Norfolk County, Ontario
Norfolk County is a rural single-tier municipality on the north shore of Lake Erie in Southwestern Ontario, Canada with a 2016 population of 64,044. The largest community in Norfolk County is Simcoe, Ontario with a 2016 population of 13,922; the other population centres are Port Dover, Delhi and Port Rowan, there are many smaller communities. For several years in the late 20th century, the county was merged with Haldimand County but the merged entity was dissolved in 2000. According to the Census of Agriculture of 2016 by Statistics Canada, Norfolk County farmers are Ontario’s Number One growers of asparagus, tart cherries, peppers, rye and zucchini, other vegetables. Farmers in Norfolk County are among Ontario’s top growers of several other crops: sweet corn, potatoes, cucumbers and wax beans, carrots and lettuce. Located on the Norfolk Sand Plain in the Carolinian Life Zone, Norfolk County's soil type is sandy loam, the most fertile land in Ontario. With a mild climate and lengthy growing season, the region has long been the centre of the Ontario tobacco belt.
However, many farmers have begun the process of diversifying their crop selections to include fruits and vegetables, ginseng and wolfberries as tobacco consumption continues to decrease. Dennis' Horseradish is considered to be one of the longest lasting non-tobacco farming businesses in Norfolk County; the area has an active greenhouse industry. Despite this, farmers have asked governments to reduce the financial losses of moving away from profitable tobacco operations. A significant natural feature of Norfolk is Long Point, a 40 kilometre spit of land projecting into Lake Erie, it plays an important part in eastern North American bird migration, was designated a World Biosphere Reserve by UNESCO in 1986. Long Point Provincial Park is located on the point. More than 25% of Norfolk County is considered to be forested; the county seat and largest community is Simcoe. Other population centres are Port Dover and Waterford. By 1669, Europeans had reached what is now Port Dover, the French explorers De Galinee and Dollier de Casson.
They erected a cross with the arms of France claiming sovereignty for King Louis XIV over the Lake Erie region on March 23, 1670. A history of the area written in 1898 indicates an earlier visit to what is now Norfolk County, in October 1626, by a Recollet priest, Laroche-Daillon with two Frenchmen Grenolle and La Vallee; the priest spent three month with the Neutrals First Nation. The same account indicates that two Jesuits and Chaurnonot, visited the Neutrals in this area in 1640; the first European to live in the area, with the Neutrals, was William Smith, son of Abraham Smith. He settled near the current Port Rowan in 1793; this was in the first community, the Long Point Settlement, where mills were built by United Empire Loyalist settlers. In the subsequent years and grist mills were opened and the population increased. After the town site was surveyed in the late 1700s, the area was called Charlotte Villa and was renamed Charlotteville. Norfolk County was created in July 1792 as a constituency for the purposes of returning a member to the new Legislative Assembly of Upper Canada, was described as having the following territory:...to be bounded on the north and east by the county of Lincoln and the River La Tranche, now called the Thames, on the south side by the lake Erie until it meets the Barlue, to be called the Orwell River, thence by a line running north sixteen degrees west until it intersects the river La Tranche or Thames, thence up the said river until it meets the northwest boundary of the county of York.
Norfolk County was reduced in size in 1798, with parts going to the counties of Oxford and Haldimand, became part of the London District. It consisted of the following townships: In 1826, the townships of Rainham and Walpole were moved to Haldimand County in Niagara District because of their distance from the London courthouse; the community, now Simcoe, Ontario was first settled when Lieutenant-Governor Simcoe gave land to Aaron Culver in 1795 on the agreement that he would build mills. After they were in operation, a hamlet formed by 1812, although it was burned down by American troops in 1814. Between 1819 and 1823 Culver laid out a village; the settlement consisted of two distinct areas, named by William Bird who arrived in the early 1800s and the Queensway which grew up around Culver's sawmill and grist mill in the 1820s. The post office was called Simcoe; the County had an important role during the War of 1812. Fort Norfolk was built in Charlotteville in 1813 with accommodation for 300 troops.
