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Michael Edward Edgerton

Michael Edward Edgerton is an American composer and Associate Professor of music composition & theory at the Guangxi Arts University. He received his D. M. A. in music composition from the University of Illinois at Urbana. M. from Michigan State University and the B. A. from the University of Wisconsin–Parkside. From 1996 to 1999, Michael was a Postdoctoral Fellow with the National Center for Voice and Speech, based at the Waisman Center at the University of Wisconsin – Madison, he has studied composition with Morgan Powell, Jere Hutcheson and August Wegner. His compositions have received prizes or recognition in the 2007 Kompositionspreis der Landeshauptstadt Stuttgart 2007 Composition Contest of the Netherlands Radio Choir – Semifinalist 2003 5th Dutilleaux International Composition Compétition – Selection 2001 31 Festival Synthese Bourges - Sélection 1999 Sal Martirano composition competition – Finalist 1995 MacDowell Club Award for composition – First Prize 1993 Friends and Enemies of New Music – reading 1988 Midwest Composers Symposium - selection 1987 National Federation of Music Clubs Composition Competition – Third Prize 1987 National Federation of Music Clubs Composition Competition – Honorable Mention 1986 Michigan State University Orchestral Composition Competition – First Prize Since mid-1990 Edgerton has been pioneering the compositional use of scaled & desynchronized multidimensional networks in order to unlock nonlinear phenomenon inherent in mechanical sound production systems.

These procedures utilize topological inquiry focused on little traveled regions of the total sonic map. For Edgerton, these multidimensional networks do not just focus on articulation, dominant with many who utilize multi-parametric organization. Rather, with Edgerton, these networks utilize all structural components of the mechanical system: power, resonance & articulation in order to affect a meaningful sound difference from ordinario. Additionally, more than a focus on unusual sounds or performance practice, the systematic use of desynchronized procedures coupled to expected bifurcations amongst attractor states are utilized as intelligent generative procedures encompassing the consonance/dissonance and musical tension of these extra-complex sonorities. In works such as adjusting to beams falling and his String Quartet #1, he attempts to convey an expression similar to Edward Said’s notion of an artwork exhibiting "intransigence and unresolved contradiction" in order to provide an "occasion to stir up more anxiety, tamper irrevocably with the possibility of closure and leave the audience more perplexed than before... to explore...a nonharmonious, non-serene tension, above all, a sort of deliberately unproductive productiveness, going ‘against’..."Linkage.

Other composers who have worked with desynchronized &/or multidimensional methods include Richard Barrett, Aaron Cassidy, Frank Cox, Julio Estrada, Brian Ferneyhough, Klaus K. Hübler, among others. Edgerton’s work is sometimes associated with New Complexity in Music. Edgerton is a specialist of the extra-normal voice as composer, pedagogue and performer. Voice composition: Edgerton has written numerous compositions involving normal and extra-normal voice. Since the mid-90s his voice compositions have focused on searching for the bio-acoustic limits of vocal sound production that involve: 1) nonlinear phenomena. Additionally, Edgerton has incorporated sound production procedures seen in ethnic musical traditions from Tuva, South Africa and India, to name a few. Representative compositions featuring the extra-normal voice include: #82 Cataphora, #77 A Marriage of Shadows, #68 prana, #62 Anaphora, #54 Friedrich’s Comma, #45 Taffy Twisters, among others. Voice pedagogue: Edgerton is a teacher of voice, focusing on methods of extra-normal voice production that extend western avant-garde traditions, which are influenced from nonwestern music and informed by voice science.

Edgerton’s methods are, in the first instance, based upon the healthy voice that attempt to explore the biodiversity of sound production, in order to expand the limits of the voice – those involving nonlinear phenomena. Edgerton gives individual lessons as well as workshops, his pedagogical activities includes writings designed to spread the idea of systematic processes in voice exploration, these include a book, two forthcoming book chapters - one in The Oxford Handbook of Singing and the other in Teaching Singing in the 21st Century, two collections of pedagogical compositions, each focused on a separate aspect of the extra-normal voice. Voice Research: In 1995 Edgerton was asked by Barney Childs and Phillip Rehfeldt editors of the New Instrumentation Series at the University of California Press to contribute a book discussing extended vocal techniques; as a result, Edgerton applied for and received a 3-year Postdoctoral Fellowship from the National Center for Voice and Speech to conduct research for this project.

