The Jassy–Kishinev Operation, named after the two major cities, Iași and Chișinău, in the staging area, was a Soviet offensive against Axis forces, which took place in Eastern Romania from 20 to 29 August 1944 during World War II. The 2nd and 3rd Ukrainian Fronts of the Red Army engaged Army Group South Ukraine, which consisted of combined German and Romanian formations, in an operation to reclaim the Moldavian SSR and destroy the Axis forces in the region, opening the way into Romania and the Balkans; the offensive resulted in the encirclement and destruction of the German forces, allowing the Soviet Army to resume its strategic advance further into Eastern Europe. It forced Romania to switch allegiance from the Axis powers to the Allies; the Red Army had made an unsuccessful attack in the same sector, sometimes referred to as First Jassy–Kishinev Offensive, from 8 April to 6 June 1944. In 1944, the Wehrmacht had been pressed back along its entire front line in the East. By May 1944, the South Ukraine Army Group was pushed back towards the prewar Romanian frontier, managed to establish a line on the lower Dniester River, however breached in two places, with the Red Army holding bridgeheads.
After June, calm returned to the sector. Heeresgruppe Südukraine had been, until June 1944, one of the most powerful German formations in terms of armour. However, during the summer most of its armoured units were transferred to the Northern and Central fronts to stem Red Army advances in the Baltic states, northern Ukraine, Poland. On the eve of the offensive, the only armoured formations left were the 1st Romanian Armoured Division, the German 13th Panzer and 10th Panzergrenadier Divisions. Soviet deception operations prior to the attack worked well; the German command staff believed that the movement of Soviet forces along the front line was a result of a troop transfer to the north. Exact positions of Soviet formations were not known until the final hours before the operation. By contrast, the Romanians were aware of the imminent Soviet offensive and anticipated a rerun of Stalingrad, with major attacks against the 3rd and 4th Armies and an encirclement of the German 6th Army; such concerns were dismissed by the German command as "alarmist".
Antonescu suggested a withdrawal of Axis forces to the fortified Carpathian–FNB–Danube line, but Friessner, the commander of Army Group South Ukraine, was unwilling to consider such a move, having been dismissed by Hitler from Army Group North for requesting permission to retreat. 2nd Ukrainian Front – Army General Rodion Malinovsky 6th Guards Tank Army – Major General Andrei Kravchenko 18th Tank Corps – Major General V. I. Polozkov Cavalry-Mechanized Group Gorshkov – Major General S. I. Gorshkov 5th Guards Cavalry Corps 23rd Tank Corps – Lieutenant General A. O. Akhmanov 4th Guards Army – Galanin 27th Army – Lieutenant General S. G. Trofimenko 52nd Army – Koroteev 7th Guards Army – Shumilov 40th Army – Lieutenant General F. F. Zhmachenko 53rd Army – Lieutenant General I. M. Managarov 3rd Ukrainian Front – Army General Fyodor Tolbukhin 5th Shock Army – Lieutenant General Nikolai Berzarin 4th Guards Mechanized Corps – Major General Vladimir Zhdanov 7th Mechanized Corps – Major General F. G. Katkov 57th Army – Lieutenant General N. A. Gagen 46th Army – Lieutenant General I.
T. Shlemin 37th Army – Major General M. N. Sharokhin 6th Guards Rifle Corps 66th Rifle Corps Black Sea Fleet Army Group South Ukraine - Generaloberst Johannes Friessner Army Group Dumitrescu Romanian 3rd Army – Colonel General Petre Dumitrescu 6th Army - General der Artillerie Maximilian Fretter-Pico 13th Panzer Division - Generalleutnant Hans Tröger 306th Infantry Division 76th Infantry Division - General der Infanterie Erich Abraham Army Group Wohler 8th Army – General der Infanterie Otto Wöhler 10th Panzergrenadier Division - Generalleutnant August Schmidt Romanian 4th Army - Lieutenant General Ioan Mihail Racoviță Romanian 1st Armoured Division – Brigadier General Radu Korne Romanian 4th Mountain Division - Brigadier General Alexandru Nasta As of 19 July 1944, the Romanian Army possessed a total of 430 tanks of all types, ranging from tankettes armed with machine guns to Panzer IVs and StuG IIIs. However, only 197 of these could face the mainstay tank of the Red Army, the T-34. From these 197, over 40% were part of the 1st Romanian Armored Division, they are listed below: The division had a dedicated anti-tank battalion.
