Vyritsa is an urban locality in Gatchinsky District of Leningrad Oblast, located on the bank of the Oredezh River, southwest of the town of Gatchina. Population: 11,884 . Vyritsa railway station was opened in December 1903; the lands around the station became expensive and were sold for summer houses. Vyritsa was a suburban settlement and belonged to Tsarskoselsky District of Saint Petersburg Governorate. In the 1910s, the population of Vyritsa was increasing every summer by 10,000 people. On November 20, 1918 the uyezd was renamed Detskoselsky. On February 14, 1923 Detskoselsky and Petergofsky Uyezds were abolished and merged into Gatchinsky Uyezd, with the administrative center located in Gatchina. On February 14, 1923 Gatchina was renamed Trotsk, Gatchinsky Uyezd was renamed Trotsky Uyezd, after Leon Trotsky. On August 1, 1927, the uyezds were abolished and Trotsky District, with the administrative center in the town of Trotsk, was established; the governorates were abolished, the district was a part of Leningrad Okrug of Leningrad Oblast.
On August 2, 1929, after Trotsky was deported from Soviet Union, Trotsk was renamed Krasnogvardeysk, the district was renamed Krasnogvardeysky. On July 23, 1930, the okrugs were abolished as well, the districts were directly subordinated to the oblast. On November 27, 1938 Vyritsa was granted urban-type settlement status. Between 1941 and 1944, Vyritsa was occupied by Romanian troops. On January 28, 1944 Krasnogvardeysk was renamed Gatchina, the district was renamed Gatchinsky. In Vyritsa, there are enterprises of timber and food industries. Vyritsa is located on the railroad connecting the Vitebsky railway station of Saint Petersburg with Novosokolniki via Dno. There are two stations on Vyritsa railway station and Mikhaylovka railway station. Additionally, a railroad branches off at Vyritsa railway station and proceeds southwest along the main axis of the settlement. There are four more railway stations at this branch, all directly served from the Vitebsky railway station: Pervaya Platforma, Vtoraya Platforma, Tretya Platforma, Posyolok.
Vyritsa is connected by roads with Gatchina, Pavlovsk and Tosno. Vyritsa contains four objects classified as historical heritage of local significance; these are an archeological site, two monuments commemorating the events of World War II, the birthplace of author and paleonthologist Ivan Yefremov. Serafim Vyritsky, a monk with Alexander Nevsky Lavra in Saint Peterburg, lived in Vyritsa from 1930 to 1949, he is buried in Vyritsa. He was canonized as a saint by the Russian Orthodox Church. Законодательное собрание Ленинградской области. Областной закон №32-оз от 15 июня 2010 г. «Об административно-территориальном устройстве Ленинградской области и порядке его изменения», в ред. Областного закона №23-оз от 8 мая 2014 г. «Об объединении муниципальных образований "Приморское городское поселение" Выборгского района Ленинградской области и "Глебычевское сельское поселение" Выборгского района Ленинградской области и о внесении изменений в отдельные Областные законы». Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования.
Опубликован: "Вести", №112, 23 июня 2010 г.. Законодательное собрание Ленинградской области. Областной закон №113-оз от 16 декабря 2004 г. «Об установлении границ и наделении соответствующим статусом муниципального образования Гатчинский муниципальный район и муниципальных образований в его составе», в ред. Областного закона №17-оз от 6 мая 2010 г «О внесении изменений в некоторые областные законы в связи с принятием федерального закона "О внесении изменений в отдельные законодательные акты Российской Федерации в связи с совершенствованием организации местного самоуправления"». Вступил в силу через 10 дней со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Вести", №147, 17 декабря 2004 г
Lyuban Offensive Operation
Lyuban Offensive Operation was a Soviet offensive operation during the Battle of the Volkhov. It was conducted by the Volkhov and Leningrad Fronts of the Red Army with the goal of relieving the siege of Leningrad and encircling and destroying the German forces carrying out the siege; the offensive used no tanks because of the terrain, therefore it was down to the infantry and the artillery. The attacking Soviet forces found themselves under intense fire from German defensive positions, the Red Army lacked proper artillery support against the German lines; the offensive had been stalled and the Soviets were up to the defensive. Field Marshal Georg von Küchler counterattacked with an operation called'Wild Beast" and the Soviet 2nd Shock Army was cut off and surrounded, it was destroyed in June 1942 and its commander Andrey Vlasov was taken prisoner. The Volkhov and Leningrad Fronts lacked the armored vehicles, artillery ammunition, manpower reserves and food to mount sustained offensive operations against the German 18th Army.