Under the supervision of Diane Bless, Michael began the formal study of voice science which has led to the publication of articles and his book, The 21st Century Voice, as part of the New

Politics of Qom Province

Qom Province is a religious and politically conservative place, with most voters supportive of the principlist tendency. As of October 2015, there are 22 political organizations active in Qom Province. Both Principlist and Reformist camps are active in the province. Conservative Society of Seminary Teachers of Qom is the most prominent political organization headquartered in Qom, its reformist rival, Assembly of Qom Seminary Scholars and Researchers, is based in Qom. Qom serves as the main ideologic base of the Front of Islamic Revolution Stability, which tends to dominate its political arena with concentration on ethnic issues, according to some spectators. Islamic Coalition Party and Front of Followers of the Line of the Imam and the Leader have active branches in the province. Provincial affiliates of NEDA Party, Democracy Party, Union of Islamic Iran People Party and Islamic Labour Party are among reformist organizations of the province, which has a reformist "policymaking council". Qom has one constituency with three seats, all occupied by principlists.

In Qom's City Council, 19 out of 21 members are principlist and the other two are independent. Representative of the Supreme LeaderMohammad Saeidi GovernorMehdi SadeghiParliamentAhmad Amirabadi Ali Larijani Mojtaba Zonnour Assembly of ExpertsMohammad Momen

Robert S. Vessey

Robert Scadden Vessey was the seventh Governor of South Dakota. Vessey, a Republican from Wessington Springs, served from 1909 to 1913. Vessey was born to Charles and Jane Elizabeth Vessey in Oshkosh, Winnebago County, United States, his father was a Methodist lay preacher. Vessey was educated near Oshkosh in Winnebago County, Wisconsin. For a brief time, he studied at Oshkosh Commercial College before spending the next five years as a lumberjack in northern Wisconsin. Vessey married Florence Albert on August 27, 1882; the couple moved to a "squatters claim" in what is now known as Pleasant Township, Jerauld County, South Dakota. They had four children. Vessey became a member of the South Dakota Senate in the 1905 and 1907 state legislatures. In January 1908, he was elected president of the senate. Despite limited abilities as a public speaker, he guided Progressive measures through the state senate. Vessey's candidacy for governor was supported in large part due to his solid record in the state senate.

As governor, he worked to keep peace among South Dakota Progressives and sought to enhance control of government through the direct primary law. He was the first governor to proclaim Mothers' Day as a public observance. In 1910, Vessey's bid for a second term as governor was threatened by an independent candidate named George W. Egan. In spite of Egan's popularity with voters, Vessey beat both Egan and former governor Samuel H. Elrod to receive the Republican nomination, he went on to defeat Chauncey L. Wood, in the general election. After serving his terms, he moved to Pasadena, California where he owned and operated a real estate business. Vessey died in Pasadena and was interred in Hope Cemetery, Wessington Springs, Jerauld County, South Dakota US, his house on College Street in Wessington Springs was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1978, as Robert S. Vessey House. Robert S. Vessey's historical listing Commentary on Governor Vessey: "Our Governor" True Dakotan - April 29, 2009: "May 10 Mother's Day will observe 100th anniversary of proclamation, signed by Gov. Vessey" New York Times - November 21, 1910: "Just Like Westerners.

St. Paul's College (Manitoba)

St. Paul's College is a Roman Catholic College on the Fort Garry campus of the University of Manitoba and is the major Catholic higher education institution in the Province of Manitoba. St. Paul's College on the University of Manitoba campus is the major Catholic higher education institution in Manitoba. In 1926 the Oblate Fathers, with a staff of six and a student body of one hundred, opened St. Paul's College as the first English Catholic High School for boys in the Province of Manitoba. Fr. Alphonse Simon, OMI was the first Rector. There was a rapid increase in the building on Selkirk Avenue soon proved inadequate. In 1931 Archbishop Sinnott, who had worked tirelessly to get the College started from as early as 1916, purchased the old Manitoba College at the corner of Ellice and Vaughan Streets in downtown Winnipeg and the College moved to this new location; the direction of the College passed into the hands of the diocesan clergy and Fr. C. B. Collins was appointed Rector. In the same year, the College became affiliated with the University of Manitoba.