Its main weapons were of Romanian origin: 10 TACAM T-60 tank destroyers and 24 75 mm Reșița field/anti-tank guns. The 24 guns were the first ones produced of this model; the 1st Romanian Armored Division had lost 34 armored fighting vehicles by 23 August, but claimed 60 Soviet tanks on 20 August alone. Stavka's plan for the operation was based on a double envelopment of German and Romanian armies by the 2nd and 3rd Ukrainian Fronts; the 2nd Ukrainian Front was to break through north of Iași, commit mobile formations to seize the Prut River crossings before withdrawing German units of the 6th Army could reach it. It was to unleash the 6th Tank Army to seize the Siret River crossings and the Focșani Gap, a fortified line between the Siret River and the Danube; the 3rd Ukrainian Front was to attack out of its bridgehead across the Dniester near Tiraspol, release mobile formations to head north and meet the mobile formations of the 2nd Ukrainian Front. This would lead to the encirclement of the German forces near Chișinău.
Following the successful encirclement, the 6th Tank Army and the 4th Guards Mechanised Corps were to advance towards Bucharest and the Ploiești oil fields. Both the 2nd and the 3rd Ukrainian Fronts undertook a major effort, leading to a double envelopment of the German Sixth
Linz is the third-largest city of Austria and capital of the state of Upper Austria. It is in the north centre of Austria 30 kilometres south of the Czech border, on both sides of the River Danube; the population of the city is 204,846, that of the Greater Linz conurbation is about 789,811. In 2009 Linz, together with the Lithuanian capital Vilnius, was chosen as the European Capital of Culture. Since 1 December 2014 Linz is a member of the UNESCO Creative Cities network as a City of Media Arts. Cities receive this title for enriching the urban lifestyle through the sponsorship and successful integration of media art and involving society in these electronic art forms. Linz is well known for the Linzer torte, said to be the oldest cake in the world, with its first recipe dating from 1653. Linz is in the centre of Europe, lying on the Paris–Budapest west–east axis and the Malmö–Trieste north–south axis; the Danube is the main transport connection that runs through the city. 29.27% of the city's 96 km2 wide area are grassland.
Further 17.95% are covered with forest. All the rest areas fall on traffic areas and land. Since January 2014 the city is divided into 16 statistical districts: Before 2014 Linz was divided into 9 districts and 36 statistical quarters, they were: Ebelsberg Innenstadt: Altstadtviertel, Kaplanhofviertel, Volksgartenviertel, Römerberg-Margarethen Kleinmünchen: Kleinmünchen, Neue Welt, Bergern, Neue Heimat, Schörgenhub Lustenau: Makartviertel, Hafenviertel Pöstlingberg: Pöstlingberg, Bachl-Gründberg St. Magdalena: St. Magdalena, Elmberg St. Peter Urfahr: Alt-Urfahr, Hartmayrsiedlung, Karlhofsiedlung, Auberg Waldegg: Freinberg, Keferfeld, Spallerhof, Wankmüllerhofviertel, Andreas-Hofer-Platz-Viertel The city was founded by the Romans, who called it Lentia; the name Linz was first recorded in AD 799. It was a provincial and local government city of the Holy Roman Empire, an important trading point connecting several routes, on either side of the River Danube from the east to the west and Bohemia and Poland from north to the Balkans and Italy to the south.
