click links in text for more info

Clair S. Tappaan

Clair Sprague Tappaan was an American lawyer and jurist, on the faculty of the University of Southern California Law School from its formation as an official school of the university in 1904 until 1928, served as a judge of the Los Angeles County Superior Court and California Court of Appeal from 1927 until his death in 1932. Tappan played college football at Cornell University and served as the head football coach at the University of Southern California for a one-game season in 1901. Tappaan was born in Baldwinsville, New York, the son of Wallace Tappaan and his wife Frances Tappaan, he was educated at the Baldwinsville Free Academy, enrolled at the University of Michigan, transferring after two years to Cornell University where he received his Bachelor of Laws degree in 1900. While at Cornell, he played on the football team. Tappaan practiced law in Syracuse before moving to Los Angeles in 1901 and becoming partner in the law firm of his brother-in-law Force Parker. In 1901, he played on the football team of the Los Angeles Athletic Club, the same year he served as coach of the USC football team, which played only one game – a 6-0 road loss to Pomona College.

He joined the USC Law School's first faculty in 1904. During World War I, he worked in physical training with the YMCA, with much of his work done in France. In August 1927 he was appointed to the Superior Court by Governor C. C. Young, he was elected to a full term in September 1928. In January 1932 he was appointed to a six-month term as justice pro tem of the California Court of Appeal, he received two three-month appointments to the same position, he ended his tenure at the USC Law School in 1928, but continued to lecture there and at Loyola Law School. Tappaan suffered a fatal heart attack at age 54 while walking to his office in downtown Los Angeles, shortly after addressing a luncheon of the Los Angeles Bar Association, his death was ruled sclerosis of the left coronary artery. He was survived by his wife, the former Mary E. Darling, whom he married on May 12, 1906, their only child Francis was an All-American for the USC football team in 1929. Tappaan was a longtime official of the Sierra Club, serving as its fifth president from 1922 to 1924, on the board of directors from 1912 until his death.

At the time of Tappaan's death, Sierra Club members were organizing to build a ski lodge on Donner Pass in the Sierra Nevada Mountains of Northern California. One Lodge founder, Lewis Clark, said in about 1989 that they named the yet-unnamed lodge after Tappaan to use his popularity to help with fundraising; the Lodge opened according to Lodge oldtimer Frank Shoemaker. Clair Tappaan Lodge is the Sierra Club's largest and most popular lodge, known among its many supporters as the Sierra Club's "flagship lodge". Tappaan's photo hangs in the entry. "Judge Tappaan Dies Suddenly." Los Angeles Times, December 1, 1932. Pp. 1, 5. Rodman, Willoughby. History of the Bench and Bar of Southern California, p. 240. Clair S. Tappaan at Find a Grave


The Stereoautograph is a complex opto-mechanical measurement instrument for the evaluation of analog or digital photograms. It is based on the stereoscopy effect by using two aero photos or two photograms of the topography or of buildings from different standpoints, it was invented by Eduard von Orel in 1907. The photograms or photographic plates are oriented by measured passpoints in the field or on the building; this procedure can be carried out digitally (by methods of triangulation and projective geometry or iteratively. The accuracy of modern autographs is about 0.001 mm. Well known are the instruments of the companies Wild Heerbrugg, e.g. analog A7, B8 of the 1980s and the digital autographs beginning in the 1990s, or special instruments of Zeiss and Contraves. Gilbert Willy U. S. Patent 1,477,082 Military Topography and Photography By Floyd D. Carlock, U. S. Army, 1916, p.104 ff, with photos

Thermionic emission

Thermionic emission is the liberation of electrons from an electrode by virtue of its temperature. This occurs because the thermal energy given to the carrier overcomes the work function of the material; the charge carriers can be electrons or ions, in older literature are sometimes referred to as thermions. After emission, a charge, equal in magnitude and opposite in sign to the total charge emitted is left behind in the emitting region, but if the emitter is connected to a battery, the charge left behind is neutralized by charge supplied by the battery as the emitted charge carriers move away from the emitter, the emitter will be in the same state as it was before emission. The classical example of thermionic emission is that of electrons from a hot cathode into a vacuum in a vacuum tube; the hot cathode can be a metal filament, a coated metal filament, or a separate structure of metal or carbides or borides of transition metals. Vacuum emission from metals tends to become significant only for temperatures over 1,000 K.

