United States Department of Defense
The Department of Defense is an executive branch department of the federal government charged with coordinating and supervising all agencies and functions of the government concerned directly with national security and the United States Armed Forces. The department is the largest employer in the world, with nearly 1.3 million active duty servicemen and women as of 2016. Adding to its employees are over 826,000 National Guardsmen and Reservists from the four services, over 732,000 civilians bringing the total to over 2.8 million employees. Headquartered at the Pentagon in Arlington, just outside Washington, D. C. the DoD's stated mission is to provide "the military forces needed to deter war and ensure our nation's security". The Department of Defense is headed by the Secretary of Defense, a cabinet-level head who reports directly to the President of the United States. Beneath the Department of Defense are three subordinate military departments: the United States Department of the Army, the United States Department of the Navy, the United States Department of the Air Force.
In addition, four national intelligence services are subordinate to the Department of Defense: the Defense Intelligence Agency, the National Security Agency, the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency, the National Reconnaissance Office. Other Defense Agencies include the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, the Defense Logistics Agency, the Missile Defense Agency, the Defense Health Agency, Defense Threat Reduction Agency, the Defense Security Service, the Pentagon Force Protection Agency, all of which are under the command of the Secretary of Defense. Additionally, the Defense Contract Management Agency provides acquisition insight that matters, by delivering actionable acquisition intelligence from factory floor to the warfighter. Military operations are managed by ten functional Unified combatant commands; the Department of Defense operates several joint services schools, including the Eisenhower School and the National War College. The history of the defense of the United States started with the Continental Congress in 1775.
The creation of the United States Army was enacted on 14 June 1775. This coincides with the American holiday Flag Day; the Second Continental Congress would charter the United States Navy, on 13 October 1775, create the United States Marine Corps on 10 November 1775. The Preamble of the United States Constitution gave the authority to the federal government to defend its citizens: We the People of the United States, in Order to form a more perfect Union, establish Justice, insure domestic Tranquility, provide for the common defence, promote the general Welfare, secure the Blessings of Liberty to ourselves and our Posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of America. Upon the seating of the first Congress on 4 March 1789, legislation to create a military defense force stagnated as they focused on other concerns relevant to setting up the new government. President George Washington went to Congress to remind them of their duty to establish a military twice during this time.
On the last day of the session, 29 September 1789, Congress created the War Department, historic forerunner of the Department of Defense. The War Department handled naval affairs until Congress created the Navy Department in 1798; the secretaries of each of these departments reported directly to the president as cabinet-level advisors until 1949, when all military departments became subordinate to the Secretary of Defense. After the end of World War II, President Harry Truman proposed creation of a unified department of national defense. In a special message to Congress on 19 December 1945, the President cited both wasteful military spending and inter-departmental conflicts. Deliberations in Congress went on for months focusing on the role of the military in society and the threat of granting too much military power to the executive. On 26 July 1947, Truman signed the National Security Act of 1947, which set up a unified military command known as the "National Military Establishment", as well as creating the Central Intelligence Agency, the National Security Council, National Security Resources Board, United States Air Force and the Joint Chiefs of Staff.
The act placed the National Military Establishment under the control of a single Secretary of Defense. The National Military Establishment formally began operations on 18 September, the day after the Senate confirmed James V. Forrestal as the first Secretary of Defense; the National Military Establishment was renamed the "Department of Defense" on 10 August 1949 and absorbed the three cabinet-level military departments, in an amendment to the original 1947 law. Under the Department of Defense Reorganization Act of 1958, channels of authority within the department were streamlined, while still maintaining the ordinary authority of the Military Departments to organize and equip their associated forces; the Act clarified the overall decision-making authority of the Secretary of Defense with respect to these subordinate Military Departments and more defined the operational chain of command over U. S. military forces as running from the president to the Secretary of Defense and to the unified combatant commanders.
