61 Cygni is a binary star system in the constellation Cygnus, consisting of a pair of K-type dwarf stars that orbit each other in a period of about 659 years. Of apparent magnitude 5.20 and 6.05 they can be seen with binoculars in city skies or with the naked eye in rural areas without photopollution. 61 Cygni first attracted the attention of astronomers when its large proper motion was first demonstrated by Giuseppe Piazzi in 1804. In 1838, Friedrich Bessel measured its distance from Earth at about 10.4 light-years close to the actual value of about 11.4 light-years. Among all stars or stellar systems listed in the modern Hipparcos Catalogue, 61 Cygni has the seventh-highest proper motion, the highest among all visible stars or systems. Over the course of the twentieth century, several different astronomers reported evidence of a massive planet orbiting one of the two stars, but recent high-precision radial velocity observations have shown that all such claims were unfounded. No planets have been confirmed in this stellar system to date.
61 Cygni is dim, so it does not appear on ancient star maps, nor is it given a name in western or Chinese systems. The name "61 Cygni" is part of the Flamsteed designation assigned to stars. According to this designation scheme, devised by John Flamsteed to catalog his observations, stars of a particular constellation are numbered in the order of their right ascension, not in Greek letters as the Bayer designation does; the star does not appear under that name in Flamsteed's Historia Coelestis Britannica, although it has been stated by him that 61 Cygni corresponds to what he referred to as 85 Cygni in the 1712 edition. It has been called "Bessel's Star" or "Piazzi's Flying Star"; the first well recorded observation of the star system using optical instruments was made by James Bradley on 25 September 1753, when he noticed that it was a double star. William Herschel began systematic observations of 61 Cygni as part of a wider study of binary stars, his observations led to the conclusion that binary stars were separated enough that they would show different movements in parallax over the year, hoped to use this as a way to measure the distance to the stars.
In 1792, Giuseppe Piazzi noticed the high proper motion when he compared his own observations of 61 Cygni with those of Bradley, made 40 years earlier. This led to considerable interest in 61 Cygni by contemporary astronomers, its continual observation since that date. Piazzi's repeated measurements led to a definitive value of its motion, which he published in 1804, it was in this record he christened the system as the "Flying Star". Piazzi noted that this motion meant that it was one of the closest stars, suggested it would be a prime candidate for an attempt to determine its distance through parallax measurements, along with two other possibilities, Delta Eridani and Mu Cassiopeiae. A number of astronomers soon took up the task, including attempts by François Arago and Claude-Louis Mathieu in 1812, who recorded the parallax at 500 milliarcseconds, Christian Heinrich Friedrich Peters used Arago's data to calculate a value of 550 mas. Peters calculated a better value based on observations made by Bernhard von Lindenau at Seeburg between 1812 and 1814.
Von Lindenau had noted that he had seen no parallax, as Friedrich Georg Wilhelm von Struve pointed out after his own test series between 1818 and 1821, all of these numbers are more accurate than the accuracy of the instrument used. Friedrich Wilhelm Bessel made a notable contribution in 1812 when he used a different method to measure distance. Assuming the orbital period of the two stars in the binary to be 400 years, he estimated the distance between the two this would require, measured the angular distance between the stars; this led to a value of 460 mas. He followed this up with direct parallax measurements in a series of observations between 1815 and 1816, comparing it with six other stars; the two sets of measurements produced values of 1320 mas. All of these estimates, like earlier attempts by others, retained inaccuracies greater than the measurements; when Joseph von Fraunhofer invented a new type of heliometer, Bessel carried out another set of measurements using this device in 1837 and 1838 at Königsberg.
He published his findings in 1838 with a value of 369.0±19.1 mas to A and 260.5±18.8 to B, estimated the center point to be at 313.6±13.6. This corresponds to about 10.4 light-years. This was the first reliable measurement of the distance to a star other than the Sun, his measurement was published only shortly before similar parallax measurements of Vega by Friedrich Georg Wilhelm von Struve and Alpha Centauri by Thomas Henderson that same year. Bessel continued to make additional measurements at Königsberg, publishing a total of four complete observational runs, the last in 1868; the best of these placed the center point at 360.2 ±12.1 mas, made during observations in 1849. This is close to the accepted value of 287.18 mas. Only a few years after Bessel's measurement, in 1842 Friedrich Wilhelm Argelander noted that Groombridge 1830 had an larger proper motion, 61 Cygni became the second highest known, it was moved further down the list by Kapteyn's Star and Barnard's Star. 61 Cygni has the seventh highest proper motion of all stellar systems listed in the modern Hipparcos Catalogue, but retains the title of highest proper motion among visible stars.
