining and reorganizing their units. About 1,700 to 2,000 soldiers died due to disease exacerbated by malnutrition. Today, Valley Forge National Historical Park preserves and protects over 3,500 acres of the original encampment site. In 1777, Valley Forge consisted of a small proto-industrial community located at the juncture of the Valley Creek and the Schuylkill River. In 1742, Quaker industrialists established the Mount Joy Iron Forge. Thanks to capital improvements made by John Potts and his family over the following decades, the small community expanded the ironworks, established mills, constructed new dwellings for residents.
Surrounding the valley was a rich farmland, where Welsh-Quaker farmers grew wheat, hay, Indian corn, among other crops, raised livestock including cattle, sheep and barnyard fowl. Settlers of German and Swedish descent lived nearby. In the summer of 1777 the Continental Army's quartermaster general, Thomas Mifflin, decided to station a portion of his army's supplies in outbuildings around the forges, due to its variety of structures and secluded location between two prominent hills. Fearing such a concentration of military supplies would undoubtedly attract the British, the forge-ironmaster, William Dewees Jr. expressed concerns about the army's proposal. Mifflin established a magazine at Valley Forge anyway. After the British landing at Head of Elk, Maryland on August 25, 1777, the British Army maneuvered out of the Chesapeake basin and towards Valley Forge. Following the Battle of Brandywine and the abortive Battle of the Clouds, on September 18 several hundred soldiers under General Wilhelm von Knyphausen raided the supply magazine at Valley Forge.
Despite the best efforts of Lieutenant Colonel Alexander Hamilton and Captain Henry "Light Horse Harry" Lee, the two Continental army officers selected to evacuate the supplies from Valley Forge, Crown soldiers captured supplies, destroyed others, burned down the forges and other buildings. Political and environmental factors all influenced the Continental Army's decision to establish their encampment near Valley Forge, Pennsylvania in the winter of 1777-1778. Washington conferred with his officers to select the site that would be most advantageous to his army. Washington first asked his generals where to quarter the Continental Army in the winter of 1777–1778 on October 29, 1777. In addition to suggestions from his officers, Washington had to contend with the recommendations of politicians. Pennsylvania state legislators and the Continental Congress expected the Continental Army to select an encampment site that could protect the countryside around Philadelphia; some members of the Continental Congress believed that the army might be able to launch a winter campaign.
Interested parties suggested other sites for an encampment, including Lancaster and Wilmington, Delaware. However, following the inconclusive Battle of Whitemarsh from December 5–8, increasing numbers of officers and politicians began to appreciate the need to defend the greater Philadelphia region from British incursions. Considering these questions, an encampment at Valley Forge had notable advantages. Valley Forge's high terrain meant, its location allowed for soldiers to be detached to protect the countryside. Proximity to the Schuylkill River could facilitate supply movements down the river. Wide, open areas provided space for training. On December 19, Washington conducted his 12,000-man army to Valley Forge to establish the encampment; the encampment was situated along the high, flat ground east of Mount Joy and south of the Schuylkill River. In addition to a concentration of soldiers at Valley Forge, Washington ordered nearly 2,000 soldiers to encamp at Wilmington, Delaware, he posted the army's mounted troops at Trenton, New Jersey, additional outposts at Downingtown and Radnor, among other places.
In the two winter encampments prior to Valley Forge, the Continental army had sheltered themselves in a combination of tents, constructed huts, civilian barns and other buildings. Valley Forge would mark the first time Washington ordered the army concentrated into a more permanent post where they constructed their own shelters; this strategic shift encouraged a whole new host of problems for the American Patriots. The Valley Forge encampment became the Continental Army's first large-scale construction of living quarters. While no accurate account exists for the exact number of log huts built, experts estimate a range between 1,300-1,600 structures. Brigadier General Louis Lebègue de Presle Duportail selected grounds for the brigade encampments and planned the defenses. Afterwards, brigadier generals appointed officers from each regiment to mark out the precise spot for every officer and all enlisted men's huts. Despite commanders' attempts at standardization, the huts varied in terms of size and construction techniques.
