Uzhhorod, Rusyn: Уґоград, translit. Ugohrad Rusyn: Ужгород, translit. Užhorod) and known as Ungvár is a city located in western Ukraine, at the border with Slovakia and near the border with Hungary, it is the administrative center of Zakarpattia Oblast, as well as the administrative center of the surrounding Uzhhorod Raion within the oblast. The city itself is designated as city of oblast significance, a status equivalent to that of a raion, does not belong to Uzhhorod Raion. Population: 115,163 ; the city gets its name from the Uzh River, which divides the city into two parts, while horod is Rusyn for city, coming from Old Slavonic grad. However, this name is a recent construct, has been used only since the beginning of the 20th century. Before the city was known as Ungvár spelled Ongvár, Hungvár, Unguyvar, a name derived from Ung, the Hungarian name for the Uzh and vár, meaning castle, fort, it is known by several alternative names: Czech: Užhorod. The best known of the first city founders are early Slavs.
One of their tribes – White Croats – settled the area of the modern Uzhhorod in the second half of the first millennium AD. During the 9th century a fortified castle changed into a fortified early feudal town-settlement, which became the center of a new Slavic principality, at the head of, a mythical prince Laborec, vassal of Great Moravia. Great Moravia, according to historians and experts did not extend as far east as Uzhgorod, in fact, it was west of what is now the City of Bratislava, Slovakia. In 895 AD, Hungarian tribes, headed by their leader Árpád, stormed the Hungvar fortress; the forces were not equal and Laborec was defeated and beheaded on the banks of the river that still carries his name. Again, this is mythical. There was not much of a settlement when the Magyar tribes arrived, having left Kiev and encountering no resistance. After the arrival of the Hungarians, the small town began to extend its borders. In 1241–1242 the Mongols of Batu Khan burnt the settlement. In the early 14th century, Uzhhorod showed strong resistance to the new Hungarian rulers of the Anjou dynasty.
Although the majority of inhabitants were Hungarians, they wanted more freedom. From 1318 for 360 years, the Drugeths owned the town. During that period Philip Drugeth built Uzhhorod Castle; the name Ungvar in Hungarian meaning Castle of Ung. Together with the castle, the city began to grow. From 1430, Uzhhorod became a free royal town. During the 16–17th centuries there were many handicraft corporations in Uzhhorod. In this period the city was engaged in the religious fight between Protestant Transylvania and Catholic Austria. In 1646 the Ungvar Union was proclaimed and the Greek-Catholic church was established in Subcarpathia, in a ceremony held in the Ungvar castle by the Vatican Aegis. In 1707 Ungvar was the residence of Ferenc II Rákóczi, leader of the national liberation war of Hungarians against Vienna; the beginning of the 19th century was characterized by economic changes, including the first factories in the city. The greatest influence on Ungvar among the political events of the 19th century was made by the Hungarian Revolution of 1848-1849, during which the native Hungarian nobility sought both get free of the Austrian Empire and to have authority over their own people.
27 March 1848 was celebrated in the city as the overthrow of the monarchy in Hungary. It is now celebrated in Hungary on 15 March. In 1872 the first railway line opened, linking the city to the important railway junction of Chop known as Csap. According to the 1910 census, the city had 16,919 inhabitants, of which 13,590 were Magyars, 1,219 Slovaks, 1,151 Germans, 641 Rusyns and 1.6% Czechs. Since Jews were not counted as ethnicity, rather only religious group, this Austrian-Hungarian census does not mention the Jewish population, significant, consisted of about 31% in 1910. In the same time, the municipal area of the city had a population composed of 10,541 Hungarians, 9,908 Slovaks, 5,520 Rusyns; the First World War slowed down the tempo of city development. On 10 September 1919, Subcarpathia was allocated to the Republic of Czechoslovakia. Uzhhorod became the administrative center of the territory. During these years Uzhhorod developed into an architecturally modern city. After the Treaty of Trianon 1920, Uzhhorod became part of the eastern half of the new Czecho-Slovak state.
