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Year 545 was a common year starting on Sunday of the Julian calendar. The denomination 545 for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years. Emperor Justinian I sends Narses, Byzantine general, to the rulers of the Heruli, to recruit troops for the campaigns in Italy and Syria. Gothic War: King Totila establishes his military base at Tivoli, prepares a campaign to reconquer the region of Latium; the monastery of Clonmacnoise is founded in Ireland by Ciarán Mac a tSaor on the River Shannon. Yangwon becomes ruler of the Korean kingdom of Goguryeo. King Khosrau I signs a five year truce with the Byzantine Empire, but war continues to ravage the Caucasus region in Armenia; the Synod of Brefi is held at Llanddewi Brefi. Dubricius, archbishop of South Wales, resigns his position in favour of David. Abd Allah ibn Abd al Muttalib, father of Muhammad Fei Di, emperor of Northern Qi Peter, Byzantine general October 12 – Mobhí Clárainech, Irish abbot and saint Stotzas, Byzantine rebel leader Approximate date Budic II, king of Brittany Laurence, bishop of Sipontum Medardus, bishop of Vermandois


Monsefú is a town in Northern Peru, capital of the Monsefú district in the Chiclayo Province, part of the Lambayeque Region. It is renowned for its food and handicrafts, which are on display at the annual FEXTICUM festival, named in 1973 by Professor Limberg Chero Ballena and held in July during Fiestas Patrias. Monsefú is the home of the cumbia groups Grupo 5 and Hermanos Yaipen. Monsefú was elevated to the category of "city" on October 26, 1888; the priest Fernando de la Carrera, in his work Arte de la lengua yunga, argues that the word "monsefu" comes from Omænssefæc. Before the arrival of the Spanish, Monsefú would have been part of the chieftainship of Cinto, with the name of Chuspo, whose main center have been located in the vicinity of the hill San Bartolo. Early in the second half of the sixteenth century, they would have been reduced in Callanca, heavy rains and floods in 1578, blighted the crops and affected the population composed of "huacotoledistas". In 1612, the population of Callanca were attacked by a disease.

The population was reduced by the disease and survivors after a few years were located in what is now Monsefú. The headquarters of the Chilean army during the occupation of Peru was located in Monsefú. Chilean troops entered Monsefú without shooting a single bullet; the commander in chief of the invader, Gen. Patricio Lynch, acted as a major of the city. During his tenure, he improved the sanitation system, organized a garbage collection service, built the first sewage system and reorganized the whole administration. Historians concur that Gen. Lynch was the best authority of Monsefú at that time; the town of Monsefú was created at the time of Independence by the Liberator Simon Bolivar. It has a varied semitropical temperature, since part of its territory is on the shore of the sea, another is located in the valley of the Reque River. Municipalidad Distrital de Monsefú

Cornelius C. (Neil) Kubler

Cornelius C. Kubler, is an academic in the disciplines of Chinese Linguistics and Chinese Language Pedagogy, an expert in Chinese dialects, a polyglot who speaks twelve languages including English, Mandarin, Hakka and Japanese, he is the Stanfield Professor of Asian Studies at Williams College, former American Co-Director of the Johns Hopkins University-Nanjing University Center for Chinese and American Studies in Nanjing, a former American diplomat. Dr. Neil Kubler earned his undergraduate, master's and Ph. D. degrees in linguistics from Cornell University, writing his dissertation on the development and use of Taiwanese Mandarin, a subject he continues to research and write about. He earned a second master's degree in Chinese literature from National Taiwan University. Kubler worked at the U. S. Department of State's Foreign Service Institute from 1980-1991, during which time, he served as Language Training Supervisor over Mandarin, Cantonese and Mongolian, he served as Principal of the advanced Chinese field school based in Taipei and as Chair of the Department of Asian and African Languages.

In 1991, he accepted an appointment as chair of the Chinese and Asian Studies Program at Williams College, going on to chair the Department of Asian Studies, which he was instrumental in founding. Kubler's other teaching appointments include at Eisenhower College, Portland State University, Middlebury College, National Taiwan Normal University, the Chinese University of Hong Kong. Over the course of his career, he has authored or coauthored more than 15 books and more than 50 articles on Chinese language pedagogy and linguistics, he is a frequent reviewer and consultant for Chinese and Asian Studies programs in the U. S. and abroad. He has served as Chair of the Test Development Committee for the SAT Subject Test™ in Chinese and as member of the Executive Committee of the Association of Departments of Foreign Languages of the Modern Language Association. Kubler served as 2014-2016 American Co-Director of the Hopkins–Nanjing Center, where he oversaw the 30th anniversary of the graduate center in 2016.