Inadequate Soviet firepower could not reduce the German system of fortified strongpoints in the forests. The Germans inflicted heavy losses on the attacking Soviet forces and forced the exhausted Red Army to the defensive. According to general Mikhail Khozin, Soviet armored forces and artillery firepower did not exist in sufficient quantities to exploit penetrations and defeat German counterattacks. Out of 327,700 men deployed into battle from 7 January – 30 April 1942, the Volkhov Front lost 308,367, including 95,064 killed or missing and 213,303 wounded or sick
The Leningrad Front was formed during the 1941 German approach on Leningrad by dividing the Northern Front into the Leningrad Front and Karelian Front on August 27, 1941. The Leningrad Front was given the task of containing the German drive towards Leningrad and defending the city from the approaching Army Group North. By September 1941, German forces to the south were stopped on the outskirts of Leningrad, initiating the two-and-a-half-year-long Siege of Leningrad. Although Finnish forces to the north stopped at the old Finnish–Soviet border, the Leningrad front suffered severe losses on the Finnish Front. From September 8, soldiers of the front were forced to conduct operations under the conditions of a blockade, with little supply; some supplies did reach the city however via the lake Road of Life. During the blockade, the front executed various offensive and defensive operations, until with the help of the Baltic and Volkhov Front, the blockade was lifted. From June 1942, Leonid Govorov had been the commander of the front, in June 1944, he was awarded the title Marshal of the Soviet Union.
In January 1943, forces of the Leningrad front made their first advances in years when they took the town of Shlisselburg from German forces, thus restoring communications between Leningrad and the rest of the country. In mid and late-January 1944 the Leningrad front, along with the Volkhov Front, the 1st Baltic Front and the 2nd Baltic Front, pushed back Army Group North and broke the 28-month-long blockade. Several days these forces would liberate all of the Leningrad Oblast and Kalinin Oblast. Six months the Leningrad Front took over the town of Narva. On April 21, 1944, parts of the Leningrad front were broken off to create the 3rd Baltic Front. In June 1944, the Leningrad front, along with the Baltic fleet had carried out the Vyborg operation; as a result of which, Finland would leave the German side of the war. From September–November 1944, the front participated in the Baltic Offensive, it advanced in the Narva-Tartu direction, towards Tallinn. Following the capture of continental Estonia, elements of the front, along with the Baltic fleet, took part in recapturing the Moonsund archipelago.