The University of Manitoba, as founded in 1877, was a federation of three denominational colleges: St. Boniface, St. John's, Manitoba. In 1888 Wesley College became affiliated. On October 27, 1931, at the time of its affiliation, St. Paul's had a staff of 15, a total of twelve students in the University program; the University of Manitoba Yearbook for 1932, The Brown and Gold, displays the photographs of the first two graduates of the College. At the request of the Archbishop, the Jesuit Fathers undertook direction of the College in 1933. Fr. John Holland, S. J. was appointed Rector, Fr. Erle Bartlett, S. J. was appointed Dean of Studies. Their photographs and those of their successors line the corridor of the administrative wing of the College. In 1936, St. Mary's College for Women became the women's division of St. Paul's, until the College opened on the Fort Garry campus in 1957 when it became co-educational and St. Mary's withdrew from university work; the facilities available to the College on Ellice Avenue were never adequate.

Through the generosity of Mrs. Margaret Shea, a new unit, Paul Shea Hall, had been erected, providing a separate High School building in 1932. In 1939, six more classrooms were added and paid for through the Archdiocese and generous friends of the College. By the mid-1940s, students were being turned away because of the lack of space. A building fund drive at that time was not successful and attention was turned again to relocating on the University of Manitoba campus with whom ongoing negotiations about relocation had been taking place. Following a pressing invitation from the University in 1954, there was much discussion and a decision was made in 1956 to accept the University's offer. In 1957 a 99-year lease for land on the campus was signed and a cornerstone was laid and blessed by Archbishop Pocock. At that ceremony, the Honourable Mr. Miller, Minister of Education, speaking on behalf of the government, congratulated the College for undertaking the move and added to the Archbishop's blessing "if you want governmental blessing, you have it."

The Canada council contributed $100,000 towards the construction costs. The architect was Mr. Peter Thornton, the contractors were Aikens. In the fall of 1958, the basic buildings and administrative offices containing classrooms, cafeteria, faculty offices, the chapel were ready for the first students. About 200 registered that year. In 1962 the Science Wing was added, containing well-furnished laboratories, further class rooms, faculty offices; the student cafeteria was extended in 1964 and the Residence of the Jesuit Fathers was added. 1972 saw the construction of our beautiful library, a theatre to seat 200, the addition of further classroom and faculty office space. A larger library and a student residence were never constructed. Presently the College is under the direction of the St. Paul's Corporation and an 18-person Board of Governors; the Archbishop of Winnipeg is the College Chancellor and the College continues to value its commitment as a Catholic College in the Jesuit tradition. The new millennium saw the construction of the Arthur V. Mauro Centre for Peace and Justice - an addition that provides graduate and undergraduate studies in peace-building and conflict-resolution.

These programs that will help the community close to home and around the globe. The Government of Canada sponsors an Aboriginal Bursaries Search Tool that lists over 680 scholarships and other incentives offered by governments and industry to support Aboriginal post-secondary participation. St. Paul's College scholarships for Aboriginal, First Nations and Métis students include: Sundance Aboriginal Student Award; the Arthur V. Mauro Centre at St. Paul's College, University of Manitoba, is dedicated to the advancement of human rights, conflict resolution, global citizenship and social justice through research and outreach; the Mauro Centre's initial emphases has been the cultural and philosophical dimensions of peace. The Centre is interested in the role of the Abrahamic religions of Judaism and Islam in pointing ways for people to live in peace and harmony in a post-modern world; the Joint M. A. Program in Peace and Conflict Studies is housed at the Global College; the Centre is hom

Emma Groves

Emma Groves was a Human rights activist and a leading campaigner for banning the use of plastic bullets and a co-founder of the United Campaign Against Plastic Bullets in Northern Ireland. She began her campaign after she was blinded from being struck in the face by a rubber bullet in 1971. Emma Groves was a Belfast mother of 11 children. At 9 a.m. on 4 November 1971, aged 51, she was standing at her living room window during British Army searches on her neighbours' houses. As a mark of defiance Emma turned on her record player and placed the ballad "Four Green Fields" on her record player and turned up the volume; as she turned back to the window, a soldier, at a distance of about eight yards, shot a rubber bullet through the window hitting her in the face. As a result, she lost her sight in both eyes. A doctor at the hospital, removing Emma's eyes approached Mother Teresa of Calcutta, visiting Belfast at the time, to break the news to Emma that her eyesight was gone. Years she was offered £35,000 compensation, seen at the time as a de facto admission by the Army, although the soldier involved was never charged.