Due to the wide angular separation between 61 Cygni A and B, the correspondingly slow orbital motion, it
Kerry Clare and Lindsay Clare are a wife and husband duo who are Australian architects, founders of Clare Design and joint recipients of the Australian Institute of Architects Gold Medal. Kerry Clare and Lindsay Clare practiced in Queensland from 1979–1998 and New South Wales 1998–present, they have received 40 state and national awards from the Australian Institute of Architects for housing, recycling and commercial projects. Major awards include the National Robin Boyd Award in 1992 and 1995, National RAIA Commercial Award 1995, National Belle/BHP Steel Futures Award 1993 and National RAIA Environment Citation 1996, they have won the RAIA Robin Dods Award six times. In 2010, they were joint recipients of the Royal Australian Institute of Architects Gold Medal; the jury citation notes that "Lindsay and Kerry Clare have made an enormous contribution to the advancement of architecture and sustainable architecture, with a strong held belief that good design and sustainable design are intrinsically linked".
They have been members of state and international architectural juries, lectured internationally in Graz, Vancouver, Los Angeles, Calgary, New York, Taiwan, Barranquila, Sri Lanka, Mexico City and Shanghai and have led winning design teams for a large number of competitions, both nationally and internationally. Following the inclusion of the McWilliam residence in the Venice Biennale 1991 their Cotton Tree social housing project was selected worldwide for inclusion in the'Ten Shades of Green' exhibition in New York; the Clares were appointed as Design Directors to the NSW Government Architect from 1998 to 2000 and as Adjunct Professors to the Faculty of Architecture, University of Sydney from 1998 to 2005. They were founding Design Directors of Architectus Sydney, they are now based in the Gold Coast. They were appointed Honorary Senior Fellows of the University of the Sunshine Coast in 2004; the Clares were Design Directors for Architectus for notable projects including the Queensland Gallery of Modern Art, the University of the Sunshine Coast Chancellery, the University of New South Wales student housing, the Brisbane Wesley House Commercial Building.
Kerry and Lindsay are appointed as Professors of the School of Architecture and Built Environment at the University of Newcastle, NSW and as Visiting Professors at the Abedian School of Architecture, Bond University, QLD. Clare Design completed the Library at The Dock in Melbourne's Docklands for the City of Melbourne, Lend Lease and Places Victoria; the library is the first six star Green Star public building in Australia. White Residence, Fig Tree Pocket Goetz House, Buderim Thrupp + Summers, Nambour McWilliam Residence, Mooloolaba Rainbow Shores housing, Rainbow Shores Clare Residence, Buderim Hammond House, Cooran Cotton Tree Pilot Housing Project, Cotton Tree University of Sunshine Coast Recreation Club, Sippy Downs Refurbishment of Circular Quay wharves No. 1 Fire Station, Sydney Queensland Gallery of Modern Art, Brisbane University of Sunshine Coast Chancellery, Sippy Downs University of NSW Student Housing, Kensington Wesley House, Brisbane Library at The Dock, Melbourne Midant, Jean Paul: 1996, "Clare, Lindsay et Kerry", Dictionnaire de l’Architecture du xxe siecle, Institut Francais D’Architecture, France, pp 202 –203 Pearman, Hugh: 1998, "Living" and "Sport", Contemporary World Architecture, Phaidon Press Limited, London, pp 221, 229, 424 Smith, Robert: 1999, Allgemeines Kunsterlexikon, Germany Beck, H & Cooper, J: 2000, ‘Practice Profile: Clare Design’, Architectural Design Vol 70 No 2 * * Space Architecture, John Wiley and Sons Ltd, London, UK, pp 102–108 Hyatt, P: 2000, ‘Lindsay and Kerry Clare - The Identity of Place’, Local Heroes, Architecture of Australia’s Sunshine Coast, Craftsmen House, August, pp 6, 18-52, 168-219 Stungo, N: 2001, The House Book, London, UK, p 78 Buchanan, P: 2005, Ten Shades of Green: Architecture and the Natural World, Architectural League of New York Gossel, P: 2007, ‘Clare and Lindsay’ Modern Architecture A-Z, Cologne, pp 206–207 Rihan, X 2008: 100x400 Collections of Famous International Architects, HK RIHAN, Int’l Culture Spread Ltd, Hong Kong.