Military historian John B. B. Trussell Jr. writes that many squads "dug their floors two feet below ground level," to reduce
Battle of Red Bank
The Battle of Red Bank was a battle of the American Revolutionary War in which a Hessian force was sent to take Fort Mercer on the left bank of the Delaware River just south of Philadelphia, but was decisively defeated by a far inferior force of Colonial defenders. Although the British did take Fort Mercer a month the victory supplied a sorely-needed morale boost to the American cause, delayed British plans to consolidate gains in Philadelphia, relieved pressure on General Washington's army to the north of the city. After the capture of Philadelphia on September 26, 1777, of the failure of the American surprise attack against the British camp at the Battle of Germantown on October 4, the Americans tried to deny the British use of the city by blockading the Delaware River. To that end, two forts were constructed commanding the river. One was Fort Mercer on the New Jersey side at the Red Bank Plantation in what was part of Deptford Township; the other was Fort Mifflin on Mud Island, in the Delaware River just south of the confluence of the Schuylkill River, on the Pennsylvania side opposite Fort Mercer.
So long as the Americans held both forts, British navy ships could not reach Philadelphia to resupply the army. In addition to the forts, the Americans possessed a small flotilla of Continental Navy ships on the Delaware supplemented by the Pennsylvania State Navy, all under the command of Commodore John Hazelwood. On October 18, General Sir William Howe, the commander of the British Army, evacuated his camp at Germantown and pulled his forces inside the city of Philadelphia, he sent a part of his force to capture the two American forts denying him use of the Delaware River. Earlier, Howe had sent a group of men via Webb's Ferry, at the mouth of the Schuylkill River, to marshy Providence Island to construct artillery batteries to bombard Fort Mifflin; the first bombardment of Fort Mifflin came on October 11. This was a desultory attack which convinced the British to expand and improve their batteries. Meanwhile, 2,000 Hessian troops under the command of Colonel Carl von Donop landed at Cooper's Ferry in Camden, New Jersey, about four miles upriver from Fort Mercer, made preparations to attack the fort, located on the high ground at Red Bank.
Von Donop, whose attack had been repulsed at the Second Battle of Trenton, was eager to avenge what he considered to be a humiliation. He declared to his men: "Either the fort will be called Fort Donop, or I shall have fallen." Von Donop divided his force into two groups totaling 1,200 men for a two-pronged attack upon the fort on the morning of October 22. Von Donop and Hessian grenadier Lieutenant Colonel von Linsing were to attack the southern part of the fort, while Colonel Friedrich Ludwig von Minnigerode's grenadiers and Lieutenant Colonel Werner von Mirbach's infantry were to attack the northern and eastern approaches. With six British men-of-war in the river to support the attack, von Donop was convinced that the fort would be in his hands by nightfall. After a cannonade by the Hessian artillery, Linsing moved against the nine-foot-high southern parapet, his men were cut down by devastating cannon and musket fire and were forced to retreat. On the north, Minnigerode's grenadiers managed to scale the ramparts of an abandoned section of the fort.
But when they moved on they were confronted by a tangled mass of felled trees with pointed branches, a kind of abatis, protecting the main wall of the fort. With little in the way of proper tools, they were soon spotted trying to claw their way through the barricade and were fired upon by the Americans waiting for them on the other side; the Continental and Pennsylvania navies provided enfilading fire against the Hessians. Suffering heavy casualties, the Hessians began to retreat, falling back to their camp ten miles away in the village of Haddonfield which they had taken after landing at nearby Cooper's Ferry. Von Donop was wounded in the thigh during the southern attack and was left on the battlefield by his retreating troops. Mortally wounded, von Donop died three days in the Whitall House, a farmhouse just outside the southern works of the fort between the fort and Woodbury Creek. To make matters worse for the British and Hessians, the six British men-of-war were engaged by smaller American gunboats.