Groves campaigned for thirty years for the banning of plastic bullets. Groves and Clara Reilly founded the United Campaign Against Plastic Bullets after the killing of John Downes in August 1984; the aim of the organisation was to bring together the families bereaved or injured by rubber and plastic bullets. They compiled information on the statistics relating to usage of plastic bullets in Northern Ireland. In 1976, rubber bullets were replaced by plastic bullets. Up until that time they had caused the wounding of a further seventy; the new bullets were 1.5 inches in diameter. Their weight was nearly 5 ounces and they were fired at up to 170 miles per hour; these bullets were presented publicly as a more secure and less dangerous means of crowd control, despite that their use was prohibited in Great Britain as they were deemed'a danger to the civilian population'. Despite this, Groves said they were used "unsparingly in Northern Ireland". In 1981, during the hunger strikes, large numbers of people took to the streets to show their solidarity with the prisoners.

The greatest number of plastic bullets fired was between May and August 1981, the same period in which Bobby Sands and the other nine prisoners died on hunger strike. It was during those years, that the vast majority of fatalities of plastic bullets were children between the ages of ten and fifteen. In October 1976 Brian Stewart, 13 years old, was killed in Belfast by a plastic bullet, he was shot in the face by a British soldier. Paul Whitters, aged 15, from Derry, died in April 1981 as the result of a bullet to the head fired by an RUC policeman. In Belfast, a 12-year-old, Carol Ann Kelly, was fatally shot on her way home after buying milk, in May 1981, it was at this point that Groves decided to do something and to have those "deadly bullets banned". In 1982, she learned. So she went to the US along with her daughter and an 18-year-old youth from Derry who had "lost an eye and had his face disfigured", she managed to arrange a meeting in New York with the manager of the company. After their talk she said "the company stopped producing the bullets."In April 1982, an 11-year-old, Stephen McConomy, died from being shot in the head by a British soldier.

Commenting on this, Groves said, "When you start killing the children, you inflict the deepest wound of all on a country." In 1982, at the request of the government in Dublin, the European Parliament banned plastic bullets throughout the European Union. However, the British government ignored the ban. With other members of the United Campaign she spoke of her experience at public meetings throughout Ireland, they decided to take their campaign abroad. They were invited to the Netherlands, Norway, Italy and Germany. Groves herself went to the US on two occasions; the Campaign discovered that a Scottish factory, the Bronx Fireworks Company, was manufacturing plastic bullets, for four years a group from the United Campaign went over to Scotland to picket the factory gates. The factory stopped making the bullets. There were, according to Groves, at the time still a number of factories producing the bullets but "the British authorities keep their names secret"; the Campaign began focusing its efforts on a London-based company, Astra Holdings, who it hoped would stop manufacturing the bullets.

John Downes was shot dead during a street disturbance. Groves, in an interview with Silvia Calamati recorded in Belfast in August 1990, After John Downes, two more youths were killed by plastic bullets: Keith White, a 22-year-old from Portadown and Seamus Duffy, aged 15, from Belfast, she concluded her interview by saying, "The victims of plastic bullets are always offered large sums of money as compensation. I have always refused this money. We do not want money. What we do want is justice." Emma Groves died from undisclosed causes on 2 April 2007. Carol Ackroyd, Karen Margolis, Jonathan Rosenhead and Tim Shallice, The Technology of Political Control, second edition, London: Pluto Press 1980. John McGuffin and Diarmaid MacDermott,'Plastic Death', The Sunday Tribune Magazine, vol.1 no.10, 23 August 1981. Jonathan Rosenhead and Dr Peter J Smith,'Ulster riot control: a warning', New Scientist and Science Journal, 12 August 1971. Jonathan Rosenhead,'Rubber bullets and riot control', New Scientist, 14 June 1973.

Dr Tim Shallice,'The harmless bullet that kills', New Statesman, 14 August 1981. Steve Wright,'Your unfriendly neighbourhood bobby', The Guardian, 16 July 1981. Michael Yardl