After the First Vienna Award in 1938, Uzhhorod was given back to Hungary from which it was forcibly separated after WWI. The inhabitants did not wish to become a part of Czechoslovakia but their wishes were not honored; the city reverted to its original name of Ungvar, the name that the city had for 1000 years. In 1941 the Jewish population reached 9,576. On 19 March 1944, Germans troops entered the city, they established a Judenrat and set up 2 ghettos, at the Moskovitz brickyard and at the Gluck lumberyard. During May 1944, all Jews were deported to Auschwitz in 5 different transports and subsequently murdered. Only a few hundred Jews survived. On 27 October 1944, the city was captured by the troops of the 4th Ukrainian Front of the Red Army. Thousands of ethnic Hungarians were killed, expelled, or else taken to work in Soviet forced labor camps; the Hungarian majority population was decimated in order to strengthen the Soviet and Ukrainian right to the city. This period brought sign
Friedrich Engels was a German philosopher, social scientist and businessman. His father was an owner of large textile factories in Barmen, Prussia. Engels developed what is now known as Marxist theory together with Karl Marx and in 1845 he published The Condition of the Working Class in England, based on personal observations and research in English cities. In 1848, Engels co-authored The Communist Manifesto with Marx and authored and co-authored many other works. Engels supported Marx financially, allowing him to do research and write Das Kapital. After Marx's death, Engels edited the third volumes of Das Kapital. Additionally, Engels organised Marx's notes on the Theories of Surplus Value, which he published as the "fourth volume" of Capital. In 1884, he published The Origin of the Family, Private Property and the State on the basis of Marx's ethnographic research. Engels died in London on 5 August 1895, at the age of 74 and following cremation his ashes were scattered off Beachy Head, near Eastbourne.
Engels was born on 28 November 1820 in Barmen, Rhine Province, Prussia as eldest son of Friedrich Engels Sr. and of Elisabeth "Elise" Franziska Mauritia von Haar. The wealthy Engels family owned large cotton-textile mills in Barmen and Salford, both expanding industrial metropoles. Friedrich's parents were devout Pietist Protestants and they raised their children accordingly. At the age of 13, Engels attended high school in the adjacent city of Elberfeld but had to leave at 17, due to pressure of his father, who wanted him to become a businessman and start to work as mercantile apprentice in his firm. After a year in Barmen, the young Engels was in 1838 sent by his father to undertake an apprenticeship at a commercial house in Bremen, his parents expected. Their son's revolutionary activities disappointed them, it would be some years. Whilst at Bremen, Engels began reading the philosophy of Hegel, whose teachings dominated German philosophy at that time. In September 1838 he published his first work, a poem entitled "The Bedouin", in the Bremisches Conversationsblatt No. 40.
He engaged in other literary work and began writing newspaper articles critiquing the societal ills of industrialisation. He wrote under the pseudonym "Friedrich Oswald" to avoid connecting his family with his provocative writings. In 1841 Engels performed his military service in the Prussian Army as a member of the Household Artillery. Assigned to Berlin, he attended university lectures at the University of Berlin and began to associate with groups of Young Hegelians, he anonymously published articles in the Rheinische Zeitung, exposing the poor employment- and living-conditions endured by factory workers. The editor of the Rheinische Zeitung was Karl Marx, but Engels would not meet Marx until late November 1842. Engels acknowledged the influence of German philosophy on his intellectual development throughout his career, he wrote, "To get the most out of life you must be active, you must live and you must have the courage to taste the thrill of being young... ". Engels developed his relationship with his parents became strained.
In 1842, his parents sent the 22-year-old Engels to Manchester, England, a manufacturing centre where industrialisation was on the rise. He was to work in Weaste in the offices of Ermen and Engels's Victoria Mill, which made sewing threads. Engels's father thought that working at the Manchester firm might make his son reconsider some of his radical opinions. On his way to Manchester, Engels visited the office of the Rheinische Zeitung in Cologne and met Karl Marx for the first time, they were not impressed with each other. Marx mistakenly thought that Engels was still associated with the Berliner Young Hegelians, with whom Marx had just broken off ties. In Manchester, Engels met Mary Burns, a fierce young Irish woman with radical opinions who worked in the Engels factory, they began a relationship that lasted 20 years until her death in 1863. The two never married. While Engels regarded stable monogamy as a virtue, he considered the current state and church-regulated marriage as a form of class oppression.