Being the city where the Habsburg Emperor Friedrich III spent his last years, it was, for a short period of time, the most important city in the empire. It lost its status to Vienna and Prague after the death of the Emperor in 1493. One important inhabitant of the city was the age of discovery-era astronomer and mathematician Johannes Kepler, who spent several years of his life in the city teaching mathematics, he discovered, on 15 May 1618, the distance-cubed-over-time-squared — or'third' — law of planetary motion. The local public university, Johannes Kepler University Linz, is named after him. Another famous citizen was Anton Bruckner, who spent the years between 1855 and 1868 working as a local composer and organist in the Old Cathedral, Linz; the Brucknerhaus is named after him. Adolf Hitler was moved to Linz during his childhood. Hitler spent most of his youth from 1898 until 1907, when he left for Vienna; the family lived first in the village of Leonding on the outskirts of town, on Humboldtstrasse in Linz.
After elementary education in Leonding, Hitler was enrolled in the Realschule, as was the philosopher Ludwig Wittgenstein. Notorious Holocaust architect Adolf Eichmann spent his youth in Linz; until the end of his life, Hitler considered Linz to be his hometown, envisioned extensive architectural schemes for it – including a massive new Fuhrermuseum to house his collection of looted art – wanting it to become the main cultural centre of the Third Reich, to eclipse Vienna, a city he hated. In order to make the city economically vibrant, Hitler initiated a major industrialization of Linz shortly before, during, the Second World War. Near the end of World War II, Hitler became enamored of the musical compositions of Anton Bruckner, and, as a result, planned to convert the monastery of St. Florian in Linz – where Bruckner had played the organ, where he was buried – into a repository of Bruckner's manuscripts. Hitler evicted the monks from the building and paid for the restoration of the organ and the institution of a Bruckner study center there.
He paid for the Haas collection of Bruckner's works to be published, himself purchased material for the proposed library, Hitler caused the founding of the Bruckner Symphony Orchestra, which began presenting concerts in Fall 1943. His plan for one of the bell towers in Linz to play a theme from Bruckner's Fourth Symphony never came to pass. In addition to an ordnance depot, Linz had a benzol plant, bombed during the Oil Campaign on 16 October 1944. What was once the Mauthausen-Gusen concentration camp is 20 km east of the city of Linz. In 1996, the city council decided to account for its Nazi past; the widespread scientific work, implemented by the municipal archives, covered the period prior to 1938 as well as the denazification after 1945. Linz became the first city in Austria to deal intensively with its own Nazi past. In May 2001, seven scientific publications, online presentations, numerous lectures were made public as a result of these efforts; the culture of remembrance extended to the construction of monuments for the victims of National Socialism.
Since 1988, numerous memorials have been created in public spaces. The city's confrontation with its Nazi past resulted in the renaming of many streets. In 1945 after the end of the Na
The Vienna Offensive was launched by the Soviet 2nd and 3rd Ukrainian Fronts in order to capture Vienna, during World War II. The offensive lasted from 2 April to 13 April 1945; the Soviets placed the city under siege. After a few days’ street fighting, the defenders had destroyed all but two of the Danube bridges, the Panzers escaped encirclement; the incoming Soviets devastated the old city, there was much brutality against civilians. Stalin approved the restoration of Austria as a sovereign country. Joseph Stalin reached an agreement with the Western Allies prior to April 1945 concerning the relative postwar political influence of each party in much of Eastern and Central Europe; as a result, the victory of a Soviet offensive toward Austria and the liberation by the Red Army of a large part of this country would have been beneficial for subsequent postwar negotiations with the Western Allies. After the failure of Operation Spring Awakening, Sepp Dietrich's 6th SS Panzer Army retreated in stages to the Vienna area.
