In astronomy, magnitude is a unitless measure of the brightness of an object in a defined passband in the visible or infrared spectrum, but sometimes across all wavelengths. An imprecise but systematic determination of the magnitude of objects was introduced in ancient times by Hipparchus; the scale is logarithmic and defined such that each step of one magnitude changes the brightness by a factor of the fifth root of 100, or 2.512. For example, a magnitude 1 star is 100 times brighter than a magnitude 6 star; the brighter an object appears, the lower the value of its magnitude, with the brightest objects reaching negative values. Astronomers use two different definitions of magnitude: absolute magnitude; the apparent magnitude is the brightness of an object. Apparent magnitude depends on an object's intrinsic luminosity, its distance, the extinction reducing its brightness; the absolute magnitude describes the intrinsic luminosity emitted by an object and is defined to be equal to the apparent magnitude that the object would have if it were placed at a certain distance from Earth, 10 parsecs for stars.
A more complex definition of absolute magnitude is used for planets and small Solar System bodies, based on its brightness at one astronomical unit from the observer and the Sun. The Sun has an apparent magnitude of −27 and Sirius, the brightest visible star in the night sky, −1.46. Apparent magnitudes can be assigned to artificial objects in Earth orbit with the International Space Station sometimes reaching a magnitude of −6; the magnitude system dates back 2000 years to the Greek astronomer Hipparchus who classified stars by their apparent brightness, which they saw as size. To the unaided eye, a more prominent star such as Sirius or Arcturus appears larger than a less prominent star such as Mizar, which in turn appears larger than a faint star such as Alcor. In 1736, the mathematician John Keill described the ancient naked-eye magnitude system in this way: The fixed Stars appear to be of different Bignesses, not because they are so, but because they are not all distant from us; those that are nearest will excel in Bigness.
Hence arise the Distribution of Stars, according to their Order and Dignity, into Classes. For all the other Stars, which are only seen by the Help of a Telescope, which are called Telescopical, are not reckoned among these six Orders. Altho' the Distinction of Stars into six Degrees of Magnitude is received by Astronomers, and among those Stars which are reckoned of the brightest Class, there appears a Variety of Magnitude. For Example: The little Dog was by Tycho placed among the Stars of the second Magnitude, which Ptolemy reckoned among the Stars of the first Class: And therefore it is not either of the first or second Order, but ought to be ranked in a Place between both. Note that the brighter the star, the smaller the magnitude: Bright "first magnitude" stars are "1st-class" stars, while stars visible to the naked eye are "sixth magnitude" or "6th-class"; the system was a simple delineation of stellar brightness into six distinct groups but made no allowance for the variations in brightness within a group.
Tycho Brahe attempted to directly measure the "bigness" of the stars in terms of angular size, which in theory meant that a star's magnitude could be determined by more than just the subjective judgment described in the above quote. He concluded that first magnitude stars measured 2 arc minutes in apparent diameter, with second through sixth magnitude stars measuring 1 1⁄2′, 1 1⁄12′, 3⁄4′, 1⁄2′, 1⁄3′, respectively; the development of the telescope showed that these large sizes were illusory—stars appeared much smaller through the telescope. However, early telescopes produced a spurious disk-like image of a star, larger for brighter stars and smaller for fainter ones. Astronomers from Galileo to Jaques Cassini mistook these spurious disks for the physical bodies of stars, thus into the eighteenth century continued to think of magnitude in terms of the physical size of a star. Johannes Hevelius produced a precise table of star sizes measured telescopically, but now the measured diameters ranged from just over six seconds of arc for first magnitude down to just under 2 seconds for sixth magnitude.
By the time of William Herschel astronomers recognized that the telescopic disks of stars were spurious and a function of the telescope as well as the brightness of the stars, but still spoke in terms of a star's size more than its brightness. Well into the nineteenth century the magnitude system
The asteroid belt is the circumstellar disc in the Solar System located between the orbits of the planets Mars and Jupiter. It is occupied by numerous irregularly shaped bodies called minor planets; the asteroid belt is termed the main asteroid belt or main belt to distinguish it from other asteroid populations in the Solar System such as near-Earth asteroids and trojan asteroids. About half the mass of the belt is contained in the four largest asteroids: Ceres, Vesta and Hygiea; the total mass of the asteroid belt is 4% that of the Moon, or 22% that of Pluto, twice that of Pluto's moon Charon. Ceres, the asteroid belt's only dwarf planet, is about 950 km in diameter, whereas 4 Vesta, 2 Pallas, 10 Hygiea have mean diameters of less than 600 km; the remaining bodies range down to the size of a dust particle. The asteroid material is so thinly distributed that numerous unmanned spacecraft have traversed it without incident. Nonetheless, collisions between large asteroids do occur, these can produce an asteroid family whose members have similar orbital characteristics and compositions.