During the engagement, two of the ships, the 64-gun ship-of-the-line HMS Augusta and the sloop of war HMS Merlin ran aground on a shoal trying to avoid a series of underwater obstacles called chevaux-de-frise or stockades, which were rows of large wooden spears weighted down on the bottom of the river by heavy crates filled with rocks, designed to pierce the hulls of intruding British warships. Overnight attempts to free the ships were unsuccessful. Fort Mifflin and the Pennsylvania Navy engaged the stranded ships the next morning, with cannons and fire rafts, respectively. Augusta caught fire and within an hour the fire reached the magazine and the ship exploded; the loss of HMS Augusta was attributed to accidental ignition by the British. Soon after, the crew of Merlin was ordered to destroy it also; the Hessian army reported casualties of 377 killed and wounded with 20 missing or captured, while the Americans reported their losses at 14 killed and 27 wounded. Frustrated by the failure to capture Fort Mercer, Howe ordered the Hessian regiments withdrawn from New Jersey while he made plans to attack Fort Mifflin by a massive artillery bombardment.
By early November the British artillery batteries on Providence Island were complete, a number of warships were available in support. On November 10, 1777, the British opened a full-scale bombardment of Fort Mifflin which lasted for five days. Six British
The Continental Army was formed by the Second Continental Congress after the outbreak of the American Revolutionary War by the ex-British colonies that became the United States of America. Established by a resolution of the Congress on June 14, 1775, it was created to coordinate the military efforts of the Thirteen Colonies in their revolt against the rule of Great Britain; the Continental Army was supplemented by local militias and volunteer troops that remained under control of the individual states or were otherwise independent. General George Washington was the commander-in-chief of the army throughout the war. Most of the Continental Army was disbanded in 1783; the 1st and 2nd Regiments went on to form the nucleus of the Legion of the United States in 1792 under General Anthony Wayne. This became the foundation of the United States Army in 1796; the Continental Army consisted of soldiers from all 13 colonies and, after 1776, from all 13 states. When the American Revolutionary War began at the Battles of Lexington and Concord on April 19, 1775, the colonial revolutionaries did not have an army.
Each colony had relied upon the militia, made up of part-time citizen-soldiers, for local defense, or the raising of temporary "provincial regiments" during specific crises such as the French and Indian War of 1754–63. As tensions with Great Britain increased in the years leading to the war, colonists began to reform their militias in preparation for the perceived potential conflict. Training of militiamen increased after the passage of the Intolerable Acts in 1774. Colonists such as Richard Henry Lee proposed forming a national militia force, but the First Continental Congress rejected the idea. On April 23, 1775, the Massachusetts Provincial Congress authorized the raising of a colonial army consisting of 26 company regiments. New Hampshire, Rhode Island, Connecticut soon raised similar but smaller forces. On June 14, 1775, the Second Continental Congress decided to proceed with the establishment of a Continental Army for purposes of common defense, adopting the forces in place outside Boston and New York.
It raised the first ten companies of Continental troops on a one-year enlistment, riflemen from Pennsylvania, Maryland and Virginia to be used as light infantry, who became the 1st Continental Regiment in 1776. On June 15, 1775, the Congress elected by unanimous vote George Washington as Commander-in-Chief, who accepted and served throughout the war without any compensation except for reimbursement of expenses. On July 18, 1775, the Congress requested all colonies form militia companies from "all able bodied effective men, between sixteen and fifty years of age." It was not uncommon for men younger than sixteen to enlist as most colonies had no requirement of parental consent for those under twenty-one. Four major-generals and eight brigadier-generals were appointed by the Second Continental Congress in the course of a few days. After Pomeroy did not accept, John Thomas was appointed in his place; as the Continental Congress adopted the responsibilities and posture of a legislature for a sovereign state, the role of the Continental Army became the subject of considerable debate.
