Major general is a military rank used in many countries. It is derived from the older rank of sergeant major general; the disappearance of the "sergeant" in the title explains the confusing phenomenon whereby a lieutenant general outranks a major general while a major outranks a lieutenant. In the Commonwealth and the United States, it is a division commander's rank subordinate to the rank of lieutenant general and senior to the ranks of brigadier and brigadier general. In the Commonwealth, major general is equivalent to the navy rank of rear admiral, in air forces with a separate rank structure, it is equivalent to air vice-marshal. In some countries, including much of Eastern Europe, major general is the lowest of the general officer ranks, with no brigadier-grade rank. In the old Austro-Hungarian Army, the major general was called a Generalmajor. Today's Austrian Federal Army still uses the same term. General de Brigada is the lowest rank of general officers in the Brazilian Army. A General de Brigada wears two-stars as this is the entry level for general officers in the Brazilian Army.
See Military ranks of Brazil and Brigadier for more information. In the Canadian Armed Forces, the rank of major-general is both a Canadian Army and Royal Canadian Air Force rank equivalent to the Royal Canadian Navy's rank of rear-admiral. A major-general is the equivalent of a naval flag officer; the major-general rank is senior to the ranks of brigadier-general and commodore, junior to lieutenant-general and vice-admiral. Prior to 1968, the Air Force used the rank of air vice-marshal, instead; the rank insignia for a major-general in the Royal Canadian Air Force is a wide braid under a single narrow braid on the cuff, as well as two silver maple leaves beneath crossed sword and baton, all surmounted by St. Edward's Crown. In the Canadian Army, the rank insignia is a wide braid on the cuff, as well as two gold maple leaves beneath crossed sword and baton, all surmounted by St. Edward's Crown, it is worn on the shoulder straps of the service dress tunic, on slip-ons on other uniforms. On the visor of the service cap are two rows of gold oak leaves.
Major-generals are addressed as "general" and name, as are all general officers. Major-generals are entitled to staff cars. In the Estonian military, the major general rank is called kindralmajor; the Finnish military equivalent is kenraalimajuri in Finnish, generalmajor in Swedish and Danish. The French equivalent to the rank of major general is général de division. In the French military, major général is not a rank but an appointment conferred on some generals of général de corps d'armée rank, acting as head of staff of one of the armed forces; the major general assists the chief of staff of the French army with matters such as human resources and discipline, his role is analogous with the British Army position of Adjutant-General to the Forces. The position of major général can be considered the equivalent of a deputy chief of staff; the five major generals are: the Major General of the Armed Forces, head of the General Staff, the Major General of the Army, the Major General of the Navy, the Major General of the Gendarmerie, the Major General of the Air Force.
In the French Army, Major General is a position and the major general is of the rank of corps general. The French army had some sergent-majors généraux called sergents de bataille, whose task was to prepare the disposition of the army on the field before a battle; these sergents-majors généraux became a new rank, the maréchal de camp, the equivalent of the rank of major general. However, the term of major général was not forgotten and used to describe the appointment of armies chiefs of staff. One well-known French major général was Marshal Louis Alexandre Berthier. In addition,maréchal de camp was renamed général de brigade in 1793; the rank was decided to correspond to brigadier general after WWⅡ. In Georgia, the rank major-general has one star as for security forces; the army, does not follow the traditional soviet model and uses the now more common two-star insignia. The German Army and Luftwaffe referred to the rank as Generalmajor until 1945. Prior to 1945, the rank of Generalleutnant was used to define a division commander, whereas Generalmajor was a brigade commander.
With the remilitarization of Germany in 1955 on West Germany's admission to NATO, the Heer adopted the rank structure of the U. S. with the authority of the three lower ranks being moved up one level, the rank of Brigadegeneral added below them. The rank of Generaloberst was no longer used; the Nationale Volksarmee of the German Democratic Republic continued the use Generalmajor, abbreviated as "GenMaj", as the lowest general officer rank until reunification in 1990. It was equivalent to Konteradmiral. In the Magyar Honvédség, the equivalent rank to major general is vezérőrnagy. In the Iranian army and air force, the ranks above colonel are sartip dovom, sarlashkar and arteshbod.
