4th Hussar Regiment (France)

Not to be confused with the Hussards de Saxe, who held the title 4th Hussar Regiment from 1791 until its defection in 1793. The 4th Hussar Regiment is a hussar regiment in the French Army and embodied in 1783 and still in existence, it was created as the hussards Colonel Général on 31 July 1783 for the Duke of Chartres, by taking one squadron from each of the Bercheny, Chamborant and Esterhazy regiments of hussars. On 30 May 1788 it was reinforced by a contingent of soldiers taken from the régiment de Quercy, régiment de Septimanie, régiment de Nassau, régiment de La Marck, régiment de Franche-Comté and régiment des Évéchés, all cavalry units; the hussars played a prominent role as cavalry in the Napoleonic Wars. As light cavalrymen mounted on fast horses, they would be used to fight skirmish battles and for scouting. Most of the great European powers raised hussar regiments; the armies of France, Austria and Russia had included hussar regiments since the mid-18th century. In the case of Britain, four light dragoon regiments were converted to hussars in 1806–1807.

Hussars gained notoriety in the Grande Armée after the invasion of Egypt. At the Battle of Salalieh in August 1798, brigade commander Antoine Charles Louis de Lasalle fought "like a demon" and solidified his reputation as a maverick rider upon returning to France and receiving Weapons of Honour. At the ceremony, Lasalle quipped "Any hussar who isn't dead at age 30 is a layabout." The hussars of Napoleon's army created the tradition of sabrage, the opening of a champagne bottle with a sabre. Moustaches were universally worn by Napoleonic period hussars, the British hussars were the only moustachioed troops in the British Army – leading to occasional taunts of "foreigner" from their brothers-in-arms. French hussars wore cadenettes, braids of hair hanging to either side of the face, until the practice was proscribed when shorter hair became universal; the uniforms worn by Napoleonic hussars were unique to each regiment but all featured the dolman – a colourful, braided stable jacket – and the pelisse, a short fur-edged jacket, worn slung over one shoulder in the style of a cape and fastened with a cord.

This garment was extensively adorned with several rows of multiple buttons. On active service the hussar wore reinforced breeches which had leather on the inside of the leg to prevent them from wearing due to the extensive time spent in the saddle. On the outside of such breeches, running up the outside was a row of buttons, sometimes a stripe in a different colour. A shako or fur kolpik was worn as headwear; the colours of dolman and breeches varied by regiment within the same army. The French hussar of the Napoleonic period was armed with a brass-hilted sabre, a carbine, sometimes with a brace of pistols, although these were unavailable; the British hussar was armed, in addition to his firearms, with the Pattern 1796 light cavalry sabre. A famous military commander in Bonaparte's army who began his military career as a hussar was Marshal Ney, who after being employed as a clerk in an iron works joined the 5th Hussars in 1787, he rose through the ranks of the hussars in the wars of Belgium and the Rhineland fighting against the forces of Austria and Prussia before receiving his marshal's baton in 1804 after the Emperor Napoleon's coronation.

On the French Revolution, it was numbered as the 5th Hussar Regiment during the army reorganisation of 1 January 1791, as the fifth oldest cavalry unit in the French army, before being promoted to 4th Hussar Regiment in 1793 after the previous holder of that title. In 1814, just before the fall of the First French Empire, it was renamed the régiment des hussards de Monsieur, though it resumed the title of 4th Hussar Regiment during the Hundred Days before being disbanded on the Bourbon Restoration which followed. In 1816 the régiment des hussards du Nord was formed and in 1825 this unit took the title 4th Hussar Regiment, it survived until 1940. On 15 February 1945 a new 4th Hussar Regiment was formed by splitting-off elements of COABC 405. On 30 October 1945 the new unit was turned into the 2nd Hussar Regiment. On 15 July 1956 the 4th Hussar Regiment was again recreated, this time from elements of 251e B, before being disbanded again in 1958, it was re-created yet again on 1 April 1959 from elements of 31st Dragoon Regiment, surviving until 1964, when it was disbanded to become the 8th Dragoon Regiment and recreated from elements of 1st African Chasseurs and from the instruction centre of the 6th Dragoon Regiment.

This unit was disbanded at Laon, with its colours being entrusted to the GMR/6-4e RH). In 1991 the 4th Hussar Regiment was yet again recreated, becoming the support regiment to the RMD-NE/CMD Metz. In 2000 it took the name of 4th Hussar Squadron Group, which it still holds


Async is the nineteenth solo studio album of Japanese musician Ryuichi Sakamoto and his first one in eight years since Out of Noise. It's his first full-length solo record since recovering from throat cancer in 2015. Consisting of a combination of bizarre interpretations of familiar musical instruments, unusual textures both acoustic and electronically-made, samples of recordings of people such as David Sylvian and Paul Bowles doing readings, everyday sounds borrowed from field recordings of city streets, async has underlying themes of the worries of the end of life and the interaction of differing viewpoints in humanity. Promoted with two art museum installations, a short film contest, premiering via a listening event at Big Ears Festival, async was first released in Japan by Sakamoto's label Commmons in March 2017 before Milan distributed it to other nations in April 2017, it was critically acclaimed, landed in the top twenty of the Japanese albums chart and in the top five of Billboard's American Top Classical Albums chart, was ranked the best album of 2017 by Fact magazine.