Provided in this legislation was a centralized research authority, the Advanced Research Projects Agency known as DARPA. The act was written and promoted by the Eisenhower administration, was signed into law 6 August 1958; the Secretary of Defense, appointed by the president with the advice and consent of the Senate, is by federal law (1
Pyeongtaek is a city in Gyeonggi Province, South Korea. Located in the southwestern part of the province, Pyeongtaek was founded as a union of two districts in 940, during the Goryeo dynasty, it was elevated to city status in 1986 and is home to a South Korean naval base and a large concentration of United States troops. The South Korean government plans to transform Pyeongtaek city to an international economic hub to coincide with the move of the United States Forces Korea to Pyeongtaek. During the Korean War it was the site of an early battle between U. S. and North Korean forces, the Battle of Pyongtaek. It is the location of Pyeongtaek University; the United States and South Korean governments came to an agreement to enlarge Camp Humphreys — a U. S. Army installation outside Anjeong-ri, a community in Pyeongtaek — and move the majority of US forces stationed in and north of Seoul to the Camp Humphreys area. Invoking eminent domain, the government obtained the surrounding land for the base expansion.
This would result in the community's third displacement from their own land since the Japanese occupation during World War II. The move included the headquarters of the Combined Forces Command, which has operational control of South Korean, U. S. and U. N. combined forces during wartime. In March 2007, U. S. Secretary of Defense Robert Gates and ROK Minister of Defense Kim Jang-soo agreed to dissolve the ROK-U. S. Combined Forces Command on April 17, 2012; this would allow ROK forces to have wartime control of its military during a military confrontation with the North. The US/ROK agreement allows USFK to move to one centralized location away from the congestion of Seoul and its surrounding areas; this relocation agreement results in returning two-thirds of the land used by the United States Military back to the South Korean government. By 2008, the U. S. military was to have consolidated 41 installations down to 10 due to the relocation agreement. USFK's only jail facility in South Korea is at Camp Humphreys.
Osan Air Base is in a district in Pyeongtaek City. The Korean War Monument of the South African Air Force was opened on the 29 September 1975 by the Korean National ministry of Defense in memory to the 37 South African Air Force members who gave their lives during the Korean War. Pyeongtaek University. Pyeongtaek International Christian School. ^ U. S. Move Is Spurring Evictions In S. Korea ^ Massive Force Mobilized to Evict U. S. Base Protestors ^ Activists Are Only Using the People of Pyeontaek article ^ More Violence Looms in Planned Rally at U. S. Base Site ^ U. S. base expansion in Korea sparks protests article Camp Humphreys Songtan USFK List of cities in South Korea Geography of South Korea Pyeongtaek City Website Pyeongtaek City Council Website South of Seoul: Pyeongtaek Based Restaurants & Things to Do MollaKorea: Community website for foreigners living in Pyeongtaek Area Sig Flips The Table: Blog for Military Families living in Pyeongtaek
A squadron in air force, army aviation, or naval aviation is a unit comprising a number of military aircraft and their aircrews of the same type with 12 to 24 aircraft, sometimes divided into three or four flights, depending on aircraft type and air force. Land based squadrons equipped with heavier type aircraft such as long-range bombers, cargo aircraft, or air refueling tankers have around 12 aircraft as a typical authorization, while most land-based fighter equipped units have an authorized number of 18 to 24 aircraft. In naval aviation, sea-based and land-based squadrons will have smaller numbers of aircraft, ranging from as low as four for early warning to as high as 12 for fighter/attack. In most armed forces, two or more squadrons will form a wing; some air forces use the term "squadron" for non-flying ground units. In the United States Air Force, the squadron is the principal organizational unit. An aggregation of two or more USAF squadrons will be designated as a group and two or more groups will be designated as a wing.
