Royal Northumberland Fusiliers
The Royal Northumberland Fusiliers was an infantry regiment of the British Army. The regiment adopted the title Northumberland Fusiliers when regimental numbers were abolished under the Childers Reforms of 1881, the regiment was originally part of the Dutch service and known as the Irish Regiment, or Viscount Clares Regiment, under the command of Daniel OBrien, 3rd Viscount Clare. In the following year the colonelcy passed to John Fenwick and the Irish designation was discontinued, the regiment was transferred to the British Service on 5 June 1685, establishing its order of precedence as the 5th Regiment of the Line. Like most other regiments, it was known by the names of the colonels who commanded it at the time until it became the 5th Regiment of Foot in 1751. The regiment took part in the Irish campaign of 1690–1691, and was present at the Battle of the Boyne, the Second Siege of Athlone, in 1692 the unit sailed for Flanders where they were to remain for five years. In 1695 they were part of the forces that recaptured Namur.
With the ending of the war by the Treaty of Ryswick they returned to England in 1697, the regiment spent the years 1707–1713 in Spain. They were one of four English regiments who fought an action with their Portuguese allies at Campo Maior in 1709. During the Anglo-Spanish War of 1727, the regiment formed part of the garrison of Gibraltar which withheld the Spanish during the four-month-long siege. On 1 July 1751 a royal warrant provided that in future regiments would not be known by their colonels names, Lieutenant-General Irvines Regiment was redesignated as the 5th Regiment of Foot. The next major conflict in which the 5th foot was involved was the Seven Years War, the regiment took part in the Raid on Cherbourg in 1758, the Battle of Warburg in 1760, the Battle of Kirch Denkern in 1761 and the Battle of Wilhelmsthal in 1762. The 5th left Monkstown, Ireland on 7 May 1774, for Boston and their presence was necessary because of strong civil unrest in the area. Arriving in July,1774 the 5th camped near the town, on 19 April 1775, the Light Infantry and Grenadier Companies participated in the march to Concord, and the resulting fighting at Lexington and the march back to Boston.
Casualties were five men killed, three officers and 15 men wounded, and one man captured, on 17 June 1775, after being under siege by American forces for two months, the regiment participated in the attack on the fortifications at Breeds Hill. After spending two months on board ship in Halifax, Nova Scotia, the 5th sailed to New York to participate in the effort to capture the city from the Americans. They took part in the Battle of Long Island and the Battle of White Plains, the capture of Fort Washington, New York and they spent the winter of 1776-1777 quartered near New York City and were involved in skirmishes with the American forces. They were part of Howes campaign to capture Philadelphia, being engaged in the Battle of Brandywine Creek, on the retreat through New Jersey, on 28 June 1778, the regiment was involved in the fighting at Monmouth Court House. While in New York, the 5th participated in raids and skirmishes, including a raid on Little Egg Harbor
The regiment was formed on 1 July 1881 instigated under the Childers Reforms. The new two-battalion regiment was formed out of the 75th Regiment of Foot - which became the 1st Battalion of the new regiment - and the 92nd Regiment of Foot, Piper George Findlater, despite being wounded in both legs, continued to play the bagpipes during the assault. Another of the heroes involved the charge of the Gordon Highlanders at Dargai Heights, was Piper John Kidd, Piper Kidd was with Piper Findlater when, half-way up the heights, both pipers were shot down. Unmindful of his injuries, Piper Kidd sat up and continued to play The Cock o the North as the troops advanced up the heights, the 2nd Battalion fought at the Battle of Elandslaagte in October 1899 and the Siege of Ladysmith in November 1899 during the Second Boer War. The 2nd Battalion landed at Zeebrugge as part of the 20th Brigade in the 7th Division in October 1914 for service on the Western Front and moved to Italy in November 1917. The 1/4th Battalion landed at Le Havre as part of the 8th Brigade in the 3rd Division in February 1915 for service on the Western Front.