Individual asteroids within the asteroid belt are categorized by their spectra, with most falling into three basic groups: carbonaceous and metal-rich. The asteroid belt formed from the primordial solar nebula as a group of planetesimals. Planetesimals are the smaller precursors of the protoplanets. Between Mars and Jupiter, gravitational perturbations from Jupiter imbued the protoplanets with too much orbital energy for them to accrete into a planet. Collisions became too violent, instead of fusing together, the planetesimals and most of the protoplanets shattered; as a result, 99.9% of the asteroid belt's original mass was lost in the first 100 million years of the Solar System's history. Some fragments found their way into the inner Solar System, leading to meteorite impacts with the inner planets. Asteroid orbits continue to be appreciably perturbed whenever their period of revolution about the Sun forms an orbital resonance with Jupiter. At these orbital distances, a Kirkwood gap occurs. Classes of small Solar System bodies in other regions are the near-Earth objects, the centaurs, the Kuiper belt objects, the scattered disc objects, the sednoids, the Oort cloud objects.
On 22 January 2014, ESA scientists reported the detection, for the first definitive time, of water vapor on Ceres, the largest object in the asteroid belt. The detection was made by using the far-infrared abilities of the Herschel Space Observatory; the finding was unexpected because comets, not asteroids, are considered to "sprout jets and plumes". According to one of the scientists, "The lines are becoming more and more blurred between comets and asteroids." In 1596, Johannes Kepler predicted “Between Mars and Jupiter, I place a planet” in his Mysterium Cosmographicum. While analyzing Tycho Brahe's data, Kepler thought that there was too large a gap between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter. In an anonymous footnote to his 1766 translation of Charles Bonnet's Contemplation de la Nature, the astronomer Johann Daniel Titius of Wittenberg noted an apparent pattern in the layout of the planets. If one began a numerical sequence at 0 included 3, 6, 12, 24, 48, etc. doubling each time, added four to each number and divided by 10, this produced a remarkably close approximation to the radii of the orbits of the known planets as measured in astronomical units provided one allowed for a "missing planet" between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter.
In his footnote, Titius declared "But should the Lord Architect have left that space empty? Not at all."When William Herschel discovered Uranus in 1781, the planet's orbit matched the law perfectly, leading astronomers to conclude that there had to be a planet between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter. On January 1, 1801, Giuseppe Piazzi, chair of astronomy at the University of Palermo, found a tiny moving object in an orbit with the radius predicted by this pattern, he dubbed it "Ceres", after the Roman goddess of the patron of Sicily. Piazzi believed it to be a comet, but its lack of a coma suggested it was a planet. Thus, the aforementioned pattern, now known as the Titius–Bode law, predicted the semi-major axes of all eight planets of the time. Fifteen months Heinrich Olbers discovered a second object in the same region, Pallas. Unlike the other known planets and Pallas remained points of light under the highest telescope magnifications instead of resolving into discs. Apart from their rapid movement, they appeared indistinguishable from stars.
Accordingly, in 1802, William Herschel suggested they be placed into a separate category, named "asteroids", after the Greek asteroeides, meaning "star-like". Upon completing a series of observations of Ceres and Pallas, he concluded, Neither the appellation of planets nor that of comets, can with any propriety of language be given to these two stars... They resemble small stars so much. From this, their asteroidal appearance, if I take my name, call them Asteroids. By 1807, further investigation revealed two new objects in the region: Vesta; the burning of Lilienthal in the Napoleonic wars, where the main body of work had been done, brought this first period of discovery to a close. Despite Herschel's coinage, for several decades it remained common practice to refer to these objects as planets and to prefix t
NASA Infrared Telescope Facility
The NASA Infrared Telescope Facility is a 3-meter telescope optimized for use in infrared astronomy and located at the Mauna Kea Observatory in Hawaii. It was first built to support the Voyager missions and is now the US national facility for infrared astronomy, providing continued support to planetary, solar neighborhood, deep space applications; the IRTF is operated by the University of Hawaii under a cooperative agreement with NASA. According to the IRTF's time allocation rules, at least 50% of the observing time is devoted to planetary science; the IRTF is a 3.0 m classical Cassegrain telescope. The Cassegrain focus f/ratio is f/38 and the primary mirror f/ratio is 2.5. Several aspects of the design of IRTF are optimized for IR observations; the secondary mirror is undersized to prevent the instrument from seeing the thermal emission from the telescope structure around the primary mirror. The primary mirror itself is 126" in diameter. A small mirror in the center of the secondary mirror prevents the instrument from seeing its own thermal emission.