The Germans prepared defensive positions in an attempt to guard the city against the arriving Soviets. In Spring 1945, the advance of Soviet General Fyodor Tolbukhin's 3rd Ukrainian Front through western Hungary gathered momentum on both sides of the Danube.. After they took Sopron and Nagykanizsa crossed the border between Austria. On 25 March, the 2nd Ukrainian Front launched the Bratislava–Brno Offensive by crossing the Hron river. On 30 March the Front crossed the Nitra River and rushed across the Danubian Lowland towards Bratislava. Having secured his right wing by 2nd Ukrainian Front, Tolbukhin was now ready to advance into Austria and take Vienna. On 2 April, Vienna Radio denied. On the same day, Soviet troops approached Vienna from the south after they overran Wiener Neustadt, Eisenstadt and Gloggnitz. Baden and Bratislava were overrun on 4 April. After arriving in the Vienna area, the armies of the Soviet 3rd Ukrainian Front surrounded and attacked the city. Involved in this action were the Soviet 4th Guards Army, the Soviet 6th Guards Tank Army, the Soviet 9th Guards Army, the Soviet 46th Army.
The "O-5 Resistance Group," Austrians led by Carl Szokoll, wanting to spare Vienna destruction attempted to sabotage the German defenses and to aid the entry of the Red Army. The only major German force facing the Soviet attackers was the German II SS Panzer Corps of the 6th SS Panzer Army, along with ad hoc forces made up of garrison and anti-aircraft units. Declared a defensive region, Vienna's defense was commanded by General Rudolf von Bünau, with the II SS Panzer Corps units under the command of SS General Wilhelm Bittrich; the battle for the Austrian capital was characterized in some cases by fierce urban combat, but there were parts of the city the Soviets advanced into with little opposition. Defending in the Prater Park was the 6th Panzer Division, along the south side of the city were the 2nd and 3rd SS Panzer Divisions, in the north was the Führer-Grenadier Division; the Soviets assaulted Vienna's eastern and southern suburbs with the 4th Guards Army and part of the 9th Guards Army.
The German defenders kept the Soviets out of the city’s southern suburbs until 7 April. However, after achieving several footholds in the southern suburbs, the Soviets moved into the western suburbs of the city on 8 April with the 6th Guards Tank Army and the bulk of the 9th Guards Army; the western suburbs were important to the Soviets because they included Vienna's main railway station. The Soviet success in the western suburbs was followed by infiltration of the eastern and northern suburbs the same day. North of the Danube River, the 46th Army pushed westward through Vienna's northern suburbs. Central Vienna was now cut off from the rest of Austria. By the 9th of April, the Soviet troops began to infiltrate the center of the city, but the street fighting continued for several more days. On the night of 11 April, the 4th Guards Army stormed the Danube canals, with the 20th Guards Rifle Corps and 1st Mechanized Corps moving on the Reichsbrücke Bridge. In a coup de main on 13 April, the Danube Flotilla landed troops of the 80th Guards Rifle Division and 7th Guards Airborne Division on both sides of the bridge, cutting demolition cables and securing the bridge.
However, other important bridges were destroyed. Vienna fell when the last defenders in the city surrendered on the same day. Bittrich's II SS Panzer Corps, pulled out to the west on the evening of 13 April to avoid encirclement; the same day, the 46th Army took Essling and the Danube Flotilla landed naval infantry up the river by Klosterneuburg. While the street fighting was still intensifying in the southern and western suburbs of Vienna on 8 April, other troops of the 3rd Ukrainian Front by-passed Vienna altogether and advanced on Linz and Graz. On the 10th, all but two of the bridges in the city had been destroyed; the Floridsdorf bridge had been left intact by a Fuehrer Order dictating that the bridge be held at all costs. The 2nd SS Panzer, "Das Reich" left a dozen artillery pieces including 37mm anti-aircraft guns to hold off enemy attacks; that night, the "Das Reich", including their last remaining three dozen armored vehicles, pulled out of the city for the last time. Vienna had fallen, the Germans now moved northwest to hold the next defensive line.