The Battle of Nanticoke, against American troops, was an important event in 1813. In August 1812, Major General Isaac Brock gathered a force of about regulars and militia at Port Dover. Using boats on the lake, they reached Amherstburg and attacked and captured the American Hull's Army at Detroit; the Americans forces burned Port Dover. The Americans forces burnt Port Dover, Port Ryerse and the Walsingham settlement in 1814. In 1837, Norfolk County was separated from the London District to form Talbot District, Simcoe was declared to be the district town. At the beginning of 1850, the district was abolished, being replaced by Norfolk County for municipal pu
Legislative Assembly of Upper Canada
The Legislative Assembly of Upper Canada was the elected part of the legislature for the province of Upper Canada, functioning as the lower house in the Parliament of Upper Canada. Its legislative power was subject to veto by the appointed Lieutenant Governor, Executive Council, Legislative Council; the first elections in Upper Canada, in which only land-owning males were permitted to vote, were held in August 1792. The first session of the Assembly's sixteen members occurred in Newark, Upper Canada on 17 September 1792. Shortly before the capital of Upper Canada was moved to York in 1796 the Assembly was dissolved and reconvened for twelve more sessions between 1797 and 1840 in modest buildings in the new capital. Members continued to be elected by land-owning males to represent the larger towns. During the War of 1812, American troops set fire to the buildings of the Assembly. Following the war, the Executive and Legislative Councils became dominated by the Family Compact, a clique of wealthy individuals led by John Strachan, which emerged in 1815.
The Compact was opposed to American republicanism and favoured full establishment for the Anglican church in Upper Canada. Their authoritarian style of governance and disregard for the will of the Legislative Assembly led to demands for government, more responsible to the people and the Upper Canada Rebellion of 1837. Opposing the Family Compact were an assortment of anti-establishment members, but it did not gain strength until a more formal group of reformers emerged led by William Warren Baldwin starting 1820s and by William Lyon Mackenzie in the 1830s; the 1840 Act of Union united Upper and Lower Canada into the single Province of Canada and, from this point until Confederation in 1867, a joint parliament was held for the united provinces. 1st Parliament of Upper Canada 1792-1796 2nd Parliament of Upper Canada 1797-1800 3rd Parliament of Upper Canada 1801-1804 4th Parliament of Upper Canada 1805-1808 5th Parliament of Upper Canada 1808-1812 6th Parliament of Upper Canada 1812-1816 7th Parliament of Upper Canada 1817-1820 8th Parliament of Upper Canada 1821-1824 9th Parliament of Upper Canada 1825-1828 10th Parliament of Upper Canada 1829-1830 11th Parliament of Upper Canada 1831-1834 12th Parliament of Upper Canada 1835-1836 13th Parliament of Upper Canada 1837-1840 A few members of the Legislature left Canada.
Some left Canada to join the United States Army during the War of 1812. Some were involved in the Rebellion of 1837 and other just abandoned Canada. Most moved to the United States, some left for Great Britain. Navy Hall at Newark First and second Parliament Buildings of Upper Canada at YorkFrom 1824 to 1832, the Assembly sat at temporary locations due to the fire that destroyed the second home: Residence of the Chief Justice of Upper Canada Old York County Court House on King between Toronto and Church Streets Ballroom of York Hotel at York - one session 1813 York General Hospital Third Parliament Buildings of Upper Canada Legislative Council of Upper Canada Executive Council of Upper Canada Lieutenant Governors of Upper Canada, 1791-1841 Legislative Assembly of the Province of Canada Handbook of Upper Canadian Chronology, Frederick H. Armstrong, Toronto: Dundurn Press, 1985. ISBN 0-919670-92-X James G. Chewett, "The Upper Canada almanac, provincial calendar, for the year of Our Lord 1827: being the third after bissextile or leap year, the eighth year of the reign of His Majesty eorge the Fourth...", 76, ii pp. James G. Chewett, "The Upper Canada almanac and astronomical calendar for the year of Our Lord 1828: being bissextile or leap year and the ninth year of the reign of His Majesty King George the Fourth...", 76, ii pp. James G. Chewett, "The Upper Canada almanac, provincial calendar, for the year of Our Lord 1831: being the third after bissextile, or leap year, the second year of the reign of His Majesty King William the Fourth...", 103, ii pp. Government of Ontario site
The Province of Upper Canada was a part of British Canada established in 1791 by the Kingdom of Great Britain, to govern the central third of the lands in British North America part of the Province of Quebec since 1763. Upper Canada included all of modern-day Southern Ontario and all those areas of Northern Ontario in the Pays d'en Haut which had formed part of New France the watersheds of the Ottawa River or Lakes Huron and Superior, excluding any lands within the watershed of Hudson Bay; the "upper" prefix in the name reflects its geographic position along the Great Lakes above the headwaters of the Saint Lawrence River, contrasted with Lower Canada to the northeast. It was the primary destination of Loyalist refugees and settlers from the United States after the American Revolution, who were granted land to settle in Upper Canada; the province was characterized by its British way of life, including bicameral parliament and civil and criminal law not mixed like in Lower Canada or elsewhere in the British Empire.