USAF squadrons may be flying units composed of pilots and flight crews, with designations such as fighter squadron, bomb squadron, or airlift squadron. Fighter squadrons may support between 18 and 24 aircraft, while larger aircraft flying squadrons may support fewer aircraft. However, non-flying units exist at the squadron level, such as missile squadrons, aircraft maintenance squadrons, intelligence squadrons, aerospace medicine squadrons, security forces squadrons, civil engineering squadrons and force support squadrons, as well as numerous other examples. USAF flying squadrons are commanded by an aeronautically rated officer in the rank of lieutenant colonel, although some large squadrons, such as the 414th Combat Training Squadron that manages RED FLAG training at Nellis AFB, Nevada will be commanded by an aeronautically rated officer in the rank of full colonel. Non-flying squadrons are usually commanded by an officer in the rank of lieutenant colonel, but some may be commanded by officers in the rank of major.
In contrast to the organizational structure of United States Air Force units, where flying squadrons are separate from non-flying squadrons tasked with administrative, aircraft maintenance, or other support functions, flying squadrons in naval aviation in the United States contain both embedded administrative support functions and organizational level aircraft maintenance functions, plus all their associated personnel, as part of the total squadron manning. With few exceptions, oversight of the majority of these non-flying functions is assigned to the squadron's naval aviators and naval flight officers as their "ground job" in addition to their regular flying duties. With few exceptions, most U. S. Navy flying squadrons are commanded by aeronautically designated officers in the rank of commander. Exceptions are the Fleet Replacement Squadrons, which are though not always, commanded by aeronautically designated captains. Commanding officers of U. S. Navy flying squadrons other than FRS units will be assisted by an Executive Officer of the same rank who functions as a second-in-command and who will "fleet up" and relieve the CO as the next CO.
In United States Marine Corps Aviation, in addition to flying units that are patterned in similar fashion to their U. S. Navy counterparts, the nomenclature "squadron" in the Marine Corps is used to designate all battalion-equivalent, aviation support organizations; these squadrons include: wing headquarters, tactical air command, air control, air support, aviation logistics, wing support, wing communications squadrons. In contrast to their USN counterparts, USMC flying squadrons and aviation support squadrons, while having a commanding officer at the lieutenant colonel level, may not have an equivalent rank executive officer, but are moving more toward the USN model. USMC aviation squadron XOs are aeronautically designated officers in the rank of Major. In contrast to USAF flying squadrons, most tactical sea-based and land-based U. S. Naval Aviation squadrons, vice training squadrons and test and evaluation squadrons do not have more than 12 aircraft authorized/assigned at any one time. Exceptions are USN helicopter mine countermeasures squadrons, USMC "composite" medium tilt-rotor squadrons assigned afloat as the Aviation Combat Element of a Marine Expeditionary Unit.
Other squadrons with a large number of Primary Aircraft Assigned include Marine heavy helicopter squadrons, Marine light/attack helicopter squadrons, Marine attack squadrons. Although part of U. S. naval aviation, United States Coast Guard aviation units are centered on an air station or air facility versus a squadron or group/wing organizational structure. The one exception to this is the Coast Guard's Helicopter Interdiction Squadron, engaged in counter-narcotics interdiction operations. In the United States Army Aviation Branch, flying units may be organized in battalions or squadrons reporting to an aviation brigade. Aircraft maintenance activities are a
Flight (military unit)
A flight is a military unit in an air force, naval air service, or army air corps. It is composed of three to six aircraft, with their aircrews and ground staff. In most usages, multiple flights make up a squadron; the "flight" is a basic unit for intercontinental ballistic missiles. Foreign languages equivalents include escadrille, escuadrilla and Schwarm; the use of the term "flight" to describe a collection of aircraft dates back to around 1912. It has been suggested that the term was coined by technical sub-committee of the Committee of Imperial Defence, examining the British air arrangements around the same time. In the United Kingdom Royal Air Force and the other air forces of the Commonwealth, from where much air force terminology emanated, an aircraft flight, in the first decades of air forces, was commanded by a flight lieutenant, a rank equivalent to captain in armies and other air forces, or a naval lieutenant. More however, it has become common for a flight to be led by a squadron leader—a formal rank distinct from a squadron commander—equivalent to an army major or naval lieutenant commander.