By 15 April, armies of the Soviet 3rd Ukrainian Front pushed further into Austria. The ex
Freistadt is a small Austrian town in the state of Upper Austria in the region Mühlviertel. With a population of 7,500 residents, it is a trade centre for local villages. Freistadt is the economic centre of a district of the same name District Freistadt; the nearest sizeable cities are Linz, the capital of Upper Austria, about 40 km in the south, České Budějovice, the capital of Southern Bohemia, about 60 km in the north. The area surrounding Freistadt came under the dominion of the Bavarian Duchy in the seventh century. Freistadt was founded before 1220; the Babenberg Duke Leopold VI passed through the area in 1225. The earliest mention of Frienstat is in a document from 1241, but in 1277, Rudolf von Habsburg referred to Vreinstat in another document, its position separated the Habsburg and Bohemian lands, it stood at crossroads of the valuable salt and iron trade route, which had operated from prehistoric times through the Middle Ages. The outer and inner walls and gates of the old city, built between 1363 and 1393, still exist today.
Freistadt suffered French incursions during the Napoleonic Wars. Since 1918, Freistadt has been part of Bundesland Upper Austria. Following the Anschluss with Germany on 13 March 1938, the locality was part of Gau Oberdonau but in 1945 was restored to Bundesland Upper Austria. Like many municipalities of Upper Austria, Freistadt issued Notgeld for collectors in 1920; the main entrance to the Old Town is through the Linzer Tor. The spacious Hauptplatz is surrounded by painted fronts of renovated burghers' houses. On the highest point of Freistadt stands the parish church of St Catherine. At the northeastern corner of the square a gateway leads to the 14th century Schloss Freistadt, with a 50m/165 ft high keep which now houses the Mühlviertler Schlossmuseum, a local museum with a large collection of verre églomisé. Outside the Böhmertor stands the little 15th century Liebfrauenkirche with beautiful "pillars of light" of 1484. Official Webpage of Freistadt Tourist Information
Battle of Stalingrad
The Battle of Stalingrad was the largest confrontation of World War II, in which Germany and its allies fought the Soviet Union for control of the city of Stalingrad in Southern Russia. Marked by fierce close quarters combat and direct assaults on civilians in air raids, it was the largest and bloodiest battle in the history of warfare. After their defeat at Stalingrad, the German High Command had to withdraw vast military forces from the Western Front to replace their losses; the German offensive to capture Stalingrad began in August 1942, using the 6th Army and elements of the 4th Panzer Army. The attack was supported by intensive Luftwaffe bombing; the fighting degenerated into house-to-house fighting. By mid-November 1942, the Germans had pushed the Soviet defenders back at great cost into narrow zones along the west bank of the Volga River. On 19 November 1942, the Red Army launched Operation Uranus, a two-pronged attack targeting the weaker Romanian and Hungarian armies protecting the German 6th Army's flanks.
The Axis forces on the flanks were overrun and the 6th Army was cut off and surrounded in the Stalingrad area. Adolf Hitler ordered that the army make no attempt to break out. Heavy fighting continued for another two months. By the beginning of February 1943, the Axis forces in Stalingrad had exhausted their ammunition and food; the remaining units of the 6th Army surrendered. The battle lasted one week and three days. By the spring of 1942, despite the failure of Operation Barbarossa to decisively defeat the Soviet Union in a single campaign, the Wehrmacht had captured vast expanses of territory, including Ukraine and the Baltic republics. Elsewhere, the war had been progressing well: the U-boat offensive in the Atlantic had been successful and Erwin Rommel had just captured Tobruk. In the east, they had stabilized their front in a line running from Leningrad in the north to Rostov in the south. There were a number of salients, but these were not threatening. Hitler was confident that he could master the Red Army after the winter of 1942, because though Army Group Centre had suffered heavy losses west of Moscow the previous winter, 65% of its infantry had not been engaged and had been rested and re-equipped.