The f/ratio is long to have a small secondary mirror, again to minimize the telescope's thermal emission. The mirror coatings are chosen to have minimal thermal emission; the emissivity of the telescope is below 4%. The secondary mirror is mounted on a chopping mechanism to switch the pointing of the telescope from target to sky at up to 4 Hz; the IRTF is mounted on a large English yoke equatorial mount. The mount is stiff, reducing flexure and allowing for accurate pointing of the telescope. Since the telescope is on an equatorial mount, the telescope can observe targets through the zenith without concern for field rotation; the yoke mount. Since the telescope was intended for planetary science, this restriction was considered to be acceptable. Since the telescope is on a heavy mounting, it is immune from vibration or wind shake; the IRTF hosts four facility instruments: SpeX, NSFCam2, CSHELL, MIRSI. MORIS is being tested. IRTF hosts a number of visiting instruments. SpeX is a medium-resolution 0.8-5.4 µm spectrograph built at the Institute for Astronomy, for the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility on Mauna Kea.
The primary scientific driver of SpeX was to provide maximum simultaneous wavelength coverage at a spectral resolving power, well-matched to many planetary and galactic features, at resolving power which adequately separates sky emission lines and disperses sky continuum. This requirement has resulted in an instrument which provides spectral resolutions of R~1000-2000 across 0.8-2.4 µm, 2.0-4.1 µm, 2.3-5.5 µm, using prism cross-dispersers. Single order long slit modes are available. A high throughput prism mode is a provided for 0.8-2.5 µm spectroscopy at R~100 for solid state features and SEDs. A Raytheon Aladdin 3 1024x1024 InSb array is used in the spectrograph. SpeX contains an infrared slit-viewer/guider covering a 60x60arcsec field-of-view at 0.12arcsec/pixel. A Raytheon Aladdin 2 512x512 InSb array in the infrared slit-viewer; the infrared slit viewer can be used for imaging or photometry. SpeX is used for a wide array of planetary and astrophysical research programs, is the most requested instrument on IRTF.
SpeX will be taken off of the telescope for about 6 months to upgrade its arrays starting in August 2012. CSHELL is a 1 - 5.5 µm high resolution single-order echelle spectrograph which uses a 256 x 256 pixel InSb detector array. Each pixel is 0.2" on the sky and the spectroscopic dispersion is 100,000 per pixel. Slits from 0.5" to 4.0" provide spectral resolutions of up to 30,000. CSHELL has an IR imaging mode for source acquisition which covers a 30" x 30" field. An internal CCD with a 1' FOV allows for guiding. MIRSI is a 2.2 to 25 µm thermal infrared imaging camera with grism spectrographic capability. MIRSI was built by Boston University and is now based at the IRTF, it is the only facility instrument, cooled by liquid Helium, the only instrument that uses the chopping mode of the secondary mirror. MIRSI has a selection of broad-band and narrow-band filters, as well as a CVF. NSFCAM2 is a 1-5 µm camera, built at the Institute for Astronomy, for the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility; the camera uses a 2048x2048 Hawaii 2RG detector array.
The image scale is 0.04 arcsec/pixel and the field of view is 82x82 arcsec. It contains two filter wheels; the first is a 28 position wheel containing broad-band and narrow-band filters, a wire-grid polarizer. The second contains a 1.5-5 µm CVF and grisms. for low-resolution spectroscopy. A third wheel, located at the F/38 telescope focal plane inside the camera, contains grism slits and field lenses. An external wheel containing a waveplate can be used with a polarizer in the CVF wheel for polarimetry. NSFCam2 was taken off of the telescope in Fall 2012 to upgrade its array to a higher quality engineering grade Hawaii 2RG array with a new array controller. MORIS s a high-speed, visible-wavelength camera for use on IRTF using an electron multiplying CCD. MORIS is mounted on the side window of SpeX, is fed by the internal cold dichroic in SpeX; the design is based on POETS, which were developed by a collaboration between MIT and Williams College. MORIS is available for open use on IRTF and its user interface has been converted to the IRTF standard interface.