The Mil Mi-8 is a medium twin-turbine helicopter designed by the Soviet Union, now produced by Russia. In addition to its most common role as a transport helicopter, the Mi-8 is used as an airborne command post, armed gunship, reconnaissance platform. Along with the related, more powerful Mil Mi-17, the Mi-8 is among the world's most-produced helicopters, used by over 50 countries; as of 2015, it is the third most common operational military aircraft in the world. Mikhail Mil approached the Soviet government with a proposal to design an all-new two-engined turbine helicopter after the success of the Mil Mi-4 and the emergence and effectiveness of turbines used in the Mil Mi-6. To counter this, Mikhail Mil proposed that the new helicopter was more of an update to new turbine engines rather than an new helicopter. Due to the position of the engine, this enabled Mikhail Mil to justify redesigning the entire front half of the aircraft around the single engine; the prototype, named V-8, was designed in 1958 and based on the Mil Mi-4 with a larger cabin.
Powered by an AI-24 2,010 kW Soloviev turboshaft engine, the single engined V-8 prototype had its maiden flight in June 1961 and was first shown on Soviet Aviation Day parade in July 1961. During an official visit to the United States in September 1959, Nikita Khrushchev took a flight in the S-58 presidential helicopter for the first time and was extremely impressed. On Khrushchev's return, he ordered the creation of a similar helicopter, to be ready for the return visit by the American president, to save face. A luxury version of the Mi-4 was created and Khrushchev took an inspection flight, during which Mikhail Mil proposed that his helicopter in development was more suitable. However, it would be necessary to have a second engine for reliability; this gave Mikhail Mil the power under the orders of Khrushchev to build the original two-engined helicopter, which for the first time in Soviet history would need purpose-built turbine engines, rather than those adapted from fixed wing aircraft and an new main rotor gear box that would be designed in-house for the first time.
In May 1960, the order was given for Mikhail Mil to create his twin engine helicopter. The Sergei Isotov Design Bureau accepted the task of creating the engines; the second prototype flew in September 1961. Two months after the engines were completed by Isotov, the third prototype designated V-8A equipped with two 1,120 kW Isotov TV2 engines, made its first flight piloted by Nikolai Ilyushin on 2 August 1962, marking the first flight of any Soviet helicopter to fly with purpose built gas turbine engines; the aircraft completed its factory based testing in February 1963. The fourth prototype was designed as a VIP transport, with the rotor changed from four blades to five blades in 1963 to reduce vibration, the cockpit doors replaced by blister perspex slides and a sliding door added to the cabin; the fifth and final prototype was a mass production prototype for the passenger market. In November 1964, all joint testing had been completed and the soviet government began mass production. Production started in the Kazan Production Plant, with the first aircraft completed by the end of 1965.
The Soviet military showed little interest in the Mi-8 until the Bell UH-1's involvement in the Vietnam war became publicised as a great asset to the United States, allowing troops to move swiftly in and out of a battlefield and throughout the country. It was only that the Soviet military rushed a troop-carrying variant of the Mil Mi-8 into production. By 1967, it had been introduced into the Soviet Air Force as the Mi-8. There are numerous variants, including the Mi-8T, which, in addition to carrying 24 troops, is armed with rockets and anti-tank guided missiles; the Mil Mi-17 export version is employed by around 20 countries. The only visible difference between the Mi-8 and Mi-17 is that the tail rotor is on the starboard side of the Mi-8, whereas in Mi-17 it is on the port side. Mi-17 has some improved armour plating for its crew; the naval Mil Mi-14 version is derived from the Mi-8. The Mi-8 is improving and the newest version still remains in production in 2016; the Finnish Defence Forces and the Finnish Border Guard began using Mi-8s in the 1970s, with the Finnish Air Force receiving its first, serialed HS-2, on 28 May 1973, the second, HS-1, on 31 May 1973.