During his tenure there, he taught courses in Classical Chinese. Basic Mandarin Chinese: Reading & Writing Intermediate Written Chinese 进阶中文读与写 500 Common Chinese Idioms: An Annotated Frequency Dictionary 成语五百条, ed. What Works: Helping Students Reach Native-Like Second-Language Competence Listening Comprehension in Chinese: Performing'Comic Dialogs' 說相聲 Read Chinese Signs 中文路標與招牌的認識 Williams College: Cornelius C. Kubler Curriculum Vitae of Cornelius C. Kubler

French corvette Revenant

Revenant was a 20-gun privateer corvette, launched in 1807, designed by Robert Surcouf for commerce raiding. The French Navy requisitioned her and renamed her Iéna, after Napoleon's then-recent victory; the British captured she served in the Royal Navy as HMS Victor. The French Navy recaptured her in 1809, she served for a year under her original name; the British again captured her when they captured Isle de France in December 1810. They did not restore her to service and she was subsequently broken up, her coppered hull allowed her to sail at up to 12 knots. Her cost was of 277,761 francs-or. One of hers owners was the banker Jacques Récamier. In February 1807, Surcouf enlisted Potier as first officer on his new privateer Revenant. Revenant departed from Saint-Malo on 2 March, sailed for Isle de France. Revenant arrived there on 10 June, along with several prizes she had taken during her journey, she cruised the Bay of Bengal from September to 31 January 1808 under Surcouf, capturing the rice ships Trafalgar, Admiral Alpin, Susannah Hunter, Fortune, New Endeavour, Colonel Macauley, William Burroughs and Jean Labdam.

Trafalgar, of about 800 tos, was a copper-sheathed three-master, carrying 10,000 sacks of rice from Bengal. Maingless was a copper-sheathed three-master, in this case carrying 8,000 sacks of rice from Bengal, but books and furniture. Lastly, Suzanne, of 400 tons, copper-sheathed three-master, was carrying sailcloth, they had been captured on 11, 18, 25 November, arrived at Port-Louis on 2 and 16 December. After Revenant returned to Port-Louis from her first campaign Surcouf gave Potier command of the ship on 2 April. In late April, as Revenant was completing her preparations and plotting her route, a prize taken by the privateer Adèle gave news of the new war between France and Portugal. Surcouf sent Portier to intercept, Revenant departed Port-Louis on 30 April, she sighted her prey on the 24th. Revenant captured Conceçáo-de-Santo-Antonio after a one-hour battle. Potier gave Conceçáo a prize crew under First Lieutenant Fonroc, returned to Mauritius one month with his prize. Surcouf planned to send Revenant back to France en aventurier with colonial goods.

General Charles Decaen, governor of Isle de France, requisitioned Revenant on 4 July. The government renamed her Iéna, gave command of her to Lieutenant Nicolas Morice, with Lieutenant de vaisseau Albin Roussin as second officer. Surcouf had to accept the requisitioning of his ship. Surcouf purchased Sémillante, which he renamed Charles, to return to France with his goods. Iéna set sail to cruise the Persian Bay of Bengal. On 8 October 1808, off the Sandheads near the mouth of the Ganges river, she was chased by the 44-gun HMS Modeste, under Captain George Elliot, which caught the Iéna after 9 hours. A night battle followed at musket range. Iéna had no casualties, while Modeste had a seaman wounded; the Royal Navy commissioned Iéna as the 18-gun ship sloop HMS Victor under Commander Thomas Grout and subsequently under Captain Edward Stopford. On 2 May 1809, under Stopford's command, she departed from the Sandheads with a convoy of five Indiamen and several smaller vessels. On 24 May a storm split the convoy and Victor and the small ships separately lost touch with the Indiamen.

Two of the Indiamen and Earl Spencer, deviated to Penang with Earl Spencer accompanying Monarch, which had developed a bad leak and needed to reach a port to repair. The three remaining Indiamen, Streatham and Lord Keith continued on their way while hoping to meet up with Victor, they did not and the French frigate Caroline captured Streatham and Europe in the action of 31 May 1809. On 2 November 1809, still under Stopford's command, encountered the 44-gun frigate Bellone, under Guy-Victor Duperré. Bellone took her to Isle de France, where she was repaired and recommissioned as Victor in the French Navy, under Lieutenant Nicolas Morice. On 21 February, she sailed for a cruise in the Indian Ocean and the Mozambique Channel in a squadron comprised Bellone and Minerve under Pierre Bouvet. There, she took part in the Action of 3 July 1810, contributing to the capture of the East Indiamen Windham and Ceylon. Upon their return to Île de France, the French squadron encountered a British frigate squadron attempting to seize the island.