The division was created to ensure the exercise of the same rights and privileges enjoyed by loyal subjects elsewhere in the North American colonies. In 1812, war broke out between Great Britain and the United States, leading to several battles in Upper Canada; the US had hoped to capture Upper Canada. The government of the colony came to be dominated by a small group of persons, known as the "Family Compact", who held most of the top positions in the Legislative Council and appointed officials. In 1837, an unsuccessful rebellion attempted to overthrow the undemocratic system. Representative government would be established in the 1840s. Upper Canada existed from its establishment on 26 December 1791 to 10 February 1841 when it was united with adjacent Lower Canada to form the Province of Canada; as part of the 1763 Treaty of Paris which ended the Seven Years' War global conflict and the French and Indian War in North America, Great Britain retained control over the former New France, defeated in the French and Indian War.
The British had won control after Fort Niagara had surrendered in 1759 and Montreal capitulated in 1760, the British under Robert Rogers took formal control of the Great Lakes region in 1760. Fort Michilimackinac was occupied by Roger's forces in 1761; the territories of contemporary southern Ontario and southern Quebec were maintained as the single Province of Quebec, as it had been under the French. From 1763 to 1791, the Province of Quebec maintained its French language, cultural behavioural expectations and laws; the British passed the Quebec Act in 1774, which expanded the Quebec colony's authority to include part of the Indian Reserve to the west, other western territories south of the Great Lakes including much of what would become the United States' Northwest Territory, including the modern states of Illinois, Michigan, Ohio and parts of Minnesota. After the American War of Independence ended in 1783, Britain retained control of the area north of the Ohio River; the official boundaries remained undefined until the Jay Treaty.
The British authorities encouraged the movement of people to this area from the United States, offering free land to encourage population growth. For settlers, the head of the family received 100 acres and 50 acres per family member, soldiers received larger grants; these settlers are known as United Empire Loyalists and were English-speaking Protestants. The first townships along the St. Lawrence and eastern Lake Ontario were laid out in 1784, populated with decommissioned soldiers and their families."Upper Canada" became a political entity on 26 December 1791 with the Parliament of Great Britain's passage of the Constitutional Act of 1791. The act divided the Province of Quebec into Upper and Lower Canada, but did not yet specify official borders for Upper Canada; the division was effected so that Loyalist American settlers and British immigrants in Upper Canada could have English laws and institutions, the French-speaking population of Lower Canada could maintain French civil law and the Catholic religion.
The first lieutenant-governor was John Graves Simcoe. The 1795 Jay Treaty set the borders between British North America and the United States north to the Great Lakes and St. Lawrence River. On 1 February 1796, the capital of Upper Canada was moved from Newark to York, judged to be less vulnerable to attack by the Americans; the Act of Union 1840, passed 23 July 1840 by the British Parliament and proclaimed by the Crown on 10 February 1841, merged Upper Canada with Lower Canada to form the short-lived United Province of Canada. Upper Canada's constitution was said to be "the image and transcript" of the British constitution, based on the principle of "mixed monarchy" – a balance of monarchy and democracy; the Executive arm of government in the colony consisted of a lieutenant-governor, his executive council, the Officers of the Crown: the Adjutant General of the Militia, the Attorney General, the Auditor General of Land Patents for Upper Canada, the Auditor General, Crown Lands Office, Indian Office, Inspector General, Kings' Printer, Provincial Secretary & Registrar's Office, Receiver General of Upper Canada, Solicitor General, & Surveyor General.