Burns guided Engels through Manchester and Salford, showing him the worst districts for his research. While in Manchester between October and November 1843, Engels wrote his first economic work, entitled "Outline of a Critique of Political Economy." Engels sent the article to Paris, where Marx published it in the Deutsch–Französische Jahrbücher in 1844. While observing the slums of Manchester in close detail, Engels took notes of its horrors, notably child labour, the despoiled environment, overworked and impoverished labourers, he sent a trilogy of articles to Marx. These were published in the Rheinische Zeitung and in the Deutsch–Französische Jahrbücher, chronicling the conditions among the working class in Manchester, he collected these articles for his influential first book, The Condition of the Working Class in England. Written between September 1844 and March 1845, the book was published in German in 1845. In the book, Engels described the "grim future of capitalism and the industrial age", noting the details of the squalor in which the working people lived.
The book was published in English in 1887. Archival resources contemporary to Engels's stay in Manchester shed light on some of the conditions he describes, including a manuscript (MMM/10
Battle of Smolensk (1941)
The First Battle of Smolensk was a battle during the second phase of Operation Barbarossa, the Axis invasion of the Soviet Union, in World War II. It was fought around the city of Smolensk between 10 July and 10 September 1941, about 400 km west of Moscow; the Wehrmacht had advanced 500 km into the USSR in the 18 days after the invasion on 22 June 1941. The German army encountered unexpected resistance during the battle, leading to a two-month delay in their advance on Moscow. Three Soviet armies were encircled and destroyed just to the south of Smolensk, though significant numbers from the 19th and 20th armies managed to escape the pocket; some historians have asserted that the losses of men and materiel incurred by the Wehrmacht during this drawn-out battle and the delay in the drive towards Moscow led to the defeat of the Wehrmacht by the Red Army in the Battle of Moscow of December 1941. On 22 June 1941, the Axis nations invaded the Soviet Union in Operation Barbarossa. At first, the campaign met with spectacular success, as the surprised Soviet troops were not able to offer coordinated resistance.
After three weeks of fighting, the Germans had reached the Dvina and Dnieper rivers and planned for a resumption of the offensive. The main attack aimed at Moscow, was carried out by Army Group Centre, its next target on the way to the Soviet capital was the town of Smolensk. The German plan called for the 2nd Panzer Group to cross the Dnieper, closing on Smolensk from the south, while the 3rd Panzer Group was to encircle the town from the north. After their initial defeats, the Red Army began to recover and took measures to ensure a more determined resistance and new defensive line was established around Smolensk. Stalin placed Field Marshal Semyon Timoshenko in command and transferred five armies out of the strategic reserve to Timoshenko; these armies had to conduct counter-offensives to blunt the German drive. The German high command was not aware of the Soviet build-up until they encountered them on the battlefield. Facing the Germans along the Dnieper and Dvina rivers were stretches of the Stalin Line fortifications.
The defenders were the 13th Army of the Western Front and the 20th Army, 21st Army and the 22nd Army of the Soviet Supreme Command Reserve. The 19th Army, was forming up at Vitebsk. In Soviet histories, the battles around Smolensk are divided into phases and operations to halt the German offensive and the pincers Battle of Smolensk Smolensk Defensive Operation Smolensk Offensive Operation Rogechev-Zhlobin Offensive Operation Gomel-Trubchevsk Defensive Operation Dukhovschina Offensive Operation Yelnia Offensive Operation Roslavl-Novozybkov Offensive Operation Prior to the German attack, the Soviets launched a counter-offensive; the result was a disaster, as the offensive ran directly into the anti-tank defenses of the German 7th Panzer Division and the two Soviet mechanized corps were wiped out. On 10 July, Guderian's 2nd Panzer Group began a surprise attack over the Dnieper, his forces overran the weak 13th Army and by 13 July, Guderian had passed Mogilev, trapping several Soviet divisions.