Neither Army Group North nor Army Group South had been hard pressed over the winter. Stalin was expecting the main thrust of the German summer attacks to be directed against Moscow again. With the initial operations being successful, the Germans decided that their summer campaign in 1942 would be directed at the southern parts of the Soviet Union; the initial objectives in the region around Stalingrad were the destruction of the industrial capacity of the city and the deployment of forces to block the Volga River. The river was the Caspian Sea to central Russia, its capture would disrupt commercial river traffic. The Germans cut the pipeline from the oilfields; the capture of Stalingrad would make the delivery of Lend Lease supplies via the Persian Corridor much more difficult. On 23 July 1942, Hitler rewrote the operational objectives for the 1942 campaign expanding them to include the occupation of the city of Stalingrad. Both sides began to attach propaganda value to the city, based on it bearing the name of the leader of the Soviet Union.
Hitler proclaimed that after Stalingrad's capture, its male citizens were to be killed and all women and children were to be deported because its population was "thoroughly communistic" and "especially dangerous". It was assumed that the fall of the city would firmly secure the northern and western flanks of the German armies as they advanced on Baku, with the aim of securing these strategic petroleum resources for Germany; the expansion of objectives was a significant factor in Germany's failure at Stalingrad, caused by German overconfidence and an underestimation of Soviet reserves. The Soviets realized, they ordered that anyone strong enough to hold a rifle be sent to fight. If I do not get the oil of Maikop and Grozny I must finish this war. Army Group South was selected for a sprint forward through the southern Russian steppes into the Caucasus to capture the vital Soviet oil fields there; the planned summer offensive, code-named Fall Blau, was to include the German 6th, 17th, 4th Panzer and 1st Panzer Armies.
Army Group South had overrun the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic in 1941. Poised in Eastern Ukraine, it was to spearhead the offensive. Hitler intervened, ordering the Army Group to split in two. Army Group South, under the command of Wilhelm List, was to continue advancing south towards the Caucasus as planned with the 17th Army and First Panzer Army. Army Group South, including Friedrich Paulus's 6th Army and Hermann Hoth's 4th Panzer Army, was to move east towards the Volga and Stalingrad. Army Group B was commanded by Field Marshal Fedor von Bock and by General Maximilian von Weichs; the start of Case Blue had been planned for late May 1942. However, a number of German and Romanian units that were to take part in Blau were besieging Sevastopol on the Crimean Peninsula. Delays in ending the siege pushed back the start date for Blau several times, the city did not fall until early July. Operation Fridericus I by the Germans against the "Isium bulge", pinched off the Soviet
203rd Rifle Division
The 203rd Rifle Division was an infantry division of the Soviet Union's Red Army. The division was formed in the Kuban near Labinsk and Mikhailovka from February to 20 May 1942. During the second half of May the division left the Kuban. At the end of the month at Frolovo, the division received missing vehicles, it continued training at a faster pace. The division moved to the front and until August built defensive positions on the Don northwest of Vyoshenskaya. On 18 August, the division received orders to cross the Don near Elanskaya village. Three days were spent on preparations for the assault; the attack began on the night of 22 August. The crossing was so fast that opposing Italian troops were unable to put up much resistance. On 26 August, the 610th and 619th Rifle Regiments went on the attack from the bridgehead and advanced 10 kilometers, capturing the Bahmutkin and Shirtikov farms. Three hours the enemy counterattacked and the regiments retreated in disarray; the division and regimental commanders were relieved of command.