Six Mi-8Ts were obtained at first, followed by two Mi-8Ps. Three of the helicopters were handed over to the Border Guard Wing. One of these was lost after sinking through ice during a landing in April 1982, it was soon replaced by a new Mi-8. After their Border Guard service, the helicopters were transferred to the civil register, but shortly thereafter to the Finnish Air Force. In 1997 it was decided that all helicopters, including the remaining five Mi-8Ts and two Mi-8Ps, should be transferred to the Army Wing at Utti. All Mi-8s have now been retired. One Mi-8 is on display at the Finnish Aviation Museum in Vantaa, one is at the Päijänne Tavastia Aviation Museum in Asikkala, near Lahti; the two final Mi-8Ts were given to Hungary in August 2011 with all
The Workers' and Peasants' Red Army shortened to Red Army was the army and the air force of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, after 1922, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. The army was established after the 1917 October Revolution; the Bolsheviks raised an army to oppose the military confederations of their adversaries during the Russian Civil War. Beginning in February 1946, the Red Army, along with the Soviet Navy, embodied the main component of the Soviet Armed Forces; the Red Army provided the largest land force in the Allied victory in the European theatre of World War II, its invasion of Manchuria assisted the unconditional surrender of Imperial Japan. During operations on the Eastern Front, it accounted for 75–80% of casualties the Wehrmacht and Waffen-SS suffered during the war and captured the Nazi German capital, Berlin. In September 1917, Vladimir Lenin wrote: "There is only one way to prevent the restoration of the police, and, to create a people's militia and to fuse it with the army."
At the time, the Imperial Russian Army had started to collapse. 23% of the male population of the Russian Empire were mobilized. The Tsarist general Nikolay Dukhonin estimated that there had been 2 million deserters, 1.8 million dead, 5 million wounded and 2 million prisoners. He estimated the remaining troops as numbering 10 million. While the Imperial Russian Army was being taken apart, "it became apparent that the rag-tag Red Guard units and elements of the imperial army who had gone over the side of the Bolsheviks were quite inadequate to the task of defending the new government against external foes." Therefore, the Council of People's Commissars decided to form the Red Army on 28 January 1918. They envisioned a body "formed from the class-conscious and best elements of the working classes." All citizens of the Russian republic aged 18 or older were eligible. Its role being the defense "of the Soviet authority, the creation of a basis for the transformation of the standing army into a force deriving its strength from a nation in arms, furthermore, the creation of a basis for the support of the coming Socialist Revolution in Europe."
Enlistment was conditional upon "guarantees being given by a military or civil committee functioning within the territory of the Soviet Power, or by party or trade union committees or, in extreme cases, by two persons belonging to one of the above organizations." In the event of an entire unit wanting to join the Red Army, a "collective guarantee and the affirmative vote of all its members would be necessary." Because the Red Army was composed of peasants, the families of those who served were guaranteed rations and assistance with farm work. Some peasants who remained at home yearned to join the Army. If they were turned away they would prepare care-packages. In some cases the money they earned would go towards tanks for the Army; the Council of People's Commissars appointed itself the supreme head of the Red Army, delegating command and administration of the army to the Commissariat for Military Affairs and the Special All-Russian College within this commissariat. Nikolai Krylenko was the supreme commander-in-chief, with Aleksandr Myasnikyan as deputy.
Nikolai Podvoisky became the commissar for Pavel Dybenko, commissar for the fleet. Proshyan, Steinberg were specified as people's commissars as well as Vladimir Bonch-Bruyevich from the Bureau of Commissars. At a joint meeting of Bolsheviks and Left Socialist-Revolutionaries, held on 22 February 1918, Krylenko remarked: "We have no army; the demoralized soldiers are fleeing, panic-stricken, as soon as they see a German helmet appear on the horizon, abandoning their artillery and all war material to the triumphantly advancing enemy. The Red Guard units are brushed aside like flies. We have no power to stay the enemy; the Russian Civil War occurred in three periods: October 1917 – November 1918: From the Bolshevik Revolution to the First World War Armistice, developed from the Bolshevik government's nationalization of traditional Cossack lands in November 1917. This provoked the insurrection of General Alexey Maximovich Kaledin's Volunteer Army in the River Don region; the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk aggravated Russian internal politics.