In addition to visible light photometry, MORIS is used as a visible light guider for SpeX, allowing guiding on targets as faint as V=20. The guiding software includes at
Harvard College Observatory
The Harvard College Observatory is an institution managing a complex of buildings and multiple instruments used for astronomical research by the Harvard University Department of Astronomy. It is located in Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA, was founded in 1839. With the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, it forms part of the Harvard–Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics. HCO houses a collection of 500,000 astronomical plates taken between the mid-1880s and 1989; this 100-year coverage is a unique resource for studying temporal variations in the universe. The Digital Access to a Sky Century @ Harvard project is digitally scanning and archiving these photographic plates. In 1839, the Harvard Corporation voted to appoint William Cranch Bond, a prominent Boston clockmaker, as "Astronomical Observer to the University"; this marked the founding of the Harvard College Observatory. HCO's first telescope, the 15-inch Great Refractor, was installed in 1847; that telescope was the largest in the United States from installation until 1867.
Between 1847 and 1852 Bond and pioneer photographer John Adams Whipple used the Great Refractor telescope to produce images of the moon that are remarkable in their clarity of detail and aesthetic power. This was the largest telescope in North America at that time, their images of the moon took the prize for technical excellence in photography at the 1851 Great Exhibition at The Crystal Palace in London. On the night of July 16–17, 1850, Whipple and Bond made the first daguerreotype of a star. Harvard College Observatory is important to astronomy, as many women including Annie Jump Cannon, Henrietta Swan Leavitt, Cecilia Payne-Gaposchkin, Williamina Fleming performed pivotal stellar classification research. Cannon and Leavitt were hired as "computers" to perform calculations and examine stellar photographs, but made insightful connections in their research. From 1898 to 1926, a series of Bulletins were issued containing many of the major discoveries of the period; these were replaced by Announcement Cards which continued to be issued until 1952.
In 1908, the observatory published the Harvard Revised Photometry Catalogue, which gave rise to the HR star catalogue, now maintained by the Yale University Observatory as the Bright Star Catalogue. William Cranch Bond 1839–1859 George Phillips Bond 1859–1865 Joseph Winlock 1866–1875 Edward Charles Pickering 1877–1919 Solon Irving Bailey 1919–1921 Harlow Shapley 1921–1952 Donald H. Menzel 1952–1953. Field 1971–1972 Harvard Computers Sears Tower – Harvard Observatory The Minor Planet Center credits many asteroid discoveries to "Harvard Observatory." See List of largest optical refracting telescopes, for other'great refractors' Dava Sobel. The Glass Universe:. Viking. ISBN 978-0670016952. HCO home page Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics Harvard College Observatory Bulletins Harvard College Announcement Cards
Solon Irving Bailey
Solon Irving Bailey was an American astronomer and discoverer of the main-belt asteroid 504 Cora, on June 30, 1902. Bailey joined the staff of Harvard College Observatory in 1887, he received an M. A. from there in 1888 in addition to his previous M. A. from Boston University. After the observatory received the "Boyden Fund" bequest from the will of Uriah A. Boyden, Bailey played a major role in finding a site for Boyden Station in Arequipa and was in charge of it from 1892 to 1919, he was one of the first to carry out meteorological studies in Peru, traveling extensively in desolate areas at high altitude. Boyden Station was moved to South Africa in 1927 due to better weather conditions and became known as the Boyden Observatory, he made extensive studies of variable stars in globular clusters in the southern skies. He performed a light-curve analysis measured the rotation period of the near-Earth asteroid 433 Eros during its 1903 opposition with great accuracy. Bailey was acting director of Harvard College Observatory from 1919 to 1921 after the death of Edward Charles Pickering and prior to the appointment of Harlow Shapley.
He worked as a senior colleague with Henrietta Leavitt. He was elected a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1892. Irving died at his summer home in Hanover, from an illness caused by heart disease, in 1931. Fernie, J. D.. "In Search of Better Skies: Harvard in Peru I". American Scientist. 88: 396. Doi:10.1511/2000.5.396. Fernie, J. D.. "In Search of Better Skies:Harvard in Peru, II". American Scientist. 89: 123. Doi:10.1511/2001.2.123. Fernie, J. D.. "Harvard in Peru III". American Scientist. 89: 402. Doi:10.1511/2001.5.402. Dieke, Sally. "Bailey, Solon Irving". Dictionary of Scientific Biography. 1. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. Pp. 397–398. ISBN 978-0-684-10114-9
Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer
Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer is a NASA infrared-wavelength astronomical space telescope launched in December 2009, placed in hibernation mode in February 2011. It was re-activated in 2013. WISE discovered thousands of numerous star clusters, its observations supported the discovery of the first Y Dwarf and Earth trojan asteroid. WISE performed an all-sky astronomical survey with images in 3.4, 4.6, 12 and 22 μm wavelength range bands, over ten months using a 40 cm diameter infrared telescope in Earth orbit. After its hydrogen coolant depleted, a four-month mission extension called NEOWISE was conducted to search for near-Earth objects such as comets and asteroids using its remaining capability; the All-Sky data including processed images, source catalogs and raw data, was released to the public on March 14, 2012, is available at the Infrared Science Archive. In August 2013, NASA announced it would reactivate the WISE telescope for a new three-year mission to search for asteroids that could collide with Earth.