In the ensuing Battle of Grand Port, Revenant was used as a support ship, behind the French line of battle, as her armament was weaker than that of the more powerful frigates. On 17–18 September 1810, along with Vénus, she captured the 40-gun HMS Ceylon. Vénus and Ceylon were damaged in the battle, the next day a British squadron composed of HMS Boadicea, HMS Otter, the brig HMS Staunch captured Vénus and Ceylon; the British again captured Revenant when Isle de France fell on 3 December 1810. She instead was broken up. Revenant appears in the background of the Combat de Grand Port, by Pierre Julien Gilbert, on display at the Musée national de la marine, she is visible behind a cloud of smoke, between Minerve and Ceylon. Gustave Alaux, peintre de la Marine, painted a full portrait of Revenant, set at Isle de France in 1808. Cunat, Charles (

USS Bonita (SS-165)

USS Bonita, a Barracuda-class submarine and one of the "V-boats," was the third ship of the United States Navy to be named for the bonito. Her keel was laid down by the Portsmouth Navy Yard, she was launched on 9 June 1925 as V-3, sponsored by Mrs. L. R. DeSteiguer, wife of Rear Admiral DeSteiguer, commissioned on 22 May 1926, Lieutenant Commander Charles A. Lockwood, Jr. in command. Like her sisters, Bonita was designed to meet the fleet submarine requirement of 21 knots surface speed for operating with contemporary battleships. V-3 was completed with two Busch-Sulzer direct-drive 6-cylinder 2-cycle main diesel engines of 2,250 hp each, along with two Busch-Sulzer auxiliary diesel engines of 1,000 hp each, driving electrical generators; the latter were for charging batteries, but to reach maximum surfaced speed, they could augment the mechanically coupled main-propulsion engines by driving the 1,200 hp electric motors in parallel via an electric transmission. Although it wasn't until about 1939 that its problems were solved, electric transmission in a pure diesel-electric arrangement became the propulsion system for the successful fleet submarines of World War II, the Tambor-class through the Tench-class.

Prior to recommissioning in 1940, the auxiliary diesels were replaced with two BuEng Maschinenfabrik Augsburg Nürnberg AG 6-cylinder 4-cycle diesel engines of 1,000 hp each. In 1942-43 Bonita was converted to a cargo submarine, with the main engines removed to provide cargo space reducing her speed on the remaining auxiliary diesels. Assigned to Submarine Division 20, V-3 cruised along the East Coast and in the Caribbean Sea until November 1927. With her division, she transferred to the Pacific Fleet, arriving at San Diego, California, on 17 December 1927. After service with SubDivs 12 and 20 along the Pacific coast and off Hawaii, she joined SubDiv 15 of the Rotating Reserve at Mare Island Navy Yard on 1 June 1932. During this period her 5 inch /51 caliber deck gun was replaced by a 3 inch /50 caliber weapon, she was renamed Bonita on 9 March 1931 and given hull classification symbol SS-165 on 1 July 1931. Bonita rejoined SubDiv 12 in September 1933 and cruised in Caribbean Sea, West Coast, Hawaiian waters through 1936.

She departed San Diego, California on 20 January 1937 and arrived at Philadelphia Navy Yard on 18 February. She was placed out of commission in reserve at Philadelphia, Pennsylvania on 4 June 1937. Recommissioned on 5 September 1940, she departed New London, Connecticut on 17 November for Coco Solo, Panama Canal Zone. Bonita patrolled in the Pacific, off Panama, until she returned to Philadelphia for overhaul in October 1942. At this time she was converted to a cargo submarine with the removal of her main engines restricting her speed on the auxiliary engines. Patrolling off the Maine coast until mid-1943, she joined Submarine Squadron 1, SubDiv 13, on training duty out of New London, she remained on that duty until February 1945. Arriving at Philadelphia Navy Yard on 17 February, she was decommissioned 3 March and sold 28 October 1945. American Defense Service Medal with "FLEET" clasp American Campaign Medal Asiatic-Pacific Campaign Medal World War II Victory Medal


Thelikada is a rural village situated in Galle District, in the southern part of Sri Lanka. The Gin River flows near the village; the Gin Dam is lying inside the village. The Wakwella Bridge is nearby. Thelikada is situated 116 km away from the capital Colombo, it is a 2.30 hours drive from the Capital. Access points to the village from Galle Road are Hickkaduwa, Boossa, Pintaliya and Galle. There are over 2,000 residents in the village. Thelikada Sunandaramaya is an old temple which can be seen some old drawings over 100 years old Wall painting. There is a school called Thelikada Maha Vidyalaya. There are over 300 students and 30 teachers. Thelikada Post Office, Sanasa Bank, Thelikada Police station provide services to the village. Since the nineteenth century, brickmaking has been a key local industry although today its importance has declined with sand mining replacing it to a degree. Another important economic activity is agriculture, with cultivation of rubber, tea and rice