The term "thermionic emission" is now used to refer to any thermally-excited charge emission process when the charge is emitted from one solid-state region into another. This process is crucially important in the operation of a variety of electronic devices and can be used for electricity generation or cooling; the magnitude of the charge flow increases with increasing temperature. Because the electron was not identified as a separate physical particle until the work of J. J. Thomson in 1897, the word "electron" was not used when discussing experiments that took place before this date; the phenomenon was reported in 1853 by Edmond Becquerel. It was rediscovered in 1873 by Frederick Guthrie in Britain. While doing work on charged objects, Guthrie discovered that a red-hot iron sphere with a negative charge would lose its charge, he found that this did not happen if the sphere had a positive charge. Other early contributors included Johann Wilhelm Hittorf, Eugen Goldstein, Julius Elster and Hans Friedrich Geitel.

The effect was rediscovered again by Thomas Edison on February 13, 1880, while he was trying to discover the reason for breakage of lamp filaments and uneven blackening of the bulbs in his incandescent lamps. Edison built several experimental lamp bulbs with an extra wire, metal plate, or foil inside the bulb, separate from the filament and thus could serve as an electrode, he connected a galvanometer, a device used to measure current, to the output of the extra metal electrode. If the foil was put at a negative potential relative to the filament, there was no measurable current between the filament and the foil; when the foil was raised to a positive potential relative to the filament, there could be a significant current between the filament through the vacuum to the foil if the filament was heated sufficiently. We now know that the filament was emitting electrons, which were attracted to a positively charged foil, but not a negatively charged one; this one-way current was called the Edison effect.

He found that the current emitted by the hot filament increased with increasing voltage, filed a patent application for a voltage-regulating device using the effect on November 15, 1883. He found; this was exhibited at the International Electrical Exposition in Philadelphia in September 1884. William Preece, a British scientist, took back with him several of the Edison effect bulbs, he presented a paper on them in 1885, where he referred to thermionic emission as the "Edison Effect." The British physicist John Ambrose Fleming, working for the British "Wireless Telegraphy" Company, discovered that the Edison Effect could be used to detect radio waves. Fleming went on to develop the two-element vacuum tube known as the diode, which he patented on November 16, 1904; the thermionic diode can be configured as a device that converts a heat difference to electric power directly without moving parts. Following J. J. Thomson's identification of the electron in 1897, the British physicist Owen Willans Richardson began work on the topic that he called "thermionic emission".

He received a Nobel Prize in Physics in 1928 "for his work on the thermionic phenomenon and for the discovery of the law named after him". From band theory, there are one or two electrons per atom in a solid that are free to move from atom to atom; this is sometimes collectively referred to as a "sea of electrons". Their velocities follow a statistical distribution, rather than being uniform, an electron will have enough velocity to exit the metal without being pulled back in; the minimum amount of energy needed for an electron to leave a surface is called the work function. The work function is characteristic of the material and for most metals is on the order of several electronvolts. Thermionic currents can be increased by decreasing the work function; this often-desired goal can be achieved by applying various oxide coatings to the wire. In 1901 Richardson published the results of his experiments: the current from a heated wire seemed to depend exponentially on the temperature of the wire with a mathematical form similar to the Arrhenius equation

Emilio Díaz Colón

Major General Emilio Díaz Colón, is a former United States National Guard officer who served as the Adjutant General of the Puerto Rican National Guard. In 2011, he became the first member of the PRNG to be named Superintendent of the Puerto Rico Police Department. Díaz Colón is the oldest of three siblings born to Emilio Díaz Lebron and Margarita Colón in the town of Yabucoa, Puerto Rico, his father was the head foreman of the Central Roig sugar cane plantation. The Central Roig was one of the last mills. Díaz Colón was raised in his hometown. Díaz Colón's brother, Luis F. "Pickie" Díaz Colón, a former Head of the National Parks Company, was once the Mayor of their hometown Yabucoa. In 1968, Díaz Colón joined the Puerto Rico Army National Guard as an enlisted soldier in an engineer company, while at the same time he was enrolled and attended classes at the University of Puerto Rico at Mayagüez. In 1971, Díaz Colón earned his Bachelor of Arts degree in Civil Engineering. Díaz Colón was selected to attend the Warrant Officer program at the United States Army Warrant Officer Career College in Fort Rucker, Alabama.

Upon his graduation in February 4, 1975, he was promoted to the rank of Warrant Officer One. He was assigned to the HHC 130th Engineer Battalion at Vega Baja, Puerto Rico where he served as Utilities Maintenance Technician. On August 3, 1976, he was promoted to the rank of First Lieutenant and assigned as Engineering Officer for the same Battalion. From January 1977 to August 1979, Díaz Colón served with Company D 130th Engineer Battalion at Carolina, Puerto Rico in the positions of Engineer Platoon Leader and Company Executive Officer. After his promotion to the rank of Captain he was named Company Commander. On August 1979, he was reassigned to the 892d Engineer Company at Humacao, Puerto Rico as Company Commander and in September 1979, he was the Assistant S-3 of the Command and Control at PRNG Headquarters in San Juan, Puerto Rico, he served there until October 1979, when he returned to the 130th Engineer Battalion as Battalion Executive Officer. In 1978, the Governor of Puerto Rico, Carlos Romero Barcelo appointed Díaz Colón to the position of Executive Director of the Authority of Solid Wastes in Puerto Rico.