The situation encouraged direct Allied intervention in the Russian Civil War, in which twelve foreign countries supported anti-Bolshevik militias. A series of engagements resulted, amongst others, the Czechoslovak Legion, the Polish 5th Rifle Division, the pro-Bolshevik Red Latvian Riflemen. January 1919 – November 1919: Initially the White armies advanced: from the south, under General Anton Denikin; the Whites defeated the Red Army on each front. Leon Trotsky reformed and counterattacked: the Red Army repelled Admiral Kolchak's army in June, the armies of General Denikin and General Yudenich in October. By mid-Nove
The People's Commissariat for Internal Affairs, abbreviated NKVD, was the interior ministry of the Soviet Union. Established in 1917 as NKVD of Russian SFSR, the agency was tasked with conducting regular police work and overseeing the country's prisons and labor camps, it was disbanded in 1930, with its functions being dispersed among other agencies, only to be reinstated as an all-union ministry in 1934. The functions of the OGPU were transferred to the NKVD in 1934, giving it a monopoly over law enforcement activities that lasted until the end of World War II. During this period, the NKVD included both ordinary public order activities, as well as secret police activities; the NKVD is known for its role in political repression and for carrying out the Great Purge under Joseph Stalin. It was led by Nikolai Yezhov and Lavrentiy Beria; the NKVD undertook mass extrajudicial executions of untold numbers of citizens, conceived and administered the Gulag system of forced labour camps. Their agents were responsible for the repression of the wealthier peasantry, as well as the mass deportations of entire nationalities to uninhabited regions of the country.
They oversaw the protection of Soviet borders and espionage, enforced Soviet policy in communist movements and puppet governments in other countries, most notably the repression and massacres in Poland. In March 1946 all People's Commissariats were renamed to Ministries, the NKVD became the Ministry of Internal Affairs. After the Russian February Revolution of 1917, the Provisional Government dissolved the Tsarist police and set up the People's Militsiya; the subsequent Russian October Revolution of 1917 saw a seizure of state power led by Lenin and the Bolsheviks, who established a new Bolshevik regime, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic. The Provisional Government's Ministry of Internal Affairs under Georgy Lvov and under Nikolai Avksentiev and Alexei Nikitin, turned into NKVD under a People's Commissar. However, the NKVD apparatus was overwhelmed by duties inherited from MVD, such as the supervision of the local governments and firefighting, the Workers' and Peasants' Militsiya staffed by proletarians was inexperienced and unqualified.
Realizing that it was left with no capable security force, the Council of People's Commissars of the RSFSR established a secret political police, the Cheka, led by Felix Dzerzhinsky. It gained the right to undertake quick non-judicial trials and executions, if, deemed necessary in order to "protect the Russian Socialist-Communist revolution"; the Cheka was reorganized in 1922 as the State Political Directorate, or GPU, of the NKVD of the RSFSR. In 1922 the USSR formed, with the RSFSR as its largest member; the GPU became the OGPU, under the Council of People's Commissars of the USSR. The NKVD of the RSFSR retained control of the militsiya, various other responsibilities. In 1934 the NKVD of the RSFSR was transformed into an all-union security force, the NKVD, the OGPU was incorporated into the NKVD as the Main Directorate for State Security; as a result, the NKVD took over control of all detention facilities as well as the regular police. At various times, the NKVD had the following Chief Directorates, abbreviated as "ГУ"– Главное управление, Glavnoye upravleniye.
ГУГБ – государственной безопасности, of State Security ГУРКМ– рабоче-крестьянской милиции, of Workers and Peasants Militsiya ГУПВО– пограничной и внутренней охраны, of Border and Internal Guards ГУПО– пожарной охраны, of Firefighting Services ГУШосДор– шоссейных дорог, of Highways ГУЖД– железных дорог, of Railways ГУЛаг– Главное управление исправительно-трудовых лагерей и колоний, ГЭУ – экономическое, of Economics ГТУ – транспортное, of Transport ГУВПИ – военнопленных и интернированных, of POWs and interned persons Until the reorganization begun by Nikolai Yezhov with a purge of the regional political police in the autumn of 1936 and formalized by a May 1939 directive of the All-Union NKVD by which all appointments to the local political police were controlled from the center, there was frequent tension between centralized control of local units and the collusion of those units with local and regional party elements resulting in the thwarting of Moscow's plans. Following its establishment in 1934, the NKVD underwent many organizational changes.