A set of remixes of songs from async, titled ASYNC – REMODELS, was released in December 2017. Since 2009, Ryuichi Sakamoto had an eight-year period where he was unable to inspire himself in his composition process; as a result, he focused most of his time on scoring films instead of producing solo material. He started sketching ideas for a solo album in 2014, but they were scrapped after being diagnosed with throat cancer in 2014, which he had to pause his career entirely. Despite recovering from the disease in August 2015, Sakamoto thought async would be his last album: "That’s why I tried to forget all the rules and forms, anything. I just wanted to put down just what I wanted to hear, just a sound or music, it doesn’t matter; this could be the last time." He began making it from scratch in April 2016, after completing his soundtrack for the film Rage, finished it in eight months. The only track made before Sakamoto's cancer diagnosis that appears on async is "andata." Inspired by the minimal structures of the works of Claude Debussy and the free jazz stylings of John Coltrane, async, as Milan Records summarized, is a set of representations of Sakamoto's thinking that "plays with ideas of a-synchronism, prime numbers, quantum physics and the blurred lines of life and artificiality/noise and music."

Sakamoto conceived the album as the soundtrack for a nonexistent movie by Andrei Tarkovsky, whose works deal with mortality and employed walking scenes with the type of foley featured on async. When making async, "I just wanted to hear sounds of things, everyday things the sounds of instruments, musical instruments as things," Sakamoto said. Sakamoto cited the works of sound art sculptor Harry Bertoia as a major influence when making the LP; the instrumentation includes both regular orchestral instruments and unusual acoustic and programmed textures, more bizarre interpretations of otherwise familiar instruments and the "musical aspect" of everyday noise. Async employs a variety of sound-producing techniques, such as field recordings, making mist textures out of chorales, wailing sounds from glass; some of the tracks include out-of-tune pianos. He thought it was "nature", responsible for the notes the broken pianos played: "the piano is a systematically, industrially-designed thing, but they were a part of nature, taken from nature.

Mankind artificially tuned and set the well-tempered scale, but the thing is if you leave the piano for a long time without a tuning, it will be out of tune."Tri" is an unedited recording of triangles performed by three musicians: Ian Antonio, Levy Lorenzo, Ross Karre. In a 2017 conversation with Sakamoto, Ruth Saxelby assumed the triangle sounds that were in the part of the track were digitally programmed. However, Sakamoto corrected Saxelby by saying "Tri" went through more than ten takes because the three musicians were "perfectionists" and thus wanted the triangles to sound machine-like; as Sakamoto described the album's main idea, Sakamoto said it was human nature most people "find pleasure in being in sync. That's why I wanted to create untraditional music that doesn't synchronize speaking in a language that doesn't exist." He wanted to make a record like this for a long time, but it was difficult to do because he "wanted to make something async but still musical."According to Sakamoto, his musical interests were moving towards "sound and music" rather than just "music" while producing the album, thus he incorporated field recordings to capture "lots of strange sounds."

Sakamoto did the field recordings by walking through streets in New York City, Tokyo and Paris with a cell phone microphone in his hand, activity that made up for four months of the album's production. The sounds he captured were those all people unavoidably encounter in everyday life, such as street noise, animal sounds, leaves and rain. Composing the score for The Revenant, a film heavy on themes about nature in both its story and music, influenced how Sakamoto produced async. For "Walker," Sakamoto spent around ten to fifteen minutes recording his footsteps while walking in a forest filled with leaves, which makes up most of the track, it was a forest that surrounded Philip Johnson's Glass House, which Sakamoto used to record the improvisational piece "Glass" with Alva Noto. On async, all of its sounds never create a proper harmony. However, Sakamoto described these sounds as "significant in their own way because their "existence has meaning

Michael Clegg (footballer)

Michael Jamie Clegg is an English football coach and former player who played as a defender. He is the first-team strength and power coach at Manchester United, with whom he began his professional playing career in the mid-1990s, he made 24 appearances for the club between 1996 and 2001, spent time on loan to Ipswich Town and Wigan Athletic before making a permanent move to Oldham Athletic in 2002. He made 52 appearances in two seasons with the Latics before struggles with his mental health led to his retirement at the age of 26. Clegg, born in Ashton-under-Lyne, began his football career as a trainee with Manchester United and was part of the 1995 FA Youth Cup-winning side, he turned professional soon afterwards, made his first-team debut on 23 November 1996, in a Premier League game away to Middlesbrough which finished as a 2–2 draw. He played in four FA Premier League games in the 1996–97 season, although United were champions for the fourth time in five seasons it was not enough for a title winner's medal.

He managed a further three appearances in 1997–98 before making his final two appearances in the 1999–2000 campaign, when United won their sixth title in eight seasons, but once again Clegg failed to meet the required number of appearances for a title winner's medal. Clegg spent time on loan at Ipswich Town and Wigan Athletic before he joined Second Division club Oldham Athletic on a free transfer on 19 February 2002. In his first season, he played just 10 times as Oldham qualified for the Second Division play-offs, only to see them beaten in the semi-finals. A potential purchase of the club fell through and they went into administration, resulting in the squad being gutted to cover their debts. Clegg played 32 times as they finished in 15th place. After two years out of the game, Clegg was appointed by former Manchester United team-mate Roy Keane as Sunderland's strength and conditioning coach in 2006. On 6 July 2019, Clegg was announced as a first-team power coach at Manchester United. Clegg's father, was strength and conditioning coach at Manchester United from 2000 to 2011.

Clegg's cousin, committed suicide at the age of 19. Michael Clegg at Soccerbase England profile at The Football Association