The 1/5th Battalion landed at Boulogne-sur-Mer as part of the 153rd Brigade in the 51st Division in May 1915 for service on the Western Front, the 1/6th Battalion landed at Le Havre as part of the 20th Brigade in the 7th Division for service on the Western Front. The 1/7th Battalion landed at Boulogne-sur-Mer as part of the 153rd Brigade in the 51st Division in May 1915 for service on the Western Front, the 8th Battalion landed at Boulogne-sur-Mer as part of the 26th Brigade in the 9th Division in May 1915 for service on the Western Front. The 9th Battalion and the 10th Battalion landed at Boulogne-sur-Mer as part of the 44th Brigade in the 15th Division in July 1915 for service on the Western Front, the folk singer and Scottish Traveller Jimmy MacBeath served with the regiment during the war. On 7 March 1940 the 1st Battalion exchanged with the Territorial 6th Battalion and transferred to the 153rd Infantry Brigade, the men of this battalion suffered more casualties as Prisoners of War in Japanese captivity than they did during the fighting on Singapore Island and Malaya.
The 2nd Battalion was reformed in May 1942 from personnel of the 11th Battalion and fought with the 15th Division and they formed part of 227th Brigade - the Junior brigade in the division. They were involved in the fighting around Cheux and Tourville-sur-Odon in Normandy. The 6th Battalion, a Territorial Army battalion, was transferred from the 153rd Brigade in the 51st Division before it joined the 2nd Infantry Brigade of the 1st Infantry Division and it took part in the Dunkirk evacuation. The 7th Battalion amalgamated with the 5th Battalion, becoming the 5th/7th Battalion, Gordon Highlanders, the 8th Battalion was converted to artillery, becoming the 100th Anti-Tank Regiment, Royal Artillery. This battalion served with the 2nd Infantry Division in the Burma Campaign, the 9th Battalion were initially posted to the Shetland islands. Later they were amalgamated with the 5th Battalion and sent to India for training, converted to an armoured regiment in 1942 as the 116th Regiment Royal Armoured Corps, they continued to wear the Gordons cap badge on the black beret of the RAC.
After the war the Gordons saw active service in the Malayan Emergency, the Regiment was amalgamated with The Queens Own Highlanders on September 17,1994 to form the Highlanders. In 1997, the Gordon Highlanders Museum opened, in the regimental headquarters in Aberdeen
Guards Armoured Division
The Guards Armoured Division was an armoured division of the British Army during the Second World War. That was followed by Operation Bluecoat, the advance east of Caen as the Falaise pocket formed, transferred to XXX Corps, the division liberated Brussels. The Tac HQ reached Arnhem but was not able to seize the bridge because German anti tank guns were entrenched on the North side and it endured hard fighting in Operation Veritable, the advance towards the Rhine through the Reichswald, and again in the advance through Germany. There was opposition to move, as it was felt by the establishment that the height of the Guards—selected for height, amongst other criteria. The division originally consisted of two armoured brigades, the 5th and the 6th and these consisted of three tank regiments of Covenanter V tanks and a motor infantry battalion. A certain level of common sense was applied to changes, with the 1st Battalion Grenadier Guards being assigned as the motor battalion. This group of men were all at least 6 feet tall and were expected to struggle to fit into tanks, uniquely the Guards Armoured Division kept its infantry company structure, with the tanks organised into companies and battalions, rather than squadrons and regiments.
At this point the 6th and 5th Guards Armoured Brigades were separated, during this period the division re-equipped with Crusader III tanks, which were again replaced with Sherman Vs by 1944. However this was only to last a couple of weeks before the armour arrived, originally intended as a combined attack, it was changed to an armoured assault as the British Army in France had suffered heavy infantry casualties and were struggling to find replacements. As a result, the attack was changed to one largely of armoured divisions, the Guards Armoured Division joined with the 7th and 11th Armoured Divisions for this attack. The aim was to strike out of the Orne bridgehead on 18 July. The Guards Armoured Division was to advance south-east to capture Vimont, prior to this attack the German defences were heavily bombed be the Royal Air Force. Unfortunately this was less effective than hoped against the dug-in defenders, all three of these areas were in the path of the Guards advance. The attack quickly bogged down and losses became heavy, the guards losing 60 tanks to a battery of four Luftwaffe 88mm AA guns.