During Yezhov's time in office, the Great Purge reached its height from the years 1937 and 1938 alone, at least 1.3 million were arrested and 681,692 were executed for'crimes against the state'. The Gulag population swelled by 685,201 under Yezhov, nearly tripling in size in just two years, with
Tskhinvali is a city in the cultural region of South Ossetia,Georgia Transcaucasia and the capital of the de facto independent Republic of South Ossetia and the former Soviet Georgian South Ossetian Autonomous Oblast. The city had been administratively divided into the region of Shida Kartli by Georgia after the revocation of the autonomous oblast. It’s located on the Great Liakhvi River 100 kilometres northwest of the Georgian capital Tbilisi; the name of Tskhinvali is derived from the Old Georgian Krtskhinvali, from earlier Krtskhilvani meaning "the land of hornbeams", the historical name of the city. See ცხინვალი for more. From 1934 to 1961, the city was named Staliniri, compilation of Joseph Stalin's surname with Ossetian word "Ir" which means Ossetia. Modern Ossetians call the city Tskhinval; the area around the present-day Tskhinvali was first populated back in the Bronze Age. The unearthed settlements and archaeological artifacts from that time are unique in that they reflect influences from both Iberian and Colchian cultures with possible Sarmatian elements.
Tskhinvali was first chronicled by Georgian sources in 1398 as a village in Kartli though a account credits the 3rd century AD Georgian king Aspacures II of Iberia with its foundation as a fortress. By the early 18th century, Tskhinvali was a small "royal town" populated chiefly by monastic serfs. Tskhinvali was annexed to the Russian Empire along with the rest of eastern Georgia in 1801. Located on a trade route which linked North Caucasus to Tbilisi and Gori, Tskhinvali developed into a commercial town with a mixed Jewish, Georgian and Ossetian population. In 1917, it had 600 houses with 34.4 % Georgians, 17.7 % Armenians and 8.8 % Ossetians. The town saw clashes between Georgian People's Guard and pro-Bolshevik Ossetian peasants during the 1918-20 period, when Georgia gained brief independence from Russia. Soviet rule was established by the invading Red Army in March 1921, a year in 1922, Tskhinvali was made a capital of the South Ossetian Autonomous Oblast within the Georgian SSR. Subsequently, the town became Ossetian due to intense urbanisation and Soviet Korenizatsiya policy which induced an inflow of the Ossetians from the nearby rural areas into Tskhinvali.
It was an industrial centre, with lumber mills and manufacturing plants, had several cultural and educational institutions such as a venerated Pedagogical Institute and a drama theatre. According to the last Soviet census, Tskhinvali had a population of 42,934, according to the census of Republic of South Ossetia in 2015, the population was 30,432 people. During the acute phase of the Georgian-Ossetian conflict, Tskhinvali was a scene of ethnic tensions and ensuing armed confrontation between Georgian and Ossetian forces; the 1992 Sochi ceasefire accord left Tskhinvali in the hands of Ossetians. In late June, 2008 Russian military expert Pavel Felgenhauer predicted that Vladimir Putin would start a war against Georgia in Abkhazia and South Ossetia in August; the Kavkaz Center reported in early July that Chechen separatists had intelligence data that Russia was preparing a military operation against Georgia in August–September 2008 which aimed to expel Georgian forces from the Kodori Gorge. At 8:00 am on 1 August, a Georgian police vehicle was blown up by an improvised explosive device on the road near Tskhinvali, injuring five Georgian policemen.
In response, Georgian snipers assaulted some of the South Ossetian border checkpoints, killing four Ossetians and injuring seven. Ossetian separatists began intensively shelling Georgian villages on 1 August, with a sporadic response from Georgian peacekeepers and other troops in the region. During the night of 1/2 August and mortar fire were exchanged; the number of Ossetian casualties rose to six and the number of injured to fifteen, including several civilians. The Russian deputy defence minister, Nikolay Pankov, had a secret meeting with the separatist authorities in Tskhinvali on 3 August. An evacuation of Ossetian women and children to Russia began on the same day. According to researcher Andrey Illarionov, the South Ossetian separatists evacuated more than 20,000 civilians, which represented more than 90 percent of the civilian population of the future combat zone. On 4 August, South Ossetian president Eduard Kokoity said that about 300 volunteers had arrived from North Ossetia to help fight the Georgians and thousands more were expected from the North Caucasus.