His spearhead unit, the 29th Motorised Division, was within 18 km of Smolensk. The 3rd Panzer Group had attacked, with the 20th Panzer Division establishing a bridgehead on the eastern bank of the Dvina river, threatening Vitebsk; as both German panzer groups drove east, the 16th, 19th and 20th armies faced the prospect of encirclement around Smolensk. From 11 July, the Soviets tried a series of concerted counter-attacks; the Soviet 19th Army and 20th Army struck at Vitebsk, while the 21st and the remnants of the 3rd Army attacked against the southern flank of 2nd Panzer Group near Bobruisk. Several other Soviet armies attempted to counter-attack in the sectors of the German Army Group North and Army Group South; this effort was part of an attempt to implement the Soviet prewar general defense plan. The Soviet attacks managed to slow the Germans but the results were so marginal that the Germans noticed them as a large coordinated defensive effort and the German offensive continued. Hoth's 3rd Panzer Group drove north and east, parallel to Guderian's forces, taking Polotsk and Vitebsk.
The 7th Panzer Division and 20th Panzer Division reached the area east of Smolensk at Yartsevo on July 15. At the same time, the 29th Motorized Division, supported by the 17th Panzer Division broke into Smolensk, captured the city except for the suburbs and began a week of house-to-house fighting against counter-attacks by the 16th Army. Guderian expected that the offensive would continue towards Moscow as its main focus and sent the 10th Panzer Division to the Desna River to establish a bridgehead on the east bank at Yelnya and cleared that as well by the 20th; this advanced bridgehead became the center of the Yelnya Offensive, one of the first big coordinated Soviet counter-offensives of the war. This objective was 50 km south of the Dnepr and well clear of the objective of liquidating the armies trapped at Smolensk. Under Fuhrer Directive 33 issued on July 14, the main effort of the Wehrmacht was re-orientated away from Moscow
6th Guards Airborne Division
The 6th Guards Airborne Division was a Red Army airborne division that fought as infantry during World War II. Formed in December 1942 from an airborne corps, it first saw combat as an infantry unit in the Staraya Russa in March 1943 fought in the Battle of Kursk; the division advanced west in the Battle of the Dnieper. The division fought in the Kirovograd Offensive and the Korsun-Shevchenkovsky Offensive in late 1943 and early 1944; the 5th Guards received the Order of the Red Banner and the Order of Suvorov for actions during the Uman–Botoșani Offensive fought in the Jassy–Kishinev Offensive. The division advanced westward into Hungary, fighting in the Battle of Debrecen and the Budapest Offensive in late 1944. In the last months of the war it fought in the Bratislava–Brno Offensive and ended the war fighting in the Prague Offensive. Weeks after the end of the war, it was redesignated as the 113th Guards Rifle Division, it was downsized into a brigade between 1953, serving in the Taurida Military District.
The division became a motor rifle division in 1957 and disbanded in 1959. The 6th Guards Airborne Division was formed on 8 December 1942 from the 6th Airborne Corps in Noginsk, one of eight new airborne divisions formed due to a shortage of infantry; the former commander of the 6th Airborne Corps, Major General Alexander Kirzimov, continued in command of the new division. Although its personnel received airborne training, the division was organized as a guards rifle division and would fight as infantry for the rest of the war, it included the 14th, 17th, 20th Guards Airborne Regiments, the 8th Guards Airborne Artillery Regiment, smaller units. Before the division went into combat, Kirzimov was replaced by Colonel Mikhail Smirnov on 11 March 1943, promoted to major general on 16 October 1943; the division saw its first combat with the 1st Shock Army in the area of Koshelki south of Staraya Russa on 14 March during the Staraya Russa Offensive. After that, the division was placed in the Reserve of the Supreme High Command.
As part of the 5th Guards Army, the division fought in the Battle of Kursk and the Belgorod-Kharkov Offensive Operation. After the Battle of the Dnieper, the division captured Kremenchuk on 29 September and Znamianka on 9 December, for which it was awarded honorifics. On 8 January 1944, the division helped capture Kirovohrad during the Kirovograd Offensive. In the Korsun-Shevchenkovsky Offensive, the division stopped German attempts to relieve the Korsun Pocket. During the Uman–Botoșani Offensive, it operated with the 4th Guards Army. For its performance during the offensive, the division was awarded the Order of the Red Banner on 19 March. For crossing the Dniester, the 6th Guards Airborne was awarded the Order of Suvorov 2nd class on 8 April. 14th Guards Airborne Regiment platoon commander Starshina Sharifzyan Kazanbaev was posthumously made a Hero of the Soviet Union for saving the regimental flag during fighting in early April. In the second half of April, it entered Romanian territory; as part of the 7th Guards Army, it captured Târgu Frumos.