A flight is divided into two sections, each containing two to three aircraft, which share ground staff with the other section, are commanded by a flight lieutenant. The Royal Navy's Fleet Air Arm, the Army Air Corps, other Commonwealth naval and army aviation arms have flights. In the Fleet Air Arm a flight could be as few as 1 helicopter operating from a smaller ship. An air force ground flight is equivalent to an army platoon and may be commanded by a flight lieutenant, flying officer, pilot officer, or warrant officer. A flight is a basic unit of guided missiles, such as surface-to-air missiles; these ground flights may carry out operational roles, engineering roles, medical and legal units, or purely administrative roles, such as finance, infrastructure or human resource management. The United States Air Force has three types of flights: numbered and aircraft. A numbered flight is a unit with a unique base, group, or Numbered Air Force mission, such as training or finance, though not large enough to warrant designation as a squadron.
Numbered flights are uncommon, are only found in basic training facilities. An alphabetic flight is an operational component of a flying or ground squadron, not an independent unit. Flights in the USAF are authorized to have between 20 and 100 personnel, are commanded by a company-grade officer and/or a flight chief a senior noncommissioned officer with the rank of master sergeant or senior master sergeant. In USAF flying squadrons, the term flight designates a tactical sub-unit of a squadron consisting of two or three elements, with each element consisting of two or three aircraft; the flight operates under the command of a designated flight leader. In Minuteman intercontinental ballistic missile units of the U. S. Air Force, a flight is composed of ten unmanned launch facilities remotely controlled by a manned launch control center, containing two personnel. Five of these flights make up one missile squadron; the Air Force has a total of 45 ICBM missile flights. Under U. S. military and FAA common usage, for air traffic control and separation purposes, a "flight" of aircraft is two or more aircraft intentionally operating in close proximity to each other under a designated "flight leader" without regard to military organizational hierarchy.
Australian War Memorial: RAAF: Structure
In military operations, reconnaissance or scouting is the exploration outside an area occupied by friendly forces to gain information about natural features and other activities in the area. Examples of reconnaissance include patrolling by troops, ships or submarines, manned/unmanned reconnaissance aircraft, satellites, or by setting up covert observation posts. Espionage is not reconnaissance, because reconnaissance is a military's special forces operating ahead of its main forces. Called "recce" or "recon", the associated verb is reconnoitre. Traditionally, reconnaissance was a role, adopted by the cavalry. Speed was key in these maneuvers, thus infantry was ill-suited to the task. From horses to vehicles, for warriors throughout history, commanders procured their ability to have speed and mobility, to mount and dismount, during maneuver warfare. Military commanders favored specialized small units for speed and mobility, to gain valuable information about the terrain and enemy before sending the main troops into the area, covering force and exploitation roles.
Skirmishing is a traditional skill of reconnaissance, as well as harassment of the enemy. Reconnaissance conducted by ground forces includes special reconnaissance, armored reconnaissance, amphibious reconnaissance and civil reconnaissance. Aerial reconnaissance is reconnaissance carried out by aircraft; the purpose is to survey weather conditions, map terrain, may include military purposes such as observing tangible structures, particular areas, movement of enemy forces. Naval forces use aerial and satellite reconnaissance to observe enemy forces. Navies undertake hydrographic surveys and intelligence gathering. Reconnaissance satellites provide military commanders with photographs of enemy forces and other intelligence. Military forces use geographical and meteorological information from Earth observation satellites. A tracker needs to pay close attention to the psychology of his enemy. Knowledge of human psychology and cultural backgrounds is necessary to know the actions of the enemy and where the enemy is heading.