These were the last offensive operations of the front. Forces of the Leningrad Front were stationed on the Soviet-Finnish border, all along the Baltic coast from Leningrad to Riga; the Leningrad front was reinforced with elements of the disbanded 2nd Baltic Front. These forces were stationed near the Courland Pocket, with the task of containing the German Army Group Courland, which would continue to resist Soviet forces up until the end of war in Europe. On June 24, 1945, the Leningrad front was reorganized into the Leningrad Military District. Upon its creation in August 1941, the Leningrad front included: 8th Army 23rd Army 48th Army Koporye operational group Southern operational group Slutsk operational group Baltic FleetFollowing November 25, 1942, the structure of the Leningrad front increased, it subsequently included: Lieutenant General - Markian Popov. Continuation War#Trench warfare 1942-1943 Любанская операция
Gatchina is a town and the administrative center of Gatchinsky District in Leningrad Oblast, Russia. It is located 45 kilometers south along the E95 highway leading to Pskov. Population: 92,937 , it was known as Khotchino, Trotsk, Krasnogvardeysk. Gatchina is the largest town in Leningrad Oblast, is best known as the location of the Great Gatchina Palace, one of the main residences of the Russian Imperial Family during the 18th and 19th centuries. Gatchina is placed high in quality of life rankings in Russia, the historic center and Gatchina Palace are part of the UNESCO World Heritage Site's Saint Petersburg and Related Groups of Monuments. Gatchina was first documented in 1499 under the name Khotchino as a village in possession of the Novgorod Republic. In the 17th century it was passed to Livonia and to Sweden in a series of wars, until the early years of the Great Northern War at the turn of the 1700s when the area was returned to Russia. In 1703, Gatchina found itself in the southern vicinity of the new Russian capital, Saint Petersburg, being constructed 45 kilometers north at the mouth of the Neva River.
Despite technically still belonging to Swedish Ingria, in 1708, Gatchina was given by Peter the Great to his sister, Natalya Alexeyevna, after her death in 1716 Peter founded an Imperial Hospital and Apothecary there. In 1765, it became the property of Count Orlov. In 1765, Catherine the Great, Empress of the Russian Empire, purchased Gatchina Manor from Prince Boris Kurakin, which featured the village and a small manor. Gatchina was gifted by Catherine to one of her favorites, Count Grigory Grigoryevich Orlov, who organized the assassination of Tsar Peter III three years earlier, resulting in her becoming empress. Between 1766 and 1788, Count Orlov built the massive Great Gatchina Palace in place of the original manor, with 600 rooms, an extensive English landscape park over 7 square kilometers, with an adjacent zoo and a horse farm. A triumphal arch was erected to a design by the architect of Gatchina Palace, Antonio Rinaldi, forming a monumental entrance. Upon Orlov's death in 1783, Gatchina Palace was bought by Catherine from his heirs, gave it to her son Grand Duke Pavel Petrovich, the future Tsar Paul I.
During his ownership, Paul made alterations to the palace, but began developing the village of Gatchina into a town using experience from his travels around Europe. After ascending to the throne, Paul granted Gatchina the status of Imperial City, an honorary designation for towns that possessed a royal palace. Gatchina Palace was expanded and altered numerous times by its subsequent imperial owners, with the addition of Rococo interiors designed by Rinaldi and Vincenzo Brenna, executed by Italian stucco workers and Russian craftsmen. In 1854, a railroad connecting Gatchina and Saint Petersburg was opened, the territory of Gatchina was expanded with several villages in the vicinity being incorporated into the city; the following year Gatchina Palace came under the ownership of Tsar Alexander II, who used it as his second residence. Alexander built a hunting village south of Gatchina into a retreat where he and his guests could enjoy the unspoiled wilderness of northwestern Russia. Following the assassination of Alexander II in 1881, Gatchina Palace was passed to his shaken son, the new Tsar Alexander III, advised that he and his family would be safer in Gatchina as opposed to at the Winter Palace in Saint Petersburg.
Alexander spent most of his life at Gatchina Palace, which became known as "The Citadel of Autocracy" after the Tsar's reactionary policies. Here he signed decrees, held diplomatic receptions, theatrical performances and costumed balls, other events and entertainment. Alexander III introduced some technological modernizations new to Russia at the Gatchina Palace, such as indoor heaters, electric lights, a telephone network, non-freezing water pipes and a modern sewage system, his son, the future Tsar Nicholas II and the last Russian Tsar, spent his youth in the Gatchina Palace, although he and his family would make Tsarskoye Selo his home. His mother, Dowager Empress Maria Feodorovna, widow of Alexander III, was the patron of the city of Gatchina, the palace and its parks. Gatchina was honored as the best-kept city of Russia at the 1900 World's Fair in Paris; the quality of life, medical services, public safety in Gatchina were recognized as the best, it was recommended as an example for other cities in Russia.