Some Americans had a general aversion to maintaining a standing army. As a result, the army went through several distinct phases, characterized by official dissolution and reorganization of units. Soldiers in the Continental Army were citizens who had volunteered to serve in the army, at various times during the war, standard enlistment periods lasted from one to three years. Early in the war the enlistment periods were short, as the Continental Congress feared the possibility of the Continental Army evolving into a permanent army; the army never numbered more than 17,000 men. Turnover proved a constant problem in the winter of 1776–77, longer enlistments were approved. Broadly speaking, Continental forces consisted of several successive armies, or establishments: The Continental Army of 1775, comprising the initial New England Army, organized by Washington into three divisions, six brigades, 38 regiments. Major General Philip Schuyler's ten regiments in New York were sent to invade Canada; the Continental Army of 1776, reorganized after the initial enlistment period of the soldiers in the 1775 army had expired.
Washington had submitted recommendations to the Continental Congress immediately after he had accepted the position of Commander-in-Chief, but the Congress took time to consider and implement these. Despite attempts to broaden the recruiting base beyond New England, the 1776 army remained skewed toward the Northeast both in terms of its composition and of its geographical focus; this army consisted of 36 regiments, most standardized to a single battalion of 768 men strong and formed into eight companies, with a rank-and-file strength of 640. The Continental Army of 1777–80 evolved out of several critical reforms and political decisions that came about when it became apparent that the British were sending massive forces to put an end to the American Revolution; the Continental Congress passed the "Eighty-eight Battalion Resolve", ordering each state to contribute one-battalion regiments in proportion to their population, Washington subsequently received authority to raise an additional 16 battalions.
Enlistment terms extended to three years or to "the length of the war" to avoid the year-end crises that deplet
Battle of Crooked Billet
The Battle of Crooked Billet was a battle in the Philadelphia campaign of the American Revolutionary War fought on May 1, 1778 near the Crooked Billet Tavern. In the skirmish action, British forces under the command of Major John Graves Simcoe launched a surprise attack against Brigadier General John Lacey and three regiments of Pennsylvania militia, who were caught sleeping; the British inflicted significant damage, Lacey and his forces were forced to retreat into neighboring Bucks County. The British Army, led by General William Howe, had captured New York City in 1776 and Philadelphia in 1777. After the capture of Forts Mifflin and Mercer, which had prevented the resupply of British-occupied Philadelphia by sea, the British relied upon the overland route between New York City and Philadelphia for the movement of men and communication. British troops regularly foraged for supplies in the countryside around the city. Since December and the Continental Army were in winter quarters at Valley Forge, northwest of Philadelphia.
John Lacey, was tasked by Washington with patrolling the region north of Philadelphia, between the Delaware and Schuylkill Rivers. Washington ordered Lacey and the militia to prevent farmers from taking their goods into Philadelphia to sell to the British, to protect patriots in the region from harassment by British and Loyalist troops. Washington was critical of both Pennsylvania's militia recruitment and Lacey's performance. Pennsylvania, despite promising 1,000 militia to patrol that area, had been unable to raise that many, Washington was considering calling in militia from neighboring states. Washington wrote that militia stipulated by the state had never been above half kept up and that General Lacey had only 70 men left in the field. Lacey had not been as effective as Brigadier General James Potter at interdicting trade with the British, Washington hoped Potter, off on leave, would soon return. In late April Lacey began a series of maneuvers and patrols across the area that ended with his arrival on April 27 at the Crooked Billet Tavern in present-day Hatboro.