In October, it fought in the Battle of Debrecen. Advancing into Hungary, it fought in the Budapest Offensive. On 5 December, the division broke through the northeastern defensive lines of Budapest as part of the 7th Guards Army, with which it remained for the rest of the war. At the end of December it crossed the Hron, but was forced to retreat in the face of German resistance. On 25 March 1945, the division crossed the Hron in the area of Zhemlyari during the Bratislava–Brno Offensive. On that day, it had a strength of 5,001 officers and men, with more than 1,000 in each of its three rifle regiments; the division was equipped with 2,157 rifles, 851 submachine guns, 109 light machine guns, 49 heavy machine guns, twelve anti-aircraft machine guns, twelve 120 mm mortars divided between each rifle regiment, 51 82 mm mortars divided between the rifle regiments, five 122 mm howitzers, twenty 76 mm divisional guns, eight 76 mm regimental guns, eighteen 45 mm anti-tank guns, 36 anti-tank rifles, 131 vehicles.
After the breaking through the German lines, the division captured Šurany, advanced over the Western Carpathians, captured oilfields in Zistersdorf. The division captured Příbram on 11 May. On 13 June 1945, it was redesignated as the 113th Guards Rifle Division to reflect its infantry role as part of the 25th Guards Rifle Corps of the 7th Guards Army in the newly created Central Group of Forces, its airborne regiments became the 359th, 361st, 363rd Guards Rifle Regiments, the division included the 468th and 473rd Guards Artillery Regiments. The division was withdrawn to Zaporizhia in the Odessa Military District in late 1945 with the corps and downsized into the 43rd Separate Guards Rifle Brigade in April 1948 following the disbandment of the corps in May 1947; the brigade was subsequently moved to Yevpatoria in the Taurida Military District, where it became a division again in October 1953. By 1955, the 85th Guards Tank Regiment was added to the division. On 17 May 1957, the 113th Guards Rifle Division became a motor rifle division at Yevpatoria with the 45th Army Corps.
It included the 359th, 361st and 363rd Guards Motor Rifle Regiments formed from guards rifle regiments with the same numbers, the 85th Guards Tank Regiment and other smaller units. The division was disbanded on 1 March 1959; the following officers are known to have led the division: Major General Alexander Kirzimov Colonel Mikhail Smirnov (11 March 1943–December 1948.
318th Rifle Division (Soviet Union)
The 318th Rifle Division began forming on June 15, 1942, in and near Novorossiysk on the coast of the Black Sea, as a standard Red Army rifle division. It fought in the area it was formed in until September, 1943, was granted the name of this city as an honorific. In November of that year it took part in the largest Soviet amphibious operation of the war, across the Kerch Straits into the easternmost part of the Crimea, but its small beachhead was eliminated some weeks later. After the Crimea was liberated in May, 1944, it remained there for several months before it was transferred to the Carpathian Mountains west of Ukraine as a mountain division, spent the remainder of the war fighting through Czechoslovakia in the direction of Prague; the division continued to serve postwar in this same role, but was converted back to a standard rifle division before it was disbanded in the early 1950s. The precursor to this division formed from October to December, 1941, at Novorossiysk in the North Caucasus Military District.
It was based on personnel taken from the naval schools. Late in the year it was shipped to Southern Front where it served in both the 9th Armies. By late spring of 1942 it was being referred to as a regular rifle brigade indicating it had lost most of its naval cadre in the winter fighting, it June it returned to Novorossiysk. The division started forming on June 15, 1942, in the North Caucasus Military District, based on the 78th Rifle Brigade and the 165th Reserve Rifle Regiment. At and near Novorossiysk, its first commander, Col. Anatolii Nikolaievich Chervinskii, was appointed the same day, but he only held this post for a month. Two other officers were appointed in quick succession, until Maj. Gen. Aleksei Aleksandrovich Grechkin took command on August 28; the division's main order of battle was as follows: 1331st Rifle Regiment 1337th Rifle Regiment 1339th Rifle Regiment 796th Artillery Regiment 433rd Antitank BattalionThe division was formed in 9th Army, but went into the reserves of North Caucasus Front, into the Transcaucasus Front.