He served in this position until 1981. In that year, he was named Director of the Commissioners Office of Municipal Matters, he served in this position until 1985, all the while in 1982, he was promoted to the rank of Major and in 1983, he attended the Command and General Staff College in Fort Leavenworth, Kansas. During the years that he served in the Commissioners Office, the Puerto Rico National Guard named Díaz Colón Battalion Commander of the 130th Engineer Battalion. From 1985 to 1990, Díaz-Colón was given a Federal position when he was placed in charge of the Housing Urban Development in the Caribbean. From August 1985 to June 1992, Díaz Colón served with the 101st Troop Command at Headquarters, State Area Command, San Juan, Puerto Rico. On July 24, 1987, he was promoted to Lieutenant Colonel and during the years in which he served at Headquarters, he served in various positions including that of Executive Officer. On July 23, 1992, Díaz Colón was promoted to the rank of Colonel in the Regular Army and on December 22, of the same year he was promoted to the rank of Brigadier General.

On January 1993, he was named the Adjutant General of the Puerto Rico National Guard. As Adjutant General, he was the Governor's senior military adviser and oversaw both state and federal missions of the Puerto Rico National Guard, he provided effective leadership and management in the implementation of all programs and policies affecting more than 11,100 Puerto Rico National Guard citizens-soldiers. Díaz Colón was promoted to Major General on November 18, 1993 and continued as Adjustant General until he retired from the Puerto Rico Army National Guard in 2001. On July 2011, Luis Fortuño, the Governor of Puerto Rico, named Díaz Colón for the position of Superintendent of the Puerto Rico Police Department, he thus became the first person, a former Adjutant General of the Puerto Rico National Guard to be named to that position. Díaz Colón entered the Police Department in the middle of a record-breaking year in murders in Puerto Rico, has received harsh criticisms since from various sectors. On March 28, 2012, after only 9 months on the job, Díaz Colón resigned as Superintendent.

Among Major General Díaz Colón's military decorations and awards are the following: Meritorious Service Medal Army Commendation Medal Army Achievement Medal Army Reserve Component Achievement Medal National Defense Service Medal Humanitarian Service Medal Armed Forces Reserve Medal Army Service RibbonPuerto Rico National Guard decorations Puerto Rico Commendation Medal Puerto Rico Service Medal Puerto Rico Exemplary Conduct Ribbon Puerto Rico Civil Disturbance Ribbon Puerto Rico Disaster Relief Ribbon Puerto Rico Active Duty for Training Ribbon List of Puerto Ricans List of Superintendents of the Puerto Rico Police List of Puerto Rican military personnel Puerto Rico Adjutant General

Clarence Hamilton Poe

Clarence Poe was an American Progressive Era Southern editor and reformer. Clarence Hamilton Poe was born on January 1881 near Gulf in Chatham County, North Carolina, his father, William Baxter, was a small cotton farmer and his mother was Susan Dismukes Poe. Augustine Henry Shepperd was one of his maternal ancestors, he attended Rocky Branch School and only one year of high school. He served as editor of The Progressive Farmer for 65 years beginning in 1899, he was prominent in pushing for reforms in Southern agriculture to make it more scientific and to improve rural conditions in the South. He served on the State of North Carolina Board of Agriculture, the Advisory Council of the United States Department of Agriculture, on the National Commission on Farm Tenancy, as well as chairing the North Carolina Hospital and Medical Care Commission appointed by Governor Broughton in 1944. Poe was praised by many in the South for the work he did for agriculture. However, he is well known for promoting a program of rural racial segregation in North Carolina, due to the rapid increase of African American farm ownership in the early twentieth century.

He was motivated both by modern, social Darwinist assumptions and by his concern that the rise of black farm owners was undermining poor white farmers' ability to compete. In the end, white planters, fearing the loss of their labor opposed his rural segregation plan, he served on the Board of Trustees of the North Carolina State College. A building at the university, Poe Hall, was named in his honor, he died on October 8, 1964. Cotton: Its Cultivation and Manufacture A Southerner in Europe Where Half the World Is Waking Up Life and Speeches of Charles B. Aycock How Farmers Cooperate and Double Profits True Tales of the South at War My First Eighty Years Works by Clarence Hamilton Poe at Project Gutenberg Works by or about Clarence Hamilton Poe at Internet Archive