520 Franziska

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520 Franziska
Discovery [1]
Discovered byM. F. Wolf
P. Götz
Discovery siteHeidelberg Obs.
Discovery date27 October 1903
MPC designation(520) Franziska
Named after
1903 MV · A924 WH
main-belt · (outer)
Orbital characteristics[1]
Epoch 4 September 2017 (JD 2458000.5)
Uncertainty parameter 0
Observation arc112.81 yr (41,205 days)
Aphelion3.3354 AU
Perihelion2.6735 AU
3.0044 AU
5.21 yr (1,902 days)
0° 11m 21.48s / day
Physical characteristics
Dimensions25.261±0.188 km[5]
26.022±0.267 km[6]
27.70±0.61 km[7]
28.61 km (derived)[3]
28.67±1.2 km[8]
14.0 h (superseded)[9]
16.5044±0.0001 h[10]
16.5045±0.0005 h[11]
16.507±0.001 h[12]
0.1143 (derived)[3]
Tholen = CGU [1][3]
B–V = 0.738 [1]
10.61[1][7][8] · 10.69[3][6][9]

Franziska (minor planet designation: 520 Franziska), provisional designation 1903 MV, is an Eoan asteroid from the outer regions of the asteroid belt, approximately 27 kilometers in diameter. It was discovered on 27 October 1903, by astronomers Max Wolf and Paul Götz at the Heidelberg-Königstuhl State Observatory in southwest Germany;[13] the origin of the asteroid's name is unknown.[2]

Orbit and classification[edit]

Franziska is a member the Eos family (606),[3][4] the largest outer-belt asteroid family consisting of nearly 10,000 known members.[14]:23 It orbits the Sun at a distance of 2.7–3.3 AU once every 5 years and 3 months (1,902 days). Its orbit has an eccentricity of 0.11 and an inclination of 11° with respect to the ecliptic.[1] The body's observation arc begins one day after its official discovery observation at Heidelberg.[13]

Physical characteristics[edit]

In the Tholen classification, Franziska's spectral type is ambiguous. It is closest to a common C-type, and somewhat similar to the rare and also carbonaceous G-type asteroids (CG); the spectrum has also been labelled as "unusual" by Tholen (U).[1] For a carbonaceous asteroid, it has a relatively high albedo (see below).

Rotation period[edit]

In December 2013, a rotational lightcurve of Franziska was obtained from photometric observations by American astronomer Frederick Pilcher at the Organ Mesa Observatory (G50) in New Mexico. Lightcurve analysis gave a well-defined rotation period of 16.507 hours with a brightness variation of 0.35 magnitude (U=3).[12] The result supersedes Richard Binzel's previously obtained lightcurve from May 1985, which gave a period of 14.0 hours and an amplitude of 0.53 magnitude (U=2).[9]


Two lightcurves, published in 2016, using modeled photometric data from the Lowell Photometric Database (LPD) and other sources, gave a concurring period of 16.5044 and 16.5045 hours, respectively. Each modeled lightcurve also determined two spin axes of (122.0°, −50.0°) and (301.0°, −59.0°), as well as (282.0°, −79.0°) and (114.0°, −45.0°) in ecliptic coordinates (λ, β), respectively.[10][11]

Diameter and albedo[edit]

According to the surveys carried out by the Infrared Astronomical Satellite IRAS, the Japanese Akari satellite and the NEOWISE mission of NASA's Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer, Franziska measures between 25.261 and 28.67 kilometers in diameter and its surface has an albedo between 0.1226 and 0.147.[5][6][7][8]

The Collaborative Asteroid Lightcurve Link derives an albedo of 0.1143 and a diameter of 28.61 kilometers based on an absolute magnitude of 10.69.[3]


Any reference of this minor planet's name to a person or occurrence is unknown. "Franziska" is a common German female name and was proposed by the second discoverer Paul Götz in 1905 (AN 169, 363).[2]

Unknown meaning[edit]

Among the many thousands of named minor planets, Franziska is one of 120 asteroids, for which no official naming citation has been published. All of these low-numbered asteroids have numbers between 164 Eva and 1514 Ricouxa and were discovered between 1876 and the 1930s, predominantly by astronomers Auguste Charlois, Johann Palisa, Max Wolf and Karl Reinmuth (also see category).[15]