The celebrated Chief of Scouts Frederick Russell Burnham had this to say: It is imperative that a scout should know the history, religion, social customs, superstitions of whatever country or people he is called on to work in or among. This is as necessary as to know the physical character of the country, its climate and products. Certain people will do certain things without fail. Certain other things feasible, they will not do. There is no danger of knowing too much of the mental habits of an enemy. One should neither underestimate the credit him with superhuman powers. Fear and courage are latent in every human being, though roused into activity by diverse means. Types of reconnaissance: Terrain-oriented reconnaissance is a survey of the terrain. Force-oriented reconnaissance may include target acquisition. Civil-oriented reconnaissance focuses on the civil dimension of the battlespace; the techniques and objectives are not mutually exclusive. Units tasked with reconnaissance are armed only for self-defense, rely on stealth to gather information.
Others are well-enough armed to deny information to the enemy by destroying their reconnaissance elements. Reconnaissance-in-force is a type of military operation or military tactics used to probe an enemy's disposition. By mounting an offensive with considerable force, the commander hopes to elicit a strong reaction by the enemy that reveals its own strength and other tactical data; the RIF commander retains the option to fall back with the data or expand the conflict into a full engagement. Other methods consist of hit-and-run tactics using rapid mobility, in some cases light-armored vehicles for added fire superiority, as the need arises. Nazi Germany's reconnaissance during world war II is described in the following way: The purpose of reconnaissance and the types of units employed to obtain information are similar in the U. S. and the German Armies. German tactical principles of reconnaissance, diverge somewhat from those of the U. S; the Germans stress aggressiveness, attempt to obtain superiority in the area to be reconnoitered, strive for continuous observation of the enemy.
They believe in employing reconnaissance units in force as a rule. They are prepared to fight to obtain the desired information, they assign supplementary tasks to their reconnaissance units, such as sabotage behind enemy lines, harassment, or counter-reconnaissance. Only enough reconnaissance troops are sent on a mission to assure superiority in the area to be reconnoitred. Reserves are kept on hand to be committed when the reconnaissance must be intensified, when the original force meets strong enemy opposition, or when the direction and area to be reconnoitred are changed; the Germans encourage aggressive action against enemy security forces. When their reconnaissance units meet superior enemy forces, they fight a delaying action while other units attempt to flank the enemy. Reconnaissance by fire is the act of firing
Republic of Korea Air Force
The Republic of Korea Air Force known as the ROK Air Force, is the aerial warfare service branch of South Korea, operating under the South Korean Ministry of National Defense. Shortly after the end of World War II, the South Korean Air Construction Association was founded on August 10, 1946, to publicize the importance of air power. Despite the then-scanty status of Korean armed forces, the first air unit was formed on May 5, 1948, under the direction of Dong Wi-bu, the forerunner to the modern South Korean Ministry of National Defence. On September 13, 1949, the United States contributed 10 L-4 Grasshopper observation aircraft to the South Korean air unit. An Army Air Academy was founded on January 1949, the ROKAF was founded on October 1949; the 1950s were a critical time for the ROKAF. At the outbreak of the war, the ROKAF consisted of 1,800 personnel but was equipped with only 20 trainers and liaison aircraft, including 10 North American T-6 Texan advanced trainers purchased from Canada.
The North Korean air force had acquired a considerable number of Yak-9 and La-7 fighters from the Soviet Union, dwarfing the ROKAF in terms of size and strength. However, during the course of the war, the ROKAF acquired 110 aircraft: 79 fighter-bombers, three fighter squadrons, one fighter wing; the first combat aircraft received were North American F-51D Mustangs, along with a contingent of US Air Force instructor pilots under the command of Major Dean Hess, as part of Bout One Project. The ROKAF flew independent sorties. After the war, the ROKAF Headquarters was moved to Seoul. Air Force University was founded in 1956. To counter the threat of possible North Korean aggression, the ROKAF underwent a substantial capability enhancement; the ROKAF acquired North American T-28 Trojan trainers, North American F-86D Sabre night- and all-weather interceptors, Northrop F-5 fighters and McDonnell Douglas F-4D Phantom fighter bombers. Air Force Operations Command was established in 1961 to secure efficient command and control facilities.