On 5 August, Georgian authorities organised a tour for journalists and diplomats to demonstrate the damage caused by separatists. That day, Russian Ambassador-at-Large Yuri Popov declared that his country would intervene on the side of South Ossetia; the destruction of the village of Nuli was ordered by South Ossetian interior minister Mindzaev. About 50 Russian journalists had arrived in Tskhnivali, they were waiting for "something to happen". A pro-government Russian newspap
Vladikavkaz known as Ordzhonikidze and Dzaudzhikau, is the capital city of the Republic of North Ossetia-Alania, Russia. It is located in the southeast of the republic at the foothills of the Caucasus Mountains, situated on the Terek River. Population: 311,693 . Vladikavkaz is one of the most populous cities in the North Caucasus; the city is transportation center. Manufactured products include processed zinc and lead, chemicals and food products; the city was founded in 1784 as a fortress during the Russian conquest of the Caucasus and was for many years the main Russian military base in the region. The Georgian Military Highway, crossing the mountains, was constructed in 1799 to link the city with Georgia to the south, in 1875 a railway was built to connect it to Rostov-on-Don and Baku in Azerbaijan. Vladikavkaz has become an important industrial center for the region, with smelting, refining and manufacturing industries; the city is one of the largest in the Russian-controlled Caucasus, along with Grozny, was the capital of the Mountain Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic, a Soviet Republic established after the annexation of the Mountainous Republic of the North Caucasus.
The puppet state existed from 1921 to 1924 and was part of, in some cases incorporated, the modern-day territories of Chechnya, North Ossetia and Kabardino-Balkaria. From 1931 to 1944 and from 1954 to 1990, its name in both Russian and Ossetic languages was Ordzhonikidze, from 1944 to 1954 it was called Dzaudzhikau in Russian and in Ossetic. Vladikavkaz resumed its old Russian name, in 1990, shortly before the dissolution of the Soviet Union. Vladikavkaz was fought over in both the Russian Civil War and World War II. In February 1919, the anti-Communist Volunteer Army under General Anton Denikin seized the city, before being expelled by the Red Army in March 1920. In November 1942, the forces of Nazi Germany tried unsuccessfully to seize the city but were repelled. On November 26, 2008, Vitaly Karayev, the mayor of Vladikavkaz was killed by an unidentified gunman. On December 31, 2008, his successor, Kazbek Pagiyev, was killed by unidentified gunmen. Vladikavkaz is the capital of the republic.
Within the framework of administrative divisions, it is, together with six rural localities, incorporated as Vladikavkaz City Under Republic Jurisdiction—an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the districts. As a municipal division, Vladikavkaz City Under Republic Jurisdiction is incorporated as Vladikavkaz Urban Okrug; the city is served by the bus network. There are tram and trolleybus networks, plus the main Vladikavkaz railway station; the city is served by Beslan Airport located about 9 kilometres from the city. The Georgian Military Road, a part of European route E117, starts in Vladikavkaz and it connects the city with the South Caucasus. According to the results of the 2010 Census, the city population of Vladikavkaz was 330,148. Census 1873 23,766 The ethnic makeup of city's population was: Ossetians: 1,800 |210,104 Russians: 17,601 |80,945 Armenians: 1,698 |11,697 Georgians: |7,014 Ingush: 41 |3,225 Azerbaijanians: |2,212 Ukrainians: |1,857 Greeks: |1,819 German: 731 Polish: 439 Jews: 743 Persian: 631 Chechen: 76 Others: 7 |11,275 FC Alania Vladikavkaz is an association football club based in Vladikavkaz, who won the Russian Premier League in 1995.
In Vladikavkaz, there is a guyed TV mast, 198 meters tall, built in 1961, which has six crossbars with gangways in two levels running from the mast structure to the guys. North Ossetian State University is in the city; the city's primary religion is Eastern Orthodox Christianity, followed by Russians and some of the Ossetians. The rest of the Ossetian population adheres to the next largest religion, Uatsdin, an Ossetian folk religion, which nationwide is followed by 29% of the population; the remainder follow Protestantism, Armenian Orthodoxy and other beliefs. Vladikavkaz is twinned with: Asheville, North Carolina, United States Kardzhali, Bulgaria Makhachkala, Russia Nalchik, Russia Ardahan, Turkey Vladikavkaz experiences a humid continental climate with warm, wet summers and cold, drier winters. Lado Davidov — Soviet soldier, Hero of the Soviet Union Murat Gassiev — a professional boxer, undefeated unified cruiserweight world champion Valery Gazzaev — Russian football manager and former footballer Valery Gergiev — Russian conductor and opera company director Vitaly Kaloyev — a convicted murderer and a former architect Issa Pliyev — Soviet military commander, twice Hero of the Soviet Union Vyacheslav Voronin - Russian high jumper, gold medallist at the 1999 World Championships in Athletics Верховный Совет Республики Северная Осетия.