In addition, the Guards were checked by a Schwere Panzerabteilung, novel tactics had to be employed to deal with the more heavily gunned and armoured Tiger, with one being rammed by a Sherman of the Irish Guards. He fired his 75mm gun but the shot bounced off German tank and he was unable to fire again as the Shermans gun was jammed. By now, the Tiger Tank was traversing its gun towards Gormans Sherman so he ordered his driver L/Cpl James Brown to ram the German Tank, the collision disabled the Tiger and caused its crew to bail out. Fighting continued until 20 July, when the gains were consolidated by infantry, the battle, while not a success from the operational point of view, was a battle in which the Guards acquitted themselves satisfactorily
Western Front (World War I)
The Western Front or Western Theater was the main theatre of war during World War I. Following the outbreak of war in August 1914, the German Army opened the Western Front by invading Luxembourg and Belgium, the tide of the advance was dramatically turned with the Battle of the Marne. Following the Race to the Sea, both sides dug in along a line of fortified trenches, stretching from the North Sea to the Swiss frontier with France. This line remained unchanged for most of the war. Between 1915 and 1917 there were several major offensives along this front, the attacks employed massive artillery bombardments and massed infantry advances. However, a combination of entrenchments, machine gun emplacements, barbed wire, as a result, no significant advances were made. In an effort to break the deadlock, this front saw the introduction of new technology, including poison gas, aircraft. But it was only after the adoption of improved tactics that some degree of mobility was restored, the German Armys Spring Offensive of 1918 was made possible by the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk that marked the end of the conflict on the Eastern Front.
In spite of the stagnant nature of this front, this theatre would prove decisive. The terms of peace were agreed upon with the signing of the Treaty of Versailles in 1919, belgiums neutrality was guaranteed by Britain under the 1839 Treaty of London, this caused Britain to join the war at the expiration of its ultimatum at 11 pm GMT on 4 August. Armies under German generals Alexander von Kluck and Karl von Bülow attacked Belgium on 4 August 1914, Luxembourg had been occupied without opposition on 2 August. The first battle in Belgium was the Siege of Liège, which lasted from 5–16 August, Liège was well fortified and surprised the German Army under von Bülow with its level of resistance. German heavy artillery was able to demolish the main forts within a few days. Following the fall of Liège, most of the Belgian field army retreated to Antwerp, leaving the garrison of Namur isolated, with the Belgian capital, although the German army bypassed Antwerp, it remained a threat to their flank. Another siege followed at Namur, lasting from about 20–23 August, for their part, the French had five armies deployed on their borders.
The pre-war French offensive plan, Plan XVII, was intended to capture Alsace-Lorraine following the outbreak of hostilities, on 7 August the VII Corps attacked Alsace with its objectives being to capture Mulhouse and Colmar. The main offensive was launched on 14 August with 1st and 2nd Armies attacking toward Sarrebourg-Morhange in Lorraine, in keeping with the Schlieffen Plan, the Germans withdrew slowly while inflicting severe losses upon the French. The French advanced the 3rd and 4th Armies toward the Saar River and attempted to capture Saarburg, attacking Briey and Neufchateau, before being driven back
Oxfordshire and Buckinghamshire Light Infantry
The Oxfordshire and Buckinghamshire Light Infantry was a light infantry regiment of the British Army that existed from 1881 until 1958, serving in the Second Boer War, World War I and World War II. The former numerical titles of the battalions remained in unofficial usage, 1st Battalion The 43rd Foot was based in Burma when it became the 1st Battalion. In 1882 the unit moved to Bangalore, India, in 1887 the battalion returned home, being based in Parkhurst, England. It moved to Kinsale, Ireland in 1893 and, having based in other parts of Ireland. In December 1899 the Second Boer War began and the 1st Battalion arrived in Southern Africa to take part in it. It saw extensive service in the conflict, including in the relief of the besieged British garrison at Kimberley, the war raged on for a further two years, the regiment saw extensive service for the duration of the conflict. The Oxfordshires returned to the UK in 1902 with the conclusion of the war and it moved to India the following year where it was based until the outbreak of World War I in 1914.