As of September 4, while most of the division remained in Front reserves, the 1331st Rifle Regiment was detached to 18th Army in the Black Sea Group of Forces. On September 22, just before the German 17th Army began its offensive towards Tuapse, the 318th was in 47th Army, facing the German V Army Corps and the Romanian Cavalry Corps. On the first day of the new year General Grechkin was succeeded in command by Col. Valentin Apollinarovich Vrutzkii. After months of stalemate, the battle for the Black Sea port of Novorossiysk began to come to a head on September 9, 1943. By this time all of the 318th was in 18th Army, commanded by Col. Gen. K. N. Leselidze. Following a fifteen-minute artillery bombardment and an advance guard of marines, the 1339th Rifle Regiment, commanded by Lt. Col. S. N. Kadanchik:"...descended upon the Tsementnaya wharf. And although not all the regiment managed to land, the men who did get a hold on the shore attacked the enemy fortifications in a massive rush. By dawn they had seized an important strongpoint -- the Proletary cement works.
The rest of the regiment joined them the following night."On his way in, Kadanchik's boat sank after hitting a mine, but he was rescued by a ship returning from the landings and he reached his regiment that day. The 1339th came under massive pressure from German counterattacks over the next 24 hours which pushed some elements back to the sea, but they held. Kadanchik was killed on September 15 by German artillery, was posthumously made a Hero of the Soviet Union three days later. Meanwhile, other elements of the division were entering the battle."On the second night the 1337th Regiment went ashore near the power station. Col. V. A. Vrutzkii, commanding the 318th Rifle Division, landed together with the regiment but contact with him was lost... Leselidze decided to send a senior officer to the power station area to find Vrutzkii...and report back immediately... Despite the danger they returned... They brought sad news: Col. Vrutzkii had suffered severe concussion, lost an eye and been wounded in the arm.
Steps were taken to help the division's units which were making slow but sure headway. The divisional commander's duties were temporarily entrusted to the divisional Chief of Staff." Shortly afterwards further news was received that Lt. Col. A. Tikhostup, the division's political department head, had been killed; when Novorossiysk was liberated on September 16, the division was awarded its name as an honorific:"NOVOROSSIYSK"...318th Mountain Rifle Division, Col. V. A. Vrutzkii; the troops who participated in the liberation of Novorossiysk, by the order of the Supreme High Command of September 16, 1943, a commendation in Moscow, are given a salute of 12 artillery salvoes from 124 guns. Colonel Yevstigneev held command for only a few days, until replaced by Col. Vasilii Fyodorovich Gladkov. Before the liberation of Novorossiysk, Axis forces had begun evacuating the Taman Peninsula across the Kerch Strait into the Crimea in what was called Operation Brunhild. On September 20, the 318th came under the command of Col. Vasilii Fyodorovich Gladkov, a post he would hold well into the postwar era.
On the following day the division liberated Anapa, soon began preparing its own crossing of the s
The Soviet Union the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991. Nominally a union of multiple national Soviet republics, its government and economy were centralized; the country was a one-party state, governed by the Communist Party with Moscow as its capital in its largest republic, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic. Other major urban centres were Leningrad, Minsk, Alma-Ata, Novosibirsk, it spanned over 10,000 kilometres east to west across 11 time zones, over 7,200 kilometres north to south. It had five climate zones: tundra, steppes and mountains; the Soviet Union had its roots in the 1917 October Revolution, when the Bolsheviks, led by Vladimir Lenin, overthrew the Russian Provisional Government which had replaced Tsar Nicholas II during World War I. In 1922, the Soviet Union was formed by a treaty which legalized the unification of the Russian, Transcaucasian and Byelorussian republics that had occurred from 1918. Following Lenin's death in 1924 and a brief power struggle, Joseph Stalin came to power in the mid-1920s.