On 31 August, the 592nd Rifle Regiment transferred to the division from the 197th Rifle Division. Two battalions of the regiment took up defensive positions on the right flank; the 197th was on the 14th Guards Rifle Division on its left. On 6 October, the division was transferred to the 21st Army. On 18 October, advanced units of the division carried out a reconnaissance in force of Hill 226.7. In early November, the division was subordinated to the 1st Guards Army, with which it would fight in Operation Uranus; the 592nd, 610th and 619th Rifle Regiments received the mission to reach the Don. The regiments would advance to the Chir River and hold positions there, protecting the Southwestern Front's right flank against counterattacks from the west. On 19 November, Operation Uranus began. By 0700 on the morning of 22 November, the division overcame fierce resistance and captured the enemy second line positions. Pursuing retreating forces by noon, the division advanced 10-12 kilometers to the southwest.
By the morning of 23 November, the 592nd and 610th Rifle Regiments had resumed the attack and advanced another 2-3 kilometers. However, heavy enemy fire halted the advance. At dawn on 24 November, the German troops began a counterattack. During 25–26 November, the 592nd and 619th Rifle Regiments were forced by the counterattacks to retreat 500 to 800 meters. On 13 December, the division moved to positions east of Krasnokutskaya and was relieved by the 159th Rifle Division; the division fought in Operation Little Saturn with the 3rd Guards Army. The 1243rd Anti-Tank Artillery Regiment and two battalions were ordered to capture Krasnokutskaya, Novaya Kultura and Golensky. By the first day of the attack the division was to advance to the Sovkhoz Krasnaya Talova. On the right the 159th Rifle Division attacked and on the left the 50th Guards Rifle Division attacked; the Chir River, which needed to be crossed, was 20–30 meters at this point, but was covered with thin ice. The banks were steep. On the other bank of the river, there were enemy firing points.
On 14 December, the division moved to its starting positions. Sappers dug paths to the river, prepared ladders and fascines. On the morning of 16 December, the division began the attack after a 75-minute artillery barrage; the 610th Rifle Regiments captured a kurgan one and a half kilometers from the farm and captured Ilyavinov, as well as ten anti-tank guns with ammunition. Until 20 December, the division attacked the enemy multiple times a day, despite severe ammunition shortages. However, they were unable to capture Krasnokutskaya; the 619th Rifle Regiment was transferred from the division's right to its left to reinforce that flank. On 23 December, the 592nd Rifle Regiment captured Krasnokutskaya and the next the division began the pursuit. On 25 December, the division was ordered to reach the area of the village and assist the Tatsinskaya Raid; the division made a 120 kilometer march south and by the end of 27 December concentrated at the village of Skosyrskaya. On 29 December, the division, after repulsing several German counterattacks, went on the offensive.
The neighboring 266th Rifle Division's 1006th Rifle Regiment was attacked by German tanks approaching Skosyrskaya and withdrew into the 203rd's positions. Zdanovich ordered the regiment to defend the western edge of Grinyova. By the evening, the 1006th's commander found the headquarters of the 266th, the regiment returned to subordination of the 266th; the 203rd began a withdrawal. The 592nd crossed to the right bank quickly. Advance units of the 610th and 619th moved positions. On 31 December, the division was relieved by the 1st Mechanized Corps and moved to the area of the Petrovsky farm for rest and resupply. Two hours before New Year 1943, the division was ordered to retake their old positions on the river north of Bystraya. At 0700, the division attacked after Katyusha salvo; the division captured Nizhny Nikolayev in the next half-hour. The German troops retreated to their defenses at Skosyrskoy; until 8 January, the division fought to hold Skosyrskaya. The division captured Zahara Oblivsakya and Kryukov.
On 16 January and the Mikhailovskaya farm were captured. The division was supported by the 25th Tank Corps. On 17 January, the division captured Pogorelov on the next day; the division moved to the Varguny areas soon after. On 12 August 1944, the division reached the Prut in the second echelon of the 2nd Ukrainian Front, it fought at Stalingrad and Budapest. With 53rd Army of the 2nd Ukrainian Front in May 1945; the division was r
The Workers' and Peasants' Red Army shortened to Red Army was the army and the air force of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, after 1922, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. The army was established after the 1917 October Revolution; the Bolsheviks raised an army to oppose the military confederations of their adversaries during the Russian Civil War. Beginning in February 1946, the Red Army, along with the Soviet Navy, embodied the main component of the Soviet Armed Forces; the Red Army provided the largest land force in the Allied victory in the European theatre of World War II, its invasion of Manchuria assisted the unconditional surrender of Imperial Japan. During operations on the Eastern Front, it accounted for 75–80% of casualties the Wehrmacht and Waffen-SS suffered during the war and captured the Nazi German capital, Berlin. In September 1917, Vladimir Lenin wrote: "There is only one way to prevent the restoration of the police, and, to create a people's militia and to fuse it with the army."