2nd Battalion The 52nd Light Infantry was based in Oxford and this was the 52nd of Waterloo fame who, under the command of Colonel Sir John Colborne, broke a battalion of the Chasseurs of the Imperial Guard. In 1886 it was based in India, where it would remain into the 20th century, in 1903 the battalion returned home and was initially based in Chatham and in 1907 moved to Tidworth, Wiltshire. The battalion was stationed at Albuhera barracks, when World War I commenced, during the war, the Ox and Bucks raised 12 battalions, six of which fought on the Western Front, two in Italy, two in Macedonia and one in Mesopotamia. The regiment won 59 battle honours and four theatre honours,5,878 officers and men of the Oxfordshire and Buckinghamshire Light Infantry lost their lives during the First World War. The battalion took part in the first British battle of the war, at Mons, where the British defeated the German forces that they had encountered on 23 August. The 2nd Ox and Bucks took part in all the battles of the First Battle of Ypres that saw the heart ripped out of the old Regular Army.
In the First Battle of Ypres the 2nd Ox and Bucks first engagement with the enemy was on 20 October in an attack on the Passchendaele ridge, the battalion had heavy casualties,4 officers killed and 5 wounded and 143 other ranks killed or wounded. On 11 November the Germans made another attempt to capture Ypres, First Ypres was the last major battle of 1914. In 1915 trench warfare commenced with both sides developing impregnable defences, leading to casualties in return for minimal gains. The 2nd Ox and Bucks were involved in fighting at Richebourg lAvoue on 15–16 May. The 2nd Ox and Bucks and other battalions of the regiment saw action at the Battle of Loos, 2nd Ox, the 2nd Battalion took part in the subsequent attack against the Hohenzollern Redoubt
World War II
World War II, known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although related conflicts began earlier. It involved the vast majority of the worlds countries—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing alliances, the Allies and the Axis. It was the most widespread war in history, and directly involved more than 100 million people from over 30 countries. Marked by mass deaths of civilians, including the Holocaust and the bombing of industrial and population centres. These made World War II the deadliest conflict in human history, from late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, and formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Finland and the Baltic states. In December 1941, Japan attacked the United States and European colonies in the Pacific Ocean, and quickly conquered much of the Western Pacific.
The Axis advance halted in 1942 when Japan lost the critical Battle of Midway, near Hawaii, in 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained all of its territorial losses and invaded Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in South Central China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy, thus ended the war in Asia, cementing the total victory of the Allies. World War II altered the political alignment and social structure of the world, the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The victorious great powers—the United States, the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union and the United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the Cold War, which lasted for the next 46 years. Meanwhile, the influence of European great powers waned, while the decolonisation of Asia, most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic recovery.
Political integration, especially in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities, the start of the war in Europe is generally held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland and France declared war on Germany two days later. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or even the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred simultaneously and this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935. The British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the forces of Mongolia and the Soviet Union from May to September 1939, the exact date of the wars end is not universally agreed upon.
It was generally accepted at the time that the war ended with the armistice of 14 August 1945, rather than the formal surrender of Japan
Infantry is the general branch of an army that engages in military combat on foot. As the troops who engage with the enemy in close-ranged combat, infantry units bear the largest brunt of warfare, Infantry can enter and maneuver in terrain that is inaccessible to military vehicles and employ crew-served infantry weapons that provide greater and more sustained firepower. In English, the 16th-century term Infantry describes soldiers who walk to the battlefield, and there engage, the term arose in Sixteenth-Century Spain, which boasted one of the first professional standing armies seen in Europe since the days of Rome. It was common to appoint royal princes to military commands, and the men under them became known as Infanteria. in the Canadian Army, the role of the infantry is to close with, and destroy the enemy. In the U. S. Army, the closes with the enemy, by means of fire and maneuver, in order to destroy or capture him, or to repel his assault by fire, close combat. In the U. S. Marine Corps, the role of the infantry is to locate, close with, and destroy the enemy fire and maneuver.