Stalin committed the state's ideology to Marxism–Leninism and constructed a command economy which led to a period of rapid industrialization and collectivization. During his rule, political paranoia fermented and the Great Purge removed Stalin's opponents within and outside of the party via arbitrary arrests and persecutions of many people, resulting in at least 600,000 deaths. In 1933, a major famine struck the country. Before the start of World War II in 1939, the Soviets signed the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact, agreeing to non-aggression with Nazi Germany, after which the USSR invaded Poland on 17 September 1939. In June 1941, Germany broke the pact and invaded the Soviet Union, opening the largest and bloodiest theatre of war in history. Soviet war casualties accounted for the highest proportion of the conflict in the effort of acquiring the upper hand over Axis forces at intense battles such as Stalingrad and Kursk; the territories overtaken by the Red Army became satellite states of the Soviet Union.
The post-war division of Europe into capitalist and communist halves would lead to increased tensions with the United States-led Western Bloc, known as the Cold War. Stalin died in 1953 and was succeeded by Nikita Khrushchev, who in 1956 denounced Stalin and began the de-Stalinization; the Cuban Missile Crisis occurred during Khrushchev's rule, among the many factors that led to his downfall in 1964. In the early 1970s, there was a brief détente of relations with the United States, but tensions resumed with the Soviet–Afghan War in 1979. In 1985, the last Soviet premier, Mikhail Gorbachev, sought to reform and liberalize the economy through his policies of glasnost and perestroika, which caused political instability. In 1989, Soviet satellite states in Eastern Europe overthrew their respective communist governments; as part of an attempt to prevent the country's dissolution due to rising nationalist and separatist movements, a referendum was held in March 1991, boycotted by some republics, that resulted in a majority of participating citizens voting in favor of preserving the union as a renewed federation.
Gorbachev's power was diminished after Russian President Boris Yeltsin's high-profile role in facing down a coup d'état attempted by Communist Party hardliners. In late 1991, Gorbachev resigned and the Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union met and formally dissolved the Soviet Union; the remaining 12 constituent republics emerged as independent post-Soviet states, with the Russian Federation—formerly the Russian SFSR—assuming the Soviet Union's rights and obligations and being recognized as the successor state. The Soviet Union was a powerhouse of many significant technological achievements and innovations of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite, the first humans in space and the first probe to land on another planet, Venus; the country had the largest standing military in the world. The Soviet Union was recognized as one of the five nuclear weapons states and possessed the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction, it was a founding permanent member of the United Nations Security Council as well as a member of the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the World Federation of Trade Unions and the leading member of the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance and the Warsaw Pact.
The word "Soviet" is derived from a Russian word сове́т meaning council, advice, harmony and all deriving from the proto-Slavic verbal stem of vět-iti, related to Slavic věst, English "wise", the root in "ad-vis-or", or the Dutch weten. The word sovietnik means "councillor". A number of organizations in Russian history were called "council". For example, in the Russian Empire the State Council, which functioned from 1810 to 1917, was referred to as a Council of Ministers after the revolt of 1905. During the Georgian Affair, Vladimir Lenin envisioned an expression of Great Russian ethnic chauvinism by Joseph Stalin and his supporters, calling for these nation-states to join Russia as semi-independent parts of a greater union, which he named as the Union of Soviet Republics of Europe and Asia. Stalin resisted the proposal, but accepted it, although with Lenin's agreement changed the name of the newly proposed sta
Odessa Military District
The Odessa Military District was a military administrative division of the Imperial Russian military, the Soviet Armed Forces and the Ukrainian Armed Forces and was known under such name from around 1862 to 1998. It was reorganized as part of the Armed Forces of Ukraine and the Military of Moldova in 1992. In 1998 most of its territory was transformed into the Southern Operational Command. December 24, 1862 – January 1918 Russian Empire, transformed into headquarters of Romanian Front April 9 – August 5, 1919 Russian SFSR, remnants transferred to 12th Army October 11, 1939 – September 10, 1941 Soviet Union, dissolved remnants transferred to Southern Front March 23, 1944 – January 3, 1992 Soviet Union, passed on to Armed Forces of Ukraine July 9, 1945 – April 4, 1956, portion of territory was under jurisdiction of Tauric Military District January 3, 1992 – January 3, 1998 Ukraine, transformed into Southern Operational Command The Odessa Military District was established during the reforms of the Russian military minister Dmitry Milyutin.