Air Force Logistics Command was established in 1966, emergency runways were constructed for emergency use during wartime. The Eunma Unit was founded in 1966 to operate Curtiss C-46 Commando transport aircraft used to support Republic of Korea Army and Republic of Korea Marine Corps units serving in South Vietnam during the Vietnam War; the ROKAF was posed with a security risk, with an belligerent North Korea throughout the 1970s. The South Korean government increased its expenditure on the ROKAF, resulting in the purchase of Northrop F-5E Tiger II fighters in August 1974 and F-4E fighter-bombers. Support aircraft, such as Fairchild C-123 Providers and Grumman S-2 Trackers were purchased at the time. Great emphasis was placed in the flight training program; the ROKAF concentrated on qualitative expansion of aircraft to catch up to the strength of the North Korean Air Force. In 1982, Korean variants of the F-5E, the Jegong-ho were first produced; the ROKAF gathered a good deal of information on the North Korean Air Force when Captain Lee Woong-pyeong, a North Korean pilot, defected to South Korea.
The Korean Combat Operations Information center was soon formed and the Air Defence System was automated to attain air superiority against North Korea. When the 1988 Seoul Olympics was held in South Korea, the ROKAF contributed to the success of this event by helping to oversee the entire security system; the ROKAF moved its headquarters and the Air Force Education & Training Command to other locations. Forty General Dynamics F-16 Fighting Falcon fighters were purchased in 1989. South Korea committed its support for coalition forces during the Persian Gulf War, forming the "Bima Unit" to fight in the war; the ROKAF provided airlift support for peacekeeping operations in Somalia in 1993. The increased participation in international operations depicted the ROKAF's elevated international position. Over 180 KF-16 fighters of F-16 Block 52 specifications were introduced as part of the Peace Bridge II & III program from 1994. In 1997, for the first time in Korean aviation history, female cadets were accepted into the Korean Air Force Academy.
The last of the old South Korean 60 F-5A/B fighters were all retired in August 2007, they were replaced with the F-15K and F/A-50. On October 20, 2009, Bruce S. Lemkin, deputy undersecretary of the U. S. Air Force said that the ROKAF's limited intelligence and reconnaissance capabilities increased the risk of instability on the Korean Peninsula and suggested the purchase of American systems such as the F-35 Lightning II to close this gap; the South Korean Air Force expressed interests in acquiring the RQ-4 Global Hawk remotely piloted vehicle and a number of Joint Direct Attack Munition conversion kits to further improve its intelligence and offensive capabilities. The South Korean Airforce acquired 40 F-35s and +20 additional F-35 Republic of Korea Air Force Headquarters Air Force Operations Command Air Combat Command 1st Fighter Wing, based at Gwangju 8th Fighter Wing, based at Wonju 10th Fighter Wing, based at Suwon 11th Fighter Wing, based at Daegu 16th Fighter Wing, based at Yecheon 17th Fighter Wing, based at Cheongju 18th Fighter Wing, based at Gangneung 19th Fighter Wing, based at Chungju 20th Fighter Wing, based at Seosan 38th Fighter Group, based at Gunsan Air Mobility & Reconnaissance Command 3rd Flying Training Wing, based at Sacheon 5th Tactical Airlift Wing, ba
Intelligence assessment is the development of behavior forecasts or recommended courses of action to the leadership of an organisation, based on wide ranges of available overt and covert information. Assessments develop in response to leadership declaration requirements to inform decision making. Assessment may be executed on behalf of a state, military or commercial organisation with ranges of information sources available to each. An intelligence assessment reviews available information and previous assessments for relevance and currency. Where there requires additional information, the analyst may direct some collection. Intelligence studies is the academic field concerning intelligence assessment relating to international relations and military science. Intelligence assessment is based on a customer requirement or need, which may be a standing requirement or tailored to a specific circumstance or a Request for Information; the "requirement" is passed to the assessing agency and worked through the intelligence cycle, a structured method for responding to the RFI.
