5145 Pholus provisional designation 1992 AD, is an eccentric centaur in the outer Solar System 180 kilometers in diameter, that crosses the orbit of both Saturn and Neptune. It was discovered on 9 January 1992, by American astronomer David Rabinowitz of UA's Spacewatch survey at the Kitt Peak National Observatory in Arizona, United States; the reddish object has an elongated shape and a rotation period of 9.98 hours. It was named after the creature Pholus from Greek mythology. Pholus was the second centaur to be discovered. Centaurs are objects in between the asteroid and trans-Neptunian populations of the Solar System – that is, beyond Jupiter's and within Neptune's orbit – which behave with characteristics of both asteroids and comets, it orbits the Sun at a distance of 8.8 -- 32.0 AU once 1 month. Its orbit has an inclination of 25 ° with respect to the ecliptic, it is a Saturn-, Uranus- and Neptune-crosser, crossing the orbits of these giant planets at a mean-distance of 9.6, 11.9 and 30.1 AU from the Sun, respectively.
Pholus has not come within one astronomical unit of a planet since 764 BC, will not until 5290. It is believed. Pholus was discovered by David Rabinowitz, working with the Spacewatch program, at Kitt Peak National Observatory on 9 January 1992. Rabinowitz'es discovery was confirmed by Eugene and Carolyn Shoemaker who identified the object on images they took on 1 January 1992; the discovery was announced by James Scotti on 23 January 1992 in an IAU Circular of the Central Bureau for Astronomical Telegrams. A first precovery was taken at the Australian Siding Spring Observatory in 1977, extending the centaur's observation arc by 15 years prior to its discovery, it was the second discovery of a centaur after 2060 Chiron discovered by Charles Kowal in 1977. In 1993, while with the Spacewatch program, David Rabinowitz went on to discover another centaur, 7066 Nessus; this minor planet was named by the Minor Planet Names Committee for Pholus, a centaur from Greek mythology. As with 2060 Chiron, named after his brother Chiron, the tradition is to name this class of outer planet-crossing objects after the half-human, half-horse mythological creatures.
In the mythological account, Pholus died by a self-inflicted wound from a poisoned arrow used by Heracles, who buried Pholus on the mountain Pholoe. The official naming citation was published by the Minor Planet Center on 14 July 1992. After its discovery, Pholus was found to be red in color, for which it has been nicknamed "Big Red"; the color has been speculated to be due to organic compounds on its surface. It is classified; the object has been classified by astronomers as RR-U type, respectively. Polarimetric observations with ESO's Very Large Telescope in 2007 and 2008, revealed noticeable negative polarization at certain phase angles, distinctly different from that of trans-Neptunian objects. Pholus appears to have a rather homogeneous surface with small amount of water frost on its darker parts; the surface composition of Pholus has been estimated from its reflectance spectrum using two spatially segregated components: dark amorphous carbon and an intimate mixture of water ice, methanol ice, olivine grains, complex organic compounds.
The carbon black component was used to match the low albedo of the object. Unlike Chiron, Pholus has shown no signs of cometary activity. Diameter calculations range from 99 to 190 kilometers with a corresponding albedo between 0.155 and 0.04. According to the Herschel Space Observatory with its PACS instrument, Nessus measures 99 kilometers in diameter and its surface has an albedo of 0.155, while a study from 1996 derived a diameter of 185 km. During 2003–2004, observations with the 1.8-meter Vatican Advanced Technology Telescope on Mount Graham Observatory, determined an elongated shape, 310 km × 160 km × 150 km, with a mean-diameter of 190 kilometers, based on a low albedo of 0.04. Johnston's archive lists a diameter of 107 km with an albedo of 0.126, Collaborative Asteroid Lightcurve Link assumes a standard albedo of a carbonaceous body of 0.057 and derives a diameter of 165 km based on an absolute magnitude of 7.64. In March 2005, a rotational lightcurve of Pholus was obtained from photometric observations by Tegler using the VATT at Mount Graham.