In 1910, one of the first airfields in Russia was established in Gatchina, with the city becoming one of the first centers of aviation and engine technology in Russia. The pilot Pyotr Nesterov was trained at the Gatchina airfield and made his first long-distance flight from Gatchina to Kiev. Gatchina Palace remained one of the official imperial residences of Tsar Nicholas II, presiding over annual military parades and celebrations of the Imperial Russian Army garrisons, stationed in Gatchina until 1917. During World War I, major medical hospitals in Gatchina were visited by the Tsar Nicholas II and Empress Maria Fyodorovna, the mother of Nicholas II, his wife the Empress Alexandra Fyodorovna, as well as their daughters Grand Duchess Olga, Grand Duchess Tatiana, Grand Duchess Maria, Grand Duchess Anastasia. In March 1917, the Russian Empire collapsed upon the abdication of Nicholas II following the February Revolution, leading to a decline in Gatchina's importance as the town and its palace became state property of the Russian Provisional Government, who converted
Kolpino, Saint Petersburg
Kolpino is a municipal city in Kolpinsky District of the federal city of St. Petersburg, located on the Izhora River 26 kilometers southeast of St. Petersburg proper. Population: 138,979 . Kolpino was founded in 1722 and was granted town status in 1912, it was one of the chief ironworks of the crown in Russia. Kolpino was home to an iron foundry of the Russian Admiralty. A sacred image of St. Nicholas in the Trinity Church is visited by numerous pilgrims on May 22 every year. With the onset of the Great Patriotic War, Kolpino factory workers formed Izhora Battalion, part of the militia, August 24 – September 4, 1941; the front line was held in the immediate vicinity of the plant, subjected to heavy enemy shelling. By 1944, only 327 of Kolpino's 2183 houses remained intact. 140,939 shells and 436 aerial bombs fell in Kolpino's boulevards. According to incomplete data for the war and starvation in the Kolpino district killed 4,600 people, not counting the dead on the front. By January 1, 1944 Kolpino had only 2196 inhabitants.
After the lifting of the siege, people came back from the evacuation and from the army. On January 1, 1945 population was the beginning of next year -- 8914 people. During the construction of a new residential building, a mass grave was discovered in Kolpino. 888 soldiers and officers of the Red Army were buried in the mass grave in that cemetery. They fell in September 1941. Many people of Kolpino work at Izhorian Plant. Kolpino Disctict contains tens of other plants. Kolpino railway station is operable since 1847. Kolpino is twinned with: Druskininkai, Lithuania Huai'an, China Rauma, Finland This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Kolpino". Encyclopædia Britannica. Cambridge University Press. Website of Kolpino
The Izhora known as the Inger River, is a left tributary of the Neva River on its run through Ingria in northwestern Russia from Lake Ladoga to Gulf of Finland. The Izhora flows through Gatchinsky and Tosnensky Districts of Leningrad Oblast as well as through Pushkinsky and Kolpinsky Districts of the federal city of Saint Petersburg; the settlement of Ust-Izhora is situated at the confluence of Izhora and Neva, halfway between Saint Petersburg and Schlisselburg. The towns of Kommunar and Kolpino are located on the Izhora as well; the river is noted as the farthest Swedish forces reached between the Viking Age and the Time of Troubles. The calculated length of the Izhora is 76 kilometres, the area of its drainage basin is 1,000 square kilometres; the river draws its water from natural groundwater springs, snow melt, rain water. The river has a sustainable underground water supply in both summer and winter, never drying up or freezing through; the source of the Izhora is located at the village of Skvoritsy, northwest of the town of Gatchina.