Armstrong, pp. 8–12 The Executive Council of Upper Canada had a similar function to the Cabinet in England but was not responsible to the Legislative Assembly. They held a consultative position, ho
Robert Thorpe (judge)
Robert Thorpe was a judge and political figure in Upper Canada and was chief justice of Sierra Leone. He was born in Dublin, Ireland around 1764, he graduated with a degree in law from Trinity College and was admitted to the bar in 1790. In 1801, he was appointed the first Chief Justice of Prince Edward Island, arriving in the colony in November 1802; because he was not getting paid on time, he sailed to England in 1804 but was captured by a French privateer. Thorpe escaped, was appointed a puisne judge of the Court of King's Bench in Upper Canada on 5 July 1805. On the death of his friend, William Weekes, in a duel, he was elected in a by-election to the 4th Parliament of Upper Canada representing Durham, Simcoe & 1st York.. He advocated, he was suspended from office by the lieutenant governor Francis Gore in July 1807. In 1808, Thorpe was appointed the first chief justice in Sierra Leone, he presided over the cases of Joseph Peters and William Tufft. While Thorpe left Sierra Leone in 1813, he continued to serve until 1815, when he was dismissed from colonial service.
In 1815 he published A Letter to Esq.. M. P. Vice-President of the African Institution, critical of the Sierra Leone Company and the African Institution which succeeded it. "After sixteen years experiment, trade having failed. A Reply "Point by Point" to the Special Report of the Directors of the African Institution... London: F. C. and J. Rivington. Retrieved 2 August 2016. A commentary on the treatises entered into between his Britannic majesty, his most faithful majesty... his catholic majesty... and... the king of the Netherlands... for the purpose of preventing their subjects from engaging in any illicit traffic in slaves London: Longman, Rees and Browne
Grenville County, Ontario
Grenville County is a historic county in the Canadian province of Ontario. The county was created in 1792, named in honour of William Wyndham Grenville, 1st Baron Grenville, Secretary of State in 1790, it consisted of five townships, which were settled by United Empire Loyalists in the late 1700s after the Revolutionary War. Prior to being settled by Europeans, the area was home to many generations of native cultures. Grenville County merged with Leeds County in 1850 to create Grenville County; the county covered an area of 272,261 acres. Prior to European settlement, numerous Native American villages were present in Grenville County; the French occupied this area at present-day Johnstown, in what was to become Edwardsburgh township, at Pointe au Baril in what would be Augusta township. These French settlements date back to 1759 respectively. In the late 1700s, land was surveyed in and around what would become Grenville County to be distributed as land grants to the United Empire Loyalists and their families for their loyalty to the Crown.
The first townships laid out were called the Royal Townships, were situated along the St. Lawrence River where land was most productive and travel was convenient. In the 1790s, three more townships were created further north of the existing townships which became part of Grenville County: Oxford-on-Rideau, South Gower, Wolford townships. Shortly after the Loyalists arrival and Scottish immigrants began to settle in the area as well; the European settlers dotted the new townships with small agricultural communities which were self-sustaining. These communities were established out of necessity, as roads in the area were not well-established during nineteenth century and people were travelling via horse and buggy, or on foot; every few kilometres, a village or hamlet was present. Most residents made their living through small-scale mixed farming operations. In 1850, Grenville county was amalgamated with the neighbouring county of Leeds, to become the United Counties of Leeds and Grenville; this occurred when the area ceased to be divided by districts, Canada began to be divided instead by province.
Prior to confederation, the area of Upper Canada was divided by districts, which held the counties, which held the townships. During the mid-1800s, counties began the districts were dropped. Grenville County consisted of five separate townships, two of which still exist, one under a different name; the five townships were Augusta, Oxford-on-Rideau, South Gower, Wolford. Augusta township, covers an area of 75,083 acres, it was first surveyed in 1783, was named in honour of Princess Augusta Sophia, second daughter of George III. This township is located along the southern border of Leeds and Grenville along the St. Lawrence River. Edwardsburgh township, covers an area of 66,669 acres; the township was first surveyed in 1783. This township is located along the southern border of Leeds and Grenville along the St. Lawrence River, east of Augusta township. Oxford-on-Rideau township, covered an area of 59,350 acres and was first surveyed in 1791; the township was amalgamated in the 1990s with South Gower township and the town of Kemptville to become North Grenville.