It was the second of two districts on the territory of the future Ukraine, the other being Kiev Military District. OVO existed from 1862–1918 as part of the Imperial Russian Armed Forces, it encompassed the territories of Kherson, Tauride, Bessarabia guberniyas. The district bordered Kingdom of Romania, Kiev Military District, Don Voisko Oblast, Black Sea. In the 1870s and 1880s the Commander of the district served as the interim Governor General of Odessa city concurrently. In January 1918 the Odessa Military District headquarters was transformed into the headquarters of the Soviet Romanian Front under the jurisdiction of Rumcherod. With the establishment of the Ukrainian government on its territory, it was terminated. OVO was reinstated as the Ukrainian forces were pushed out the area in April to August 1919; the district was reformed by the decision of October 11, 1939 for the occupation of Bessarabia after the Soviet Union signed Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact. At that time its territory included the newly created Moldovian SSR, six oblasts of the Ukrainian SSR and the Crimean Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic as part of the Russian SFSR.
The Odessa MD was reinforced by several units from the Ukrainian Front that took part in the Soviet invasion of Poland and Romania formed on base of the Odessa Army Group of the Kiev Special Military District. By directives OV/583 and OV/584 of the Soviet People's Commissariat of Defense, units of the Odessa Military District commanded by Mjr. Gen. I. V. Boldin, were ordered into battle ready state in the spring of 1940. Soviet troop concentrations along the Romanian border took place between April 15 and June 10, 1940. In order to coordinate the efforts of the Kiev and Odessa military districts in the preparation of action against Romania, the Soviet Army created the Southern Front under General Georgy Zhukov, composed of the 5th, 9th and 12th Armies; the Southern Front had 32 infantry divisions, 2 motorized infantry divisions, 6 cavalry divisions, 11 tank brigades, 3 paratrooper brigades, 30 artillery regiments, smaller auxiliary units. Two action plans were devised; the first plan was prepared for the case that Romania would not accept to evacuate Bessarabia and Bukovina.
The Soviet 12th Army was supposed in such a situation to strike Southward along the Prut river towards Iaşi, while Soviet 9th Army was supposed to strike East-to-West south of Chişinău towards Huşi. The target of this plan was to surround the Romanian troops in the Bălţi-Iaşi area; the second plan took into consideration the case that Romania would succumb to Soviet demands and would evacuate its military. In such a situation, Soviet troops were given the mission to reach the Prut river, take charge of the evacuation process of the Romanian troops; the first plan was taken as the basis of action. Along the portions where the offensive was supposed to take place, Soviets prepared to have at least a triple superiority of men and means. On June 22, 1941 primary combat formations included: 9th Army was relocated to the District as 9th Separate Army in June 1941 from the Leningrad Military District after the Winter War and invasion of Romania 2nd Mechanised Corps and 18th Mechanised Corps were associated with 9th Army.
7th Rifle Corps was formed in the District in June 1941, 9th Rifle Corps formed as part of the District on June 22, 1941, 3rd Airborne CorpsIn August 1941 51st Independent Army was formed in the Crimea. On September 10, 1941 the district was abolished as it was overran by the Armed Forces of Nazi Germany and its allies; the District was reformed on April 23, 1944 with its headquarters at Kirovohrad, which in October 1944 relocated to Odessa. In 1948, 4th Guards Army, with 10th Guards Rifle Corps and 24th Guards Rifle Corps, plus 82nd Rifle Corps were in the district. Marshal of the Soviet Union, Giorgi Zhukov was assigned command of the Odessa Military District after the war, far from Moscow and lacking in strategic significance and troops, he arrived there on 13 June 1945. Zhukov suffered a heart attack in January 1948. In February 1948, Zhukov was moved to another secondary posting, this time command of the Urals Military District. General Colonel Nikolay Pukhov took command. 82nd Rifle Corps existed until 13 June 1955, when it was renamed 25th Rifle Corps, 25.6.57 it was renamed 25th Army Corps.
HQ in Nikolayev with the 28th Guards Motor Rifle Division, 34th gv. MSD and 95th MSD in the late 1950s. Disbanded in J