The RFI may indicate. The RFI is reviewed by a Requirements Manager, who will direct appropriate tasks to respond to the request; this will involve a review of existing material, the tasking of new analytical product or the collection of new information to inform an analysis. New information may be collected through one or more of the various collection disciplines; the nature of the RFI and the urgency placed on it may indicate that some collection types are unsuitable due to the time taken to collect or validate the information gathered. Intelligence gathering disciplines and the sources and methods used are highly classified and compartmentalised, with analysts requiring an appropriate high level of security clearance; the process of taking known information about situations and entities of importance to the RFI, characterizing what is known and attempting to forecast future events is termed "all source" assessment, analysis or processing. The analyst uses multiple sources to mutually corroborate, or exclude, the information collected, reaching a conclusion along with a measure of confidence around that conclusion.
Where sufficient current information exists, the analysis may be tasked directly without reference to further collection. The analysis is communicated back to the requester in the format directed, although subject to the constraints on both the RFI and the methods used in the analysis, the format may be made available for other uses as well and disseminated accordingly; the analysis will be written to a defined classification level with alternative versions available at a number of classification levels for further dissemination. This approach, known as Find-Fix-Finish-Exploit-Assess, is complementary to the intelligence cycle and focused on the intervention itself, where the subject of the assessment is identifiable and provisions exist to make some form of intervention against that subject, the target-centric assessment approach may be used; the subject for action, or target, is identified and efforts are made to find the target for further development. This activity will identify where intervention against the target will have the most beneficial effects.
When the decision is made to intervene, action is taken to fix the target, confirming that the intervention will have a high probability of success and restricting the ability of the target to take independent action. During the finish stage, the intervention is executed an arrest or detention or the placement of other collection methods. Following the intervention, exploitation of the target is carried out, which may lead to further refinement of the process for related targets; the output from the exploit stage will be passed into other intelligence assessment activities. Intelligence cycle List of intelligence gathering disciplines Military intelligence Surveillance Threat assessment Futures studies SurveysAndrew, Christopher. For the President's Eyes Only: Secret Intelligence and the American Presidency from Washington to Bush Black and Morris, Benny Israel's Secret Wars: A History of Israel's Intelligence Services Bungert, Heike et al. eds. Secret Intelligence in the Twentieth Century essays by scholars Dulles, Allen W.
The Craft of Intelligence: America's Legendary Spy Master on the Fundamentals of Intelligence Gathering for a Free World Kahn, David The Codebreakers: The Comprehensive History of Secret Communication from Ancient Times to the Internet, 1200 pages Lerner, K. Lee and Brenda Wilmoth Lerner, eds. Encyclopedia of Espionage and Security, 1100 pages. 850 articles, strongest on technology Odom, Gen. William E. Fixing Intelligence: For a More Secure America, Second Edition O'Toole, George. Honorable Treachery: A History of U. S. Intelligence, Covert Action from the American Revolution to the CIA Owen, David. Hidden Secrets: A Complete History of Espionage and the Technology Used to Support It, popular Richelson, Jeffery T. A Century of Spies: Intelligence in the Twentieth Century Richelson, Jeffery T; the U. S. Intelligence Community Shulsky, Abram N. and Schmitt, Gary J. "Silent Warfare: Understanding the World of Intelligence", 285 pages West, Nigel. MI6: British Secret Intelligence Service Operations 1909–1945 West, Nigel.
Secret War: The Story of SOE, Britain's Wartime Sabotage Organization Wohlstetter, Roberta. Pearl Harbor: Warning and Decision World War IBeesly, Patrick. Room 40.. Covers the breaking of German codes by RN intelligence