Vol. 1, pp 36–43 Wallace, M & Stutchbury, S: 2008, Place Makers - Contemporary Queensland Architects, Queensland Art Gallery, Australia, pp 118–131 Beck, H + Cooper, J: 2010, Architectus - Between Order and Opportunity, ORO Editions, California, USA, pp 1–271 Beck, H + Cooper, J: 2015, Clare Design Works 1980 - 2015, ORO Editions, California, USA pp 1–271 Goad, P: 2015, Library at The Dock, Architecture Australia, Jan/Feb, pp 92–99 Goad, P, Willis, J: 2012, The Encyclopaedia of Australian Architecture, Cambridge University Press, New York, USA, pp 41–42, 148-149, 157, 248, 382, 429, 484, 548, 555, 578, 589, 609, 668, 717, 755 Xu, Y: 2010,'Creating the Pleasure of Occupation: The Perspective and Practice of the Clares', World Architecture-Contemperary Architecture in Australia, World Architecture Magazine Publication, Tsinghua University, China, pp 16, 25-35, 42-47, 138 Clare Design
The Quezon Service Cross is the highest national recognition of the Republic of the Philippines. It has been awarded to only six Filipinos since its creation in 1946; the award was created by Joint Resolution No. 4 dated October 21, 1946 of the 1st Congress of the Philippines. A joint resolution of the Congress of the Philippines has the force of law; the Quezon Service Cross is a decoration conferred by the President of the Philippines with the concurrence of the Congress of the Philippines on Filipino citizens for "exemplary service to the nation in such a manner and such a degree as to add great prestige to the Republic of the Philippines, or as to contribute to the lasting benefit of its people". Nominations for the Quezon Service Cross need to state the services meriting the award and are made only in cases where the service performed or contribution made can be measured on the scale established by what the joint resolution terms "the benefaction" of the late President Manuel L. Quezon, after whom the decoration is named.
The Quezon Service Cross was proposed by President Manuel Roxas. It is referred to as the Congressional Quezon Service Cross, as conferment requires the approval of the Congress of the Philippines and is awarded. Only six Filipinos have been conferred this decoration: Secretary of Foreign Affairs Carlos P. Romulo, April 12, 1951 President Emilio Aguinaldo, 12 June 1956 President Ramon Magsaysay, 4 July 1957 Senator Benigno Aquino Jr. 21 August 2004 Secretary of the Interior and Local Government Jesse Robredo, 26 November 2012 Senator Miriam Defensor Santiago, 3 December 2018 Orders and medals of the Philippines Official Gazette: Executive Order No. 236, s. 2003 Quezon.ph - Quezon Service Cross
Riaz Rahman is a Bangladesh Nationalist Party politician and the former Member of Parliament from State Minister of Foreign Affairs. Rahman served in the Foreign Service of Pakistan, he stayed in West Pakistan during the Bangladesh Liberation war in 1971. He escaped Pakistan in 1973 with his family through Afghanistan. In Afghanistan with the aid of the Indian High Commission he was able to move to Bangladesh, he joined the foreign service of Bangladesh and reached the rank of secretary of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. He served as the State Minister of Foreign Affairs in the Second Khaleda Cabinet, he is an advisor to Chairperson of Bangladesh Nationalist Party and former Prime Minister, Khaleda Zia. On 14 January 2015, Rahman's car was attacked and he was shot twice by 6 unknown attackers on motorcycles in Gulshan. Bangladesh Nationalist Party called a strike on the following Thursday and blamed the government for the attack; the US State Department and the European Union condemned the attack on him and asked the government to investigate to find out those responsible
Anna M. McGarry was a leading U. S. advocate in veteran social action leader. Most of her work occurred in the city of Philadelphia, where she was a central figure in improving race relations, she was a journalist for the Philadelphia Tribune. Anna McGarry was born on March 17, 1894, in Philadelphia to Sara McGinley. One of eight children, she attended parochial school in Philadelphia and two years of commercial high school, she worked as a bookkeeper with National Label Company early in her life. She married Francis McGarry in 1917, who left her a widow in 1921. After her husband’s death, she began to take an active role in repairing inhospitable race relations in Philadelphia; as a young widow, she was aghast by the social inequalities inherent in her own neighborhood. She dedicated her life to social justice, spreading word of the mounting problems during the 1930s by teaching. Beginning with World War II, she helped found and began working with the Philadelphia Catholic Interracial Council, becoming a staff member of the city’s Commission on Human Relations and fighting for fair employment practices for African-Americans in that capacity.