This township was located north of both Edwardsburgh and Augusta townships, between Wolford and South Gower. South Gower township, covered an area of 27,709 acres and was first surveyed in 1799; this township was located north of Edwardsburgh. Wolford township covered an area of 46,851 acres and was first surveyed in 1795, it was named for the Devonshire seat of John Graves Simcoe. This township was located west of Oxford-on-Rideau, north of Augusta. In the 1990s, Wolford township became known as its own municipality, was renamed Merrickville–Wolford. 1951 map of Grenville County
Ontario Legislative Building
The Ontario Legislative Building is a structure in central Toronto, Canada. It houses the Legislative Assembly of Ontario, the viceregal suite of the Lieutenant Governor of Ontario and offices for members of the provincial parliament; the building is surrounded by Queen's Park, sitting on that part south of Wellesley Street, the former site of King's College, and, leased from the university by the provincial Crown for a "peppercorn" payment of CAD$1 per annum on a 999-year term. The building and the provincial government are both referred to by the metonym "Queen's Park". Designed by Richard A. Waite, the Ontario Legislative Building is an asymmetrical, five-storey structure built in the Richardsonian Romanesque style, with a load-bearing iron frame; this is clad inside and out in Canadian materials where possible. There can be seen over the edifice a multitude of stone carvings, including gargoyles and friezes; the exterior is punctuated with uncharacteristically large windows, allowed by the nature of the iron structure.
The 1909 North Wing was built by noted Toronto architect George Wallace Gouinlock and E. J. Lennox added two floors to the west wing; the main façade fronts south, with the central axis of the building an extension of that for University Avenue, meaning that the Legislative Building creates a terminating vista for the north end of that main thoroughfare. The Legislative Chamber is directly on this axis, in the centre of the building, is lit by the three large and prominent arched windows above the main portico; this block is flanked by two domed towers, the west of, intended to hold a clock, but was fitted with a rose window instead, after funds for the clock were never amassed. The asymmetry of the south face was not as strong as it is at present. After the fire of 1909, the west side of the Legislative Building was repaired and expanded, with an added fourth floor that bears wall dormer windows in a long, gabled roof. At the far termini of the east–west axis, the wings each turn at right angles and extend north, enclosing a three-sided courtyard, in which sits the 1909 block, a free-standing, four storey structure, rectangular in plan.
Inside, a central hall runs between the main entrance at the south and a grand staircase directly opposite, from the mid-landing of, accessed the parliamentary library in the 1909 block. At the top landing of this stair is the lobby of the legislative chamber, with the door to which centrally aligned in the south wall. From this core, wide corridors extend east and west, each bisected by a long and narrow atrium lined with ornate railings. To the south of the Legislative Building is an open area with extensive tree cover, used for public gatherings and demonstrations; the provincial ministries are housed in the separate Ontario Government Buildings complex to the east, comprising the Hearst, Macdonald and Whitney Blocks. The building is featured on both the back covers of Rush's 1981 album Moving Pictures. At the north-west corner of the building is the Lieutenant Governor's Suite, which has housed the office of the Lieutenant Governor of Ontario since 1937, when Ontario sold the province's Government House to the federal Crown.
The space was used as the Cabinet dining room and the Speaker's apartment. The suite is a three-storey complex, with its own ceremonial staircase and elevator entrances where members of the Canadian Royal Family and visiting dignitaries are greeted. A rose garden, donated by the Monarchist League of Canada in honour of the Silver Jubilee of Elizabeth II in 1977, sits on the west side of the building across the driveway. Inside are reception rooms, a state dining room, staff offices, a kitchen, arranged around a central stair hall; the furnishings and chandeliers throughout the suite came from the last government house, Chorley Park, paintings come from the Government of Ontario Art Collection and the Toronto Public Library. Special art exhibitions are commissioned from time to time; the Music Room is the largest space in the viceregal suite, is the site of New Years' Levées, swearing-in ceremonies for cabinet ministers, presentations of and investitures for provincial honours. The suite is home to portraits of some the past Lieutenant Governors of Ontario as well as: Queen Elizabeth II and The Duke of Edinburgh, the Lieutenant Governor large portrait of Upper Canada's first Lieutenant Governor John Graves Simcoe by painted Sir Edmund Wyly Grier The present Ontario Legislative Building is the seventh such structure to serve as Ontario's parliament building.
Either Navy Hall or the Freemasons Hall in Newark, Upper Canada, served as the first legislature, where the initial meeting of the House of Assembly occurred on 17 September 1791. Only three years however, construction began on a dedicated parliament building in York, as i