One of his straggling companies was attacked by a British patrol, Loyalist spies informed John Graves Simcoe, leader of the Loyalist Queen's Rangers, of Lacey's whereabouts. In Philadelphia, General Howe ordered Simcoe, to "secure the country and facilitate the inhabitants bringing in their produce to market." During the winter of 1778, British and Loyalist troops led raids into Bucks County, despite the presence of Lacey and the militia. In April, Simcoe secured permission from Howe to launch an attack on his militia. On the afternoon of April 30, he and Lieutenant Colonel Robert Abercromby led their contingent of troops out of Philadelphia and towards the Crooked Billet. By Lacey's troops numbered about 400, including fresh arrivals from Cumberland and York Counties; that night Lacey ordered Lieutenant William Neilsen to begin a patrol between 2:00 and 3:00 am, ordered the brigade of Thomas Downey to stand on alert. Neilsen failed to follow his orders, his patrol only left camp shortly before daybreak on May 1.
They had not gone. The British troops arrived at Crooked Billet at daybreak on May 1. Simcoe had planned a "pincer"-type attack, with his troops attacking from the north and east, Abercromby's troops from the south and west. Lacey's pickets, in place to warn against any type of threat, noticed the British troops, but failed to fire off a warning shot for fear of being killed or captured. Neilsen sent a runner back to the camp to raise the alarm. Surprised and outnumbered, the militia were soon routed and forced to retreat into Warminster, losing their supplies and equipment at their bivouac site. An account of the battle, published on May 5 in Philadelphia's Royal Pennsylvania Gazette, reads as follows: On Thursday night last, a small party of the British infantry and Queen's rangers, with a few of Capt. HOVEDEN's Pennsylvania, Capt. JAMES's Chester dragoons, left the city about eleven o'clock, proceeded up the Old York road. About a mile beyond the Billet they fell in with Lacey's brigade of militia, consisting of about 500 men, attacked them: Lacey, at first, made some appearance of opposition, but, in a few seconds, was thrown into confusion, obliged to retreat with precipitation, were pursued about 4 miles.
They left between 80-100 dead on the field. Besides the above waggons, 3 were burnt after taking out the horses; the royal party did not lose a single man on this occasion, have only 7 men wounded, 2 horses killed. As a result of this engagement, the American forces lost ten wagons full of much-needed supplies, Lacey had 20% of his force killed, wounded or taken prisoner. Lieutenant Nielson, the officer in charge of the pickets, was court-martialed and cashiered from the militia for disobeying orders. On May 11, Potter returned from his leave of absence and Lacey was relieved of his command. Washington requested that Lacey remain with the militia for a short time in order to familiarize Potter with the region. By late June, the British had withdrawn from Philadelphia, the militia's safeguarding of the region was no longer of concern to Washi
Carlisle Peace Commission
The Carlisle Peace Commission was a group of British negotiators who were sent to North America in 1778, during the American War of Independence. The commission carried an offer of self-rule to the rebellious colonies, including Parliamentary representation within the British Empire; the Second Continental Congress, aware that British troops were about to be withdrawn from Philadelphia, insisted on demanding full independence, which the commission was not authorised to grant. The Peace Commission marked the first time the British government formally agreed to negotiate with Congress; the first attempt at negotiation between Great Britain and the rebellious Thirteen Colonies after the outbreak in April 1775 of the American War of Independence took place in September 1776, when a committee from the Second Continental Congress agreed to meet with Admiral Lord Richard Howe, given limited powers to treat with colonies individually. The limited authority given to both Howe and the American negotiators made it a virtual certainty that nothing would come of the meeting.
The meeting was a failure, in part because the Congress had declared independence from Britain, something Howe was not authorised to recognise, because the American commissioners had no substantive authority from Congress to negotiate. After the British defeat at Saratoga in October 1777, fearful of French recognition of American independence, the Prime Minister, Lord North, had Parliament repeal such offensive measures as the Tea Act and the Massachusetts Government Act, sent a commission to seek a negotiated settlement with the Continental Congress; the commission was empowered to offer a type of self-rule that Thomas Pownall had first proposed a decade earlier. The fact that the commission was authorised to negotiate with the Continental Congress as a body represented a change in official British government policy, which had before been to treat only with the individual states. Historian David Wilson is of the opinion that the war could have been avoided if the terms it proposed had been offered in 1775.