Beginning with the Napoleonic Wars of the early 19th century, artillery has become a dominant force on the battlefield. Since World War I, combat aircraft and armoured vehicles have become dominant. In 20th and 21st century warfare, infantry functions most effectively as part of a combined arms team including artillery, Infantry relies on organized formations to be employed in battle. These have evolved over time, but remain a key element to effective infantry development and deployment, until the end of the 19th century, infantry units were for the most part employed in close formations up until contact with the enemy. This allowed commanders to control of the unit, especially while maneuvering. The development of guns and other weapons with increased firepower forced infantry units to disperse in order to make them less vulnerable to such weapons. This decentralization of command was made possible by improved communications equipment, among the various subtypes of infantry is Medium infantry.
This refers to infantry which are heavily armed and armored than heavy infantry. In the early period, medium infantry were largely eliminated due to discontinued use of body armour up until the 20th century. In the United States Army, Stryker Infantry is considered Medium Infantry, since they are heavier than light infantry, Infantry doctrine is the concise expression of how infantry forces contribute to campaigns, major operations and engagements. It is a guide to action, not a set of hard, doctrine provides a very common frame of reference across the military forces, allowing the infantry to function cooperatively in what are now called combined arms operations. Doctrine helps standardise operations, facilitating readiness by establishing common ways of accomplishing infantry tasks, doctrine links theory, history and practice
Development in this region is restricted by the Metropolitan Green Belt. Other large settlements include the county town of Aylesbury, Marlow in the south near the Thames and Princes Risborough in the west near Oxford. Some areas without rail links to London, such as around the old county town of Buckingham. The largest town is Milton Keynes in the northeast, which with the area is administered as a unitary authority separately to the rest of Buckinghamshire. The remainder of the county is administered by Buckinghamshire County Council as a non-metropolitan county, in national elections, Buckinghamshire is considered a reliable supporter of the Conservative Party. A large part of the Chiltern Hills, an Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty, runs through the south of the county and attracts many walkers, in this area older buildings are often made from local flint and red brick. Chequers, an estate owned by the government, is the country retreat of the incumbent Prime Minister. To the north of the county lies rolling countryside in the Vale of Aylesbury, the Thames forms part of the county’s southwestern boundary.
Notable service amenities in the county are Pinewood Film Studios, Dorney rowing lake, many national companies have offices in Milton Keynes. Heavy industry and quarrying is limited, with agriculture predominating after service industries, the name Buckinghamshire is Anglo-Saxon in origin and means The district of Buccas home. Buccas home refers to Buckingham in the north of the county, the county has been so named since about the 12th century, the county has existed since it was a subdivision of the kingdom of Mercia. Historically, the biggest change to the county came in the 19th century, Buckinghamshire is a popular home for London commuters, leading to greater local affluence, some pockets of relative deprivation remain. As a result, most county institutions are now based in the south of the county or Milton Keynes, the county can be split into two sections geographically. The county includes parts of two of the four longest rivers in England, the River Thames forms the southern boundary with Berkshire, which has crept over the border at Eton and Slough so that the river is no longer the sole boundary between the two counties.
The River Great Ouse rises just outside the county in Northamptonshire and flows east through Buckingham, Milton Keynes, the main branch of the Grand Union Canal passes through the county as do its arms to Slough, Aylesbury and Buckingham. The canal has been incorporated into the landscaping of Milton Keynes, the southern part of the county is dominated by the Chiltern Hills. The two highest points in Buckinghamshire are Haddington Hill in Wendover Woods at 267 metres above sea level, quarrying has taken place for chalk, clay for brickmaking and gravel and sand in the river valleys. Flint, extracted from quarries, was used to build older local buildings
Royal Berkshire Regiment
The Royal Berkshire Regiment was a line infantry regiment of the British Army in existence from 1881 until 1959. The regiment was created in 1881, as the Princess Charlotte of Waless, by the amalgamation of the 49th Regiment of Foot, in 1921, it was renamed the Royal Berkshire Regiment. The regiment saw service in the Second Boer War, World War I. The Berkshire Regiment was formed as part of the carried out by Edward Cardwell and Hugh Childers. The first stage, under Cardwell in 1873, introduced a localisation scheme and this saw the United Kingdom divided into Brigade Districts consisting of a county or counties. Each district was assigned two infantry battalions, one of which would be on foreign service while the other was on home service. The home-based battalion was to provide drafts to the battalion on duty as required. County militia regiments were to be linked with the regular battalions and it was announced that a depot was to be built at Reading, which would serve a district comprising the County of Berkshire.