  1. ^ a b c d e f g "JPL Small-Body Database Browser: 520 Franziska (1903 MV)" (2016-08-20 last obs.). Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Retrieved 11 September 2017.
  2. ^ a b c Schmadel, Lutz D. (2007). "(520) Franziska". Dictionary of Minor Planet Names – (520) Franziska. Springer Berlin Heidelberg. p. 56. doi:10.1007/978-3-540-29925-7_521. ISBN 978-3-540-00238-3.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g "LCDB Data for (520) Franziska". Asteroid Lightcurve Database (LCDB). Retrieved 11 September 2017.
  4. ^ a b "Small Bodies Data Ferret". Nesvorny HCM Asteroid Families V3.0. Retrieved 11 September 2017.
  5. ^ a b c Masiero, Joseph R.; Grav, T.; Mainzer, A. K.; Nugent, C. R.; Bauer, J. M.; Stevenson, R.; et al. (August 2014). "Main-belt Asteroids with WISE/NEOWISE: Near-infrared Albedos". The Astrophysical Journal. 791 (2): 11. arXiv:1406.6645. Bibcode:2014ApJ...791..121M. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/791/2/121. Retrieved 11 September 2017.
  6. ^ a b c d Mainzer, A.; Grav, T.; Masiero, J.; Hand, E.; Bauer, J.; Tholen, D.; et al. (November 2011). "NEOWISE Studies of Spectrophotometrically Classified Asteroids: Preliminary Results". The Astrophysical Journal. 741 (2): 25. arXiv:1109.6407. Bibcode:2011ApJ...741...90M. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/741/2/90.
  7. ^ a b c d Usui, Fumihiko; Kuroda, Daisuke; Müller, Thomas G.; Hasegawa, Sunao; Ishiguro, Masateru; Ootsubo, Takafumi; et al. (October 2011). "Asteroid Catalog Using Akari: AKARI/IRC Mid-Infrared Asteroid Survey". Publications of the Astronomical Society of Japan. 63 (5): 1117–1138. Bibcode:2011PASJ...63.1117U. doi:10.1093/pasj/63.5.1117. Retrieved 11 September 2017.
  8. ^ a b c d Tedesco, E. F.; Noah, P. V.; Noah, M.; Price, S. D. (October 2004). "IRAS Minor Planet Survey V6.0". NASA Planetary Data System. 12: IRAS-A-FPA-3-RDR-IMPS-V6.0. Bibcode:2004PDSS...12.....T. Retrieved 11 September 2017.
  9. ^ a b c Binzel, R. P. (October 1987). "A photoelectric survey of 130 asteroids". Icarus. 72 (1): 135–208. Bibcode:1987Icar...72..135B. doi:10.1016/0019-1035(87)90125-4. ISSN 0019-1035. Retrieved 11 September 2017.
  10. ^ a b Durech, J.; Hanus, J.; Oszkiewicz, D.; Vanco, R. (March 2016). "Asteroid models from the Lowell photometric database". Astronomy and Astrophysics. 587: 6. arXiv:1601.02909. Bibcode:2016A&A...587A..48D. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201527573. Retrieved 11 September 2017.
  11. ^ a b Hanus, J.; Durech, J.; Oszkiewicz, D. A.; Behrend, R.; Carry, B.; Delbo, M.; et al. (February 2016). "New and updated convex shape models of asteroids based on optical data from a large collaboration network". Astronomy and Astrophysics. 586: 24. arXiv:1510.07422. Bibcode:2016A&A...586A.108H. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201527441.
  12. ^ a b Pilcher, Frederick (July 2014). "Lightcurves and Derived Rotation Periods for 18 Melpomene, 234 Barbara 236 Honoria, 520 Franziska, and 525 Adelaide". The Minor Planet Bulletin. 41 (3): 155–156. Bibcode:2014MPBu...41..155P. ISSN 1052-8091. Retrieved 11 September 2017.
  13. ^ a b "520 Franziska (1903 MV)". Minor Planet Center. Retrieved 11 September 2017.
  14. ^ Nesvorný, D.; Broz, M.; Carruba, V. (December 2014). Identification and Dynamical Properties of Asteroid Families. Asteroids IV. pp. 297–321. arXiv:1502.01628. Bibcode:2015aste.book..297N. doi:10.2458/azu_uapress_9780816532131-ch016. ISBN 9780816532131.
  15. ^ Schmadel, Lutz D. (2007). "Appendix 11 – Minor Planet Names with Unknown Meaning". Dictionary of Minor Planet Names – Fifth Revised and Enlarged revision. Springer Berlin Heidelberg. pp. 927–929. ISBN 978-3-540-00238-3.

External links[edit]