The Izhora flows to the east, passes at the northern outskirts of Gatchina, east of Kommunar enters Tosnensky District. There, for a short stretch it makes the border between Saint Petersburg and Leningrad Oblast, returns to the oblast and turns north. In Kolpino, the Izhora enters the federal city of Saint Petersburg. There, it joins the Neva in the settlement of Ust-Izhora; the drainage basin of the Izhora includes the northern parts of Gatchinsky and Tosnensky Districts, as well as some areas within Saint Petersburg
Tosno is a town and the administrative center of Tosnensky District in Leningrad Oblast, located on the Tosna River, 53 kilometers southeast of the center of St. Petersburg. Population: 39,101 ; the village of Tosno was first mentioned in Russian chronicles in 1500. It was a part of one of the five pyatinas into which Novgorod Lands were divided. In the course of the administrative reform carried out in 1708 by Peter the Great, Tosno was included into Ingermanland Governorate, its development in the 18th and 19th centuries was due to its geographic location on the road between the two Russian capitals. From 1774, it was a station at the yam route. In 1849, the railway connecting Tosno with St. Petersburg and Chudovo opened. In the 19th century, Tosno was a part of Sankt-Peterburgsky Uyezd. On August 1, 1927, the uyezds were abolished and Kolpinsky District, with the administrative center in the town of Kolpino, was established; the governorates were abolished and the district became a part of Leningrad Okrug of Leningrad Oblast.
Tosno became a part of Kolpinsky District. On August 19, 1930, Kolpinsky District was abolished and Tosno became the administrative center of newly established Tosnensky District. On August 20, 1935, Tosno was granted urban-type settlement status. Between August 28, 1941 and January 26, 1944, during World War II, Tosno was occupied by German troops and destroyed, but rebuilt after the war. On February 1, 1963, Tosno was granted town status. Within the framework of administrative divisions, Tosno serves as the administrative center of Tosnensky District; as an administrative division, it is, together with eighteen rural localities, incorporated within Tosnensky District as Tosnenskoye Settlement Municipal Formation. As a municipal division, Tosnenskoye Settlement Municipal Formation is incorporated within Tosnensky Municipal District as Tosnenskoye Urban Settlement. A plant owned by the Caterpillar in Tosno produces trucks for quarries. There are several enterprises related to construction industry.
The M10 Highway connecting Moscow to St. Petersburg and the Moscow–St. Petersburg Railway run through the town. A railway connecting Tosno with the settlement of Shapki branches off east. A railway shortcut connects Tosno with the railway between Mga and Gatchina and is used for trains to bypass Saint Petersburg from the south. Roads connect Tosno with Shapki and Mga with Lisino-Korpus and Vyritsa in the west; the town contains seven objects classified as cultural and historical heritage of local significance. They commemorate events of World War II. Tosno hosts the only state museum in the district. FC Tosno, the 2018 Russian Cup winner, is based in the town. Pavel Alandsky, Russian historian and academic, born in Tosno Maria Stepanova, Russian basketball player, grew up in Tosno Tosno is twinned with: Ballangen, Norway Законодательное собрание Ленинградской области. Областной закон №32-оз от 15 июня 2010 г. «Об административно-территориальном устройстве Ленинградской области и порядке его изменения», в ред.
Областного закона №23-оз от 8 мая 2014 г. «Об объединении муниципальных образований "Приморское городское поселение" Выборгского района Ленинградской области и "Глебычевское сельское поселение" Выборгского района Ленинградской области и о внесении изменений в отдельные Областные законы». Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Вести", №112, 23 июня 2010 г.. Законодательное собрание Ленинградской области. Областной закон №116-оз от 22 декабря 2004 г. «Об установлении границ и наделении соответствующим статусом муниципального образования Тосненский муниципальный район и муниципальных образований в его составе», в ред. Областного закона №17-оз от 6 мая 2010 г «О внесении изменений в некоторые областные законы в связи с принятием федерального закона "О внесении изменений в отдельные законодательные акты Российской Федерации в связи с совершенствованием организации местного самоуправления"». Вступил в силу через 10 дней со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Вестник Правительства Ленинградской области", №44, 30 декабря 2004 г