She was a critical figure in ameliorating conflicts such as the racial violence set off when, during World War II, African-Americans obtained jobs in the city’s transit system, encountering hostile Irish transit union leaders. She hosted a weekly radio program on interracial justice and wrote a weekly column on it in an African-American Philadelphia newspaper. A leading figure in the National Catholic Conference for Interracial Justice and the National Catholic Social Action Conference, she went on to press for equal access to educational and public facilities for all, regardless of race. After her formal retirement in 1959, she remained active in those organizations, she continued to tour and give public speeches in an attempt to raise awareness of the social and economic barriers faced by African-Americans. While the Catholic Church condoned her message of social justice, she was seen as too radical and thus had to pursue her endeavors without its assistance. McGarry received numerous accolades during her career, including honors from the New York Catholic Interracial Council, the National Conference of Christians and Jews, the Immaculata College Alumnae Philadelphia chapter, the Afro-American Newspaper, the Philadelphia Puerto Rican Community.
John T. McGreevy, Parish Boundaries: The Catholic Encounter With Race in the Twentieth Century Urban North Edward Schmitt, "A Vocation for Neighborliness: Anna McGarry's Quest for Community in Philadelphia," U. S. Catholic Historian, Spring 2004 Anna M. McGarry Papers
The Intercity Express is the express-train service in India which connects major railway junctions and state capitals. These act as long-distance unreserved suburban trains with sitting accommodation; these are quite fast and maintain a high average speed for short distances along with priority over other trains. The first Named Intercity Train was introduced in 1906 for providing connections between two cities from one state to other various states in India; the first named intercity train left Surat station for Mumbai Central station to cover a distance of 264 km in 5 hrs 28 min. At that time it was run as a weekly named intercity train and it ran from 1906 to 1939 when it was discontinued due to World War Two. Since it has been discontinued and restarted several times, it resumed operations on 1 November 1950 and has been running since. The Mumbai CSMT-Pune Deccan Queen Express, the second named Intercity train in India, was introduced on 1 June 1930. On 1 July 1992, The First Intercity Express was Introduced Between Indore and New Delhi, the only overnight intercity train runs between Two Major cities of India.
On 1 July 1997, The Two Intercity Express train launched between Chennai - Coimbatore & Bengaluru-Hubbali, the first one day trip category of daily intercity express trains. The trains are less expensive than other express trains, reach their destinations within 5–6 hours, they complete a round trip in a day, returning to the origin station at night and using only a single rake. They have only sitting accommodations and a pantry car. Intercity Express trains run daily, except: Jabalpur - Ambikapur Intercity Express Runs Daily "" Indore - Jabalpur Intercity Express, three days a week Bhopal - Gwalior Intercity Express, five days a week Indore - Hazrat Nizamuddin Intercity Express, which takes 11 hours to cover the 550 kilometres route; this train uses two rakes and has unreserved, sleeper service and three coach classes. Bengaluru-Ernakulam intercity express uses 2 rakes Mangaluru − Coimbatore Intercity Express uses 2 rakes and, shared with Ernad Express Haldibari - Kolkata Intercity Express runs Tri-Weekly covering 630 km in 11 hours 10 minutes.
It has AC Chair Car Coaches. The train is Superfast in Nature Katihar−Patna Intercity Express runs Except Sunday The following trains are intercity-express trains, but have different names: Intercity Express routes are: On 13 Feb 2015, at Least 9 Passengers were dead and over 100 passengers were injured when the Bangalore City–Ernakulam Intercity Express derailed at the between Anekal Road and Hosur on Bangalore City-Salem Section which lies between the border of Karnataka and Tamil Nadu State, In suspected some technical issue in the engine; the Train was heading towards Ernakulam. On 30 January 2016, Ratnachal express from Vishakhapatnam to Vijayawada was burnt in protest of reservation for kapu community leaving no one injured according to the railway sources. Duronto Express List of named passenger trains of India Rajdhani Express Shatabdi Express Superfast Mail/Express Rajya Rani Express List of Indian Intercity Express Trains