Science operations and data processing for WISE and NEOWISE take place at the Infrared Processing and Analysis Center at the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena. The mission was planned to create infrared images of 99 percent of the sky, with at least eight images made of each position on the sky in order to increase accuracy; the spacecraft was placed in a 525 km, polar, Sun-synchronous orbit for its ten-month mission, during which it has taken 1.5 million images, one every 11 seconds. The satellite orbited above the terminator, its telescope pointing always to the opposite direction to the Earth, except for pointing towards the Moon, avoided, its solar cells towards the Sun; each image covers a 47-arcminute field of view. Each area of the sky was scanned at least 10 times at the equator; the produced image library contains data on the local Solar System, the Milky Way, the more distant universe. Among the objects WISE studied are asteroids, dim stars such as brown dwarfs, the most luminous infrared galaxies.
Stellar nurseries, which are covered by interstellar dust, are detectable in infrared, since at this wavelength electromagnetic radiation can penetrate the dust. Infrared measurements from the WISE astronomical survey have been effective at unveiling undiscovered star clusters. Examples of such embedded star clusters are Camargo 18, Camargo 440, Majaess 101, Majaess 116. In addition, galaxies of the young Universe and interacting galaxies, where star formation is intensive, are bright in infrared. On this wavelength the interstellar gas clouds are detectable, as well as proto-planetary discs. WISE satellite was expected to find at least 1,000 of those proto-planetary discs. WISE was not able to detect Kuiper belt objects, it was able to detect any objects warmer than 70–100 K. A Neptune-sized object would be detectable out to 700 AU, a Jupiter-mass object out to 1 light year, where it would still be within the Sun's zone of gravitational control. A larger object of 2–3 Jupiter masses would be visible at a distance of up to 7–10 light years.
At the time of planning, it was estimated that WISE would detect about 300,000 main-belt asteroids, of which 100,000 will be new, some 700 near-Earth objects including about 300 undiscovered. That translates to about 1000 new main-belt asteroids per day, 1–3 NEOs per day; the peak of magnitude distribution for NEOs will be about 21–22 V. WISE would detect each typical Solar System object 10–12 times over about 36 hours in intervals of 3 hours. Construction of the WISE telescope was divided between Ball Aerospace & Technologies, SSG Precision Optronics, Inc. DRS and Rockwell, Lockheed Martin, Space Dynamics Laboratory; the program was managed through the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The WISE instrument was built by the Space Dynamics Laboratory in Utah; the WISE spacecraft bus was built by Technologies Corp. in Boulder, Colorado. The spacecraft is derived from the Ball Aerospace RS-300 spacecraft architecture the NEXTSat spacecraft built for the successful Orbital Express mission launched on March 9, 2007.
The flight system has an estimated mass of 560 kg. The spacecraft is three-axis stabilized, with body-fixed solar arrays, it uses a high-gain antenna in the Ku band to transmit to the ground through the TDRSS geostationary system. Ball performed the testing and flight system integration. WISE surveyed the sky in four wavelengths of the infrared band, at a high sensitivity, its design specified as goals that the full sky atlas of stacked images it produced have 5-sigma sensitivity limits of 120, 160, 650, 2600 microjanskies at 3.3, 4.7, 12, 23 micrometers. WISE achieved at least 68, 98, 860, 5400 µJy 5-sigma sensitivity at 3.4, 4.6, 12, 22 micrometers for the WISE All-Sky data release. This is a factor of 1,000 times better sensitivity than the survey completed in 1983 by the IRAS satellite in the 12 and 23 micrometers bands, a factor of 500,000 times better than the 1990s survey by the Cosmic Background Explorer satellite at 3.3 and 4.7 micrometers. On the other hand, IRAS could observe 60 and 100 micron wavelengths.