At the time, the Imperial Russian Army had started to collapse. 23% of the male population of the Russian Empire were mobilized. The Tsarist general Nikolay Dukhonin estimated that there had been 2 million deserters, 1.8 million dead, 5 million wounded and 2 million prisoners. He estimated the remaining troops as numbering 10 million. While the Imperial Russian Army was being taken apart, "it became apparent that the rag-tag Red Guard units and elements of the imperial army who had gone over the side of the Bolsheviks were quite inadequate to the task of defending the new government against external foes." Therefore, the Council of People's Commissars decided to form the Red Army on 28 January 1918. They envisioned a body "formed from the class-conscious and best elements of the working classes." All citizens of the Russian republic aged 18 or older were eligible. Its role being the defense "of the Soviet authority, the creation of a basis for the transformation of the standing army into a force deriving its strength from a nation in arms, furthermore, the creation of a basis for the support of the coming Socialist Revolution in Europe."
Enlistment was conditional upon "guarantees being given by a military or civil committee functioning within the territory of the Soviet Power, or by party or trade union committees or, in extreme cases, by two persons belonging to one of the above organizations." In the event of an entire unit wanting to join the Red Army, a "collective guarantee and the affirmative vote of all its members would be necessary." Because the Red Army was composed of peasants, the families of those who served were guaranteed rations and assistance with farm work. Some peasants who remained at home yearned to join the Army. If they were turned away they would prepare care-packages. In some cases the money they earned would go towards tanks for the Army; the Council of People's Commissars appointed itself the supreme head of the Red Army, delegating command and administration of the army to the Commissariat for Military Affairs and the Special All-Russian College within this commissariat. Nikolai Krylenko was the supreme commander-in-chief, with Aleksandr Myasnikyan as deputy.
Nikolai Podvoisky became the commissar for Pavel Dybenko, commissar for the fleet. Proshyan, Steinberg were specified as people's commissars as well as Vladimir Bonch-Bruyevich from the Bureau of Commissars. At a joint meeting of Bolsheviks and Left Socialist-Revolutionaries, held on 22 February 1918, Krylenko remarked: "We have no army; the demoralized soldiers are fleeing, panic-stricken, as soon as they see a German helmet appear on the horizon, abandoning their artillery and all war material to the triumphantly advancing enemy. The Red Guard units are brushed aside like flies. We have no power to stay the enemy; the Russian Civil War occurred in three periods: October 1917 – November 1918: From the Bolshevik Revolution to the First World War Armistice, developed from the Bolshevik government's nationalization of traditional Cossack lands in November 1917. This provoked the insurrection of General Alexey Maximovich Kaledin's Volunteer Army in the River Don region; the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk aggravated Russian internal politics.
The situation encouraged direct Allied intervention in the Russian Civil War, in which twelve foreign countries supported anti-Bolshevik militias. A series of engagements resulted, amongst others, the Czechoslovak Legion, the Polish 5th Rifle Division, the pro-Bolshevik Red Latvian Riflemen. January 1919 – November 1919: Initially the White armies advanced: from the south, under General Anton Denikin; the Whites defeated the Red Army on each front. Leon Trotsky reformed and counterattacked: the Red Army repelled Admiral Kolchak's army in June, the armies of General Denikin and General Yudenich in October. By mid-Nove