12 ноября 1994 г. «Республика Северная Осетия-Алания. Конституция.», в ред. Конституционного Закона №5-РКЗ от 4 декабря 2013 г. «О внесении изменений в Конституцию Республики Северная Осетия–Алания». Вступил в с
Buynaksk is a town in the Republic of Dagestan, located at the foothills of the Greater Caucasus on the Shura-Ozen River, 40 kilometers southwest of the republic's capital Makhachkala. Population: 62,623 . Before 1922 Buynaksk was known as Temir-Khan-Shurá, that is, the lake or cliff of Tamerlane, said to have camped here in 1396 after defeating Tokhtamysh during the Tokhtamysh-Timur war, it first appears in Russian annals in the 1590s when Muscovite ambassadors passed nearby on their way to Georgia. It remained a small town ruled by a Bek. In 1830 the Russians destroyed it. In 1832 a Russian force under Klugenau camped here during Rosen's raid on Gimry. In 1834 Klugenau built a fort on the rock above the lake and it soon became the headquarters of the Apsheron Regiment and the most important Russian fort in the interior of Degestan during the Murid War. In 1849 Hadji Murad led a daring raid into the town; the place was Argutinsky drained the lake in 1858 to prevent the spread of disease. It was granted town status in 1866.
In 1920, it was the center of the ephemeral Mountainous Republic of the Northern Caucasus. On November 13, 1920, the government of the Russian SFSR declared Dagestan's autonomy during the congress of the Dagestani people, which took place in Temir-Khan-Shura. In 1922, the town was renamed Buynaksk in honor of a revolutionary Ullubiy Buynaksky. In May 1970, Buynaksk was badly damaged by an earthquake. In 1999, a car bomb outside an apartment building housing the families of military officers killed sixty-four people. On August 13, 2009, Buynaksk was the site of two attacks associated with the growing violence throughout Dagestan and neighboring Chechnya. About ten men first opened fire with automatic weapons on a police post; the gunmen entered a nearby sauna complex and killed seven female employees. Three soldiers were killed, thirty-two were wounded, in a suicide car-bombing at a military base in the city on September 5, 2010; the driver of a Zhiguli car smashed through a gate at the base and headed for an area where soldiers were quartered in tents.
Soldiers opened fire on the car. The driver rammed the car into a military truck, where it exploded. After the blast, a roadside bomb hit a car taking investigators to the scene, but no injuries were reported in the second explosion. However, attackers claimed killing 56 Russian soldiers by the bombing. Within the framework of administrative divisions, Buynaksk serves as the administrative center of Buynaksky District though it is not a part of it; as an administrative division, it is incorporated separately as the Town of Buynaksk—an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the districts. As a municipal division, the Town of Buynaksk is incorporated as Buynaksk Urban Okrug. Ethnic groups: Avars Kumyks Laks Dargins Russians Buynaksk has a humid continental climate. Народное Собрание Республики Дагестан. Закон №16 от 10 апреля 2002 г. «Об административно-территориальном устройстве Республики Дагестан», в ред. Закона №106 от 30 декабря 2013 г. «О внесении изменений в некоторые законодательные акты Республики Дагестан».
Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Дагестанская правда", №81, 12 апреля 2002 г.. Народное Собрание Республики Дагестан. Закон №6 от 13 января 2005 г. «О статусе и границах муниципальных образований Республики Дагестан», в ред. Закона №43 от 30 апреля 2015 г. «О статусе городского округа с внутригородским делением "Город Махачкала", статусе и границах внутригородских районов в составе городского округа с внутригородским делением "Город Махачкала" и о внесении изменений в отдельные законодательные акты Республики Дагестан». Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Дагестанская правда", №8, 15 февраля 2005 г