Band 1 – 3.4 micrometers – broad-band sensitivity to stars and galaxies Band 2 – 4.6 micrometers – detect thermal radiation from the internal heat sources of sub-stell
Inca mythology includes many stories and legends that attempt to explain or symbolize Inca beliefs. Scholarly research demonstrates that Incan belief systems were integrated with their view of the cosmos in regard to the way that the Inca observed the motions of the Milky Way and the solar system as seen from Cuzco. From this perspective, their stories depict the movements of constellations and planetary formations, which are all connected to their agricultural cycles; this was important for the Inca, as they relied on cyclical agricultural seasons, which were not only connected to annual cycles, but to a much wider cycle of time. This way of keeping time was deployed in order to ensure the cultural transmission of key information, in spite of regime change or social catastrophes. Many Inca myths have been interpreted from Eurocentric perspectives, which detaches the myths from Inca cosmology and agriculture, depriving these myths of their richness and practical ancient functionality. After the Spanish conquest of the Inca Empire by Francisco Pizarro, colonial officials burned the records kept by the Inca.
There is a theory put forward by Gary Urton that the Quipus could have been a binary system capable of recording phonological or logographic data. Still, to date, all, known is based on what was recorded by priests, from the iconography on Inca pottery and architecture, from the myths and legends that have survived among the native peoples of the Andes. Manco Cápac was the Cusco Dynasty at Cusco; the legends and history surrounding him are contradictory those concerning his rule at Cuzco and his origins. In one legend, he was the son of Wiracocha. In another, he was brought up from the depths of Lake Titicaca by the sun god Inti. However, commoners were not allowed to speak the name of Viracocha, an explanation for the need for three foundation legends rather than just one. There were many myths about Manco Cápac and his coming to power. In one myth, Manco Cápac and his brother Pacha Kamaq were sons of the sun god Inti. Manco Cápac was worshiped as a sun god. In another myth, Manco Cápac was sent with Mama Ocllo to Lake Titicaca where they resurfaced and settled on the Isla Del Sol.
According to this legend, Manco Cápac and his siblings were sent up to the earth by the sun god and emerged from the cave of Puma Orco at Paqariq Tampu carrying a golden staff called ‘tapac-yauri’. They were instructed to create a Temple of the Sun in the spot where the staff sank into the earth to honor the sun god Inti, their father. During the journey, one of Manco's brothers was tricked into returning to Puma Urqu and sealed inside, or alternatively was turned to ice, because his reckless and cruel behavior angered the tribes that they were attempting to rule.. In another version of this legend, instead of emerging from a cave in Cuzco, the siblings emerged from the waters of Lake Titicaca. Since this was a origin myth than that of Pacaritambo it may have been created as a ploy to bring the powerful Aymara tribes into the fold of the Tawantinsuyo. In the Inca Virachocha legend, Manco Cápac was the son of Inca Viracocha of Paqariq Tampu, 25 km south of Cuzco, he and his brothers. This legend incorporates the golden staff, thought to have been given to Manco Cápac by his father.
Accounts vary, but according to some versions of the legend, the young Manco jealously betrayed his older brothers, killed them, became Cusco. Like the Romans, the Incas permitted the cultures they integrated into their empire to keep their individual religions. Below are some of the various gods worshiped by the peoples of the Incan empire, many of which have overlapping responsibilities and domains. Unless otherwise noted, it can safely be assumed these were worshipped by different ayllus or worshipped in particular former states. Apu was a spirit of mountains. All of the important mountains have their own Apu, some of them receive sacrifices to bring out certain aspects of their being; some rocks and caves are credited as having their own apu. Ataguchu was a god. Catequil was a god of lightning. Cavillace was a virgin goddess who ate a fruit, the sperm of Coniraya, the moon god; when she gave birth to a son, she demanded. No one did, so she put the baby on the ground and it crawled towards Coniraya.
She was ashamed because of Coniraya's low stature among the gods, ran to the coast of Peru, where she changed herself and her son into rocks. Ch'aska or Ch'aska Quyllur was the goddess of dawn and twilight, the planet Coniraya was the moon deity who fashioned his sperm into a fruit, which Cavillaca ate. Copacati was a lake goddess. Ekeko was a god of the wealth; the ancients made dolls that represented him and placed a miniature version of their desires onto the doll. Illapa was a popular weather god, his holiday was on July 25. He was said to use it to create rain, he appeared as a man in shining clothes, carrying stones. He was the main god of the Kingdom of Qulla after which the Qullasuyu province of the