Historian Peter Whiteley, notes that King George was unlikely to agree to make such an offer then. William Eden organized and served on the commission, but it was headed by the Earl of Carlisle, included George Johnstone who had served as Governor of West Florida. Walpole remarked that Carlisle a young man, was "very fit to make a treaty that will not be made" and that he "was unacquainted with business and though not void of ambition, had but moderate parts and less application." Richard Jackson declined to serve after it became known that the United States and France had signed a Treaty of Alliance. The commissioners learned of the Franco-American alliance before they set out in April. One thing the commissioners did not learn before their departure was that General Sir Henry Clinton had been ordered to evacuate Philadelphia though his orders had been issued one month before they left. Carlisle was of the opinion that the administration had done this intentionally, since they might not otherwise have gone at all.
Carlisle wrote to his wife of the situation, "We all look grave, we think we look wise. I fear nobody will think so when we return... I don't see what we have to do here." Upon learning of the planned withdrawal, Carlisle appealed to Clinton to delay it, but, in rejecting the appeal, Clinton cited his orders to act without delay. This prompted Carlisle to observe that the administration wanted the commission to be "a mixture of ridicule and embarrassments." Eden was upset that he wasn't told of Clinton's orders, since the British intent to withdraw further stiffened American resolve. On June 13, the commissioners sent a package of proposals to Congress, holding sessions in York, Pennsylvania. Congress replied insisting that either American independence be recognised, or that all British forces first withdraw from the states, terms the commission was not authorised to accept; the commission attempted to appeal to public opinion, with warnings of widespread destruction, but was unsuccessful. Johnstone tried to bribe some Congressmen, the Marquis de Lafayette challenged Carlisle to a duel over some anti-French statements he had made.
Gouverneur Morris wrote several essays against the proposals. The Commissioners circulated a Manifesto, printed in the Hartford Courant, October 10, 1778; the Marquess of Rockingham, a leading opponent of the war, objected to the threats in the Manifesto, moved to disavow it. Johnstone sailed to Britain in August, the other commissioners returned in November 1778; the British, being unable to bring Washington to a decisive engagement, resumed the military campaign, turned to a "Southern Strategy" as their next attempt to win the war in North America. A further attempt in December 1780 to seek a diplomatic peace in the form of the Clinton-Arbuthnot peace commission, after which there were no further substantive peace overtures until the American victory at Yorktown in 1781, it was upon the failure of this negotiation effort that Benedict Arnold elected to switch over to the side of the British during the American Revolution. Willcox, William. Portrait of a General: Sir Henry Clinton in the War of Independence.
New York: Alfred A Knopf. OCLC 245684727. Encyclopædia Britannica Blackwell The Real History of the American Revolution, Alan Axelrod
Armand's Legion was formed on June 25, 1778 at Boston, Massachusetts under the command of Colonel Charles Armand Tuffin of France, for service with the Continental Army. Armand had served in the French Army, serving with the Garde de Corps or household guard to the King of France. George Washington had given permission to Armand to raise a legion in 1776, but Armand did not fare so well and the Frenchman is reputed to have purchased the legion of a Swiss major; the legion was recruited from foreign volunteers to the American Revolution. After hard fighting with Washington in the north Armand's Legion had taken heavy losses, permission was given for its numbers to be renewed from Hessen POWs. In 1780 the remnants of Pulaski's Legion were added to Armand's Legion. In 1781 the legion was consolidated with Capt. Henry Bedkin's Troop of Light Horse, was reorganized and renamed the 1st Partisan Corps; the legion would see action at the Battle of Camden, Battle of Guilford Court House and the Siege of Yorktown.
Armand had left the legion just after the Battle of Camden for France to gain fresh funds and supplies, returning to meet his legion at Yorktown's front lines, participating with them on the successful assault of Redoubt 10. The legion was disbanded at York, Pennsylvania on December 25, 1783