Lightcurve analysis gave a rotation period of 9.980 hours with a brightness amplitude of 0.60 magnitude. Alternative period determinations were conducted by Hoffmann and Buie with concurring results of 9.977, 9.982 and 9.983 hours, respectively. Kuiper Belt Object Magnitudes and Surface Colors Stephen Tegler SOLEX Asteroid Lightcurve Database, query form Dictionary of Minor Planet Names, Google books Discovery Circumstances: Numbered Minor Planets - – Minor Planet Center 5145 Pholus at AstDyS-2, Asteroids—Dynamic Site Ephemeris · Observation prediction · Orbital info · Proper elements · Observational info 5145 Pholus at the JPL Small-Body Database Close approach · Discovery · Ephemeris · Orbit diagram · Orbital elements · Physical parameters
Sławomir Podsiadło is a Polish chemist. He studied chemistry at the Faculty of Chemistry of the Warsaw University of Technology. After graduating in 1974, he joined the staff of the Faculty of Chemistry of the Warsaw University of Technology. In 1980 he received a PhD degree and in 1990 he was granted a DSc degree. In 1991 he was appointed the head of the Laboratory of Non-oxygen Compounds at Faculty of Chemistry of the Warsaw University of Technology. Sławomir Podsiadło is the author of 85 original scientific publications, 12 patents and three books in the area of non-oxygen compounds and nanotechnology, his most cited publication is Zając M, Gosk J, Kamińska M, Twardowski A, Szyszko T, Podsiadło S. Paramagnetism and antiferromagnetic d–d coupling in GaMnN magnetic semiconductor. Applied Physics Letters. 2001 Oct 8. Which has been cited 165 times according to Google Scholar
Lesya Ukrainka Eastern European National University in Volyn is a Ukrainian university in Lutsk, named after Lesya Ukrainka. Mail address: Prosp. Voli 13, Lutsk, 43025, Ukraine The history of this university began in 1940 with the founding of the Lutsk State Teachers’ Institute. During its first year of operation,135 students were enrolled for the first-year program; the instruction was provided by a staff of fifty professors working within the departments of Ukrainian and Russian philology, physics and geography. The functioning of the university was interrupted by the outbreak of war in 1941, did not resume until 1946. In September 1951, the college was reorganized and designated a pedagogical institute, a year it was granted the use of the name of Lesya Ukrainka. At that time the university's only faculties were those of history and mathematics. By the beginning of the 1990s nine faculties were operating in the institute. On July 16, 1993, by a decree of President Leonid Kravchuk, the institute was given a higher status and received the name Lesya Ukrainka Volyn State University.
In September 2007 President Viktor Yushchenko signed a decree granting the university the status of a national university. In August 2012, in accordance with a decree signed by President Viktor Yanukovych, Lesya Ukrainka Volyn National University received yet another new official designation: Lesya Ukrainka Eastern European National University in Volyn; this name was intended to reflect the aspirations of the university to establish real and/or symbolic ties with educational institutions in western Europe. Classroom and laboratory instruction is conducted in nine different buildings; these facilities are located at various sites within the city of Lutsk. In addition to this, there is a student camp named “Hart”, situated at Lake Svitiaz. Six institutes and twelve departments are functioning within the University: Institute of Social SciencesSpecialties: culturology, religious studies, philosophy. Institute of Physical Education and HealthSpecialties: Olympic and professional sport. Pedagogical InstituteSpecialties: preschool upbringing, preschool education, primary teaching, primary education, social pedagogy.
Institute of Fine ArtsSpecialties: music art, visual arts, choreography. Psychology DepartmentSpecialties: psychology. History DepartmentSpecialties: documentation and informational activity. Chemistry DepartmentSpecialties: chemistry. Biology DepartmentSpecialties: biology. Mathematics DepartmentSpecialties: computer science. Economics DepartmentSpecialties: enterprise economics and auditing, finance and credit. Institute of Foreign PhilologySpecialties: language and literature. Department of LawSpecialties: jurisprudence. Department of Foreign AffairsSpecialties: country studies. Institute of Philology and JournalismSpecialties: Ukrainian language and literature. Physics DepartmentSpecialties: physics. Geography DepartmentSpecialties: geography. Preparatory DepartmentThe aim of the Preparatory Department is to provide suitable conditions for the effective training of citizens for passing of external independent scoring by means of thorough study of academic disciplines, entering high school and successful adaptation to studying in higher educational establishment.
There is a preparatory department for foreign citizens. Teaching and Research Center of Postgraduate EducationSpecialties:physical rehabilitation, Ukrainian language and literature and literature Language and Literature, psychology and credit, accounting and auditing, land management and cadastre, pre-school education. Lesya Ukrainka Volyn National University was awarded the honorary title “Leader of modern education” on the basis of the results of the Tenth International Exhibition of Educational Institutions “Modern Education in Ukraine 2007” and was awarded a bronze medal in the category “Modernization of higher education in the context of the Bologna Convention requirements”. For development and implementation of innovative educational technologies into its teaching and educational processes, the university was awarded a certificate of recognition, “Innovative educational technologies 2007”; the university was a winner in the “International cooperation in education and science 2007” category at the “Education and career – Student’s day” international exhibition.
The active role of the university in the sphere of international relations has attracted attention both in Ukraine and abroad. On March 7–8, 2008 a delegation from the university took part in the Ninth International Education Fair “Perspektywy 2008”, held in Warsaw. In 2009 VNU won the competition of the Ministry of Education and Scien