The two line battalions which were to be linked were the 49th and 66th Regiments of Foot, on 1 July 1881, the reforms were completed under Childers, with the formation of the The Princess Charlotte of Waless 1st Battalion. The regiment had raised in 1743, and had been granted the title Princess Charlotte of Waless in 1816. The regiment had raised in 1758. They arrived by train in Penzance at around 4pm and took temporary barracks in the town, two hours their assistance was requested by the Superintendent in charge and assisted police in occupying the pier at Newlyn long enough to see in the arrival of the HMS Ferret. The 1st Battalion was posted at Gibraltar from February 1900, most battalions would see active service in the trenches of the Western Front in Belgium and France. The 1st Battalion was a Regular Army unit and was serving with the 6th Brigade, part of the 2nd Division and served with the British Expeditionary Force when it was sent to Belgium in 1914. They fought in the Battle of Mons, the Marne and the First Battle of Ypres, in 1915 during the Battle of Loos, 2nd Lieutenant Alexander Buller Turner of the 3rd Battalion, attached to the 1st, was posthumously awarded the Victoria Cross.
In 1916 Lance corporal James Welch, of the 1st Battalion, was awarded the Victoria Cross as well and they came to the Western Front in late 1914 and served there for the rest of the war. The Territorial Force saw an expansion and raised the 1/4th, 2/4th and 3/4th battalions. The 1/4th Battalion was part of the South Midland Brigade of the South Midland Division, in 1915 it was designated the 145th Brigade, 48th Division
Royal Warwickshire Regiment
The Royal Warwickshire Regiment, previously titled the 6th Regiment of Foot, was a line infantry regiment of the British Army in continuous existence for 283 years. The regiment saw service in conflicts and wars, including the Second Boer War. On 1 May 1963, the regiment was re-titled, for the time, as the Royal Warwickshire Fusiliers. The regiment traces its origins to the 17th century, in the Netherlands in 1674, the government retained two regiments of English troops, two of Scots and one Irish. In 1685, when James II requested their services during the Duke of Monmouths rebellion, after Monmouths defeat, they returned to the Netherlands. However, when William III became king of England in 1688, they accompanied him, the 6th was nicknamed the Dutch Guards by William. Service in Ireland followed and the regiment was present at the Battle of the Boyne in 1690, campaigning in Flanders during 1692-1695 followed, with the Battle of Steenkerque in August 1692 and the Siege of Namur in July 1695, which was the 6ths first battle honour.
During the War of the Spanish Succession, the 6th was in Spain and Portugal fighting the armies of Spain, the regiment fought at Barcelona in 1706 and suffered heavy casualties at Almanza in 1707. In 1710, the 6th played a part in the victory of Almenar and won undying fame at Saragossa. The regiments next conflict was the Jacobite rising of 1745, the 6th was sent to secure the highland forts between Inverness and Fort William. Two companies were with the army under General Sir John Cope at the Battle of Prestonpans. The 6th defended Fort William, beating off every attack as all the highland forts surrendered. The regiment went to Gibraltar in 1753 before moving on to the West Indies on garrison duty in 1772. On the outbreak of the American War of Independence, detachments from the 6th arrived in New York in 1776 and saw action, but were of insufficient strength and were sent home. When, as an aid to recruiting, territorial links of infantry regiments were first established in 1782, the 1st Battalion went from Gibraltar to the Iberian Peninsula and was at Roliça and Vimeiro in 1808.
The battalion took part in the Corunna, losing 400 men during the march, the men were shipped to UK before taking part in the Walcheren Campaign before returning to the Peninsula in 1812. The regiment was present at Vitoria in 1813 and heavily engaged at the action at Roncesvalles. The regiment was held in reserve at the Nive and was heavily engaged at Orthez in 1814
7th Armoured Division (United Kingdom)
After the Munich Agreement, the division was formed in Egypt during 1938 as the Mobile Division and its first divisional commander was the acclaimed tank theorist Major-General Sir Percy Hobart. In February 1940, the name of the unit was changed to the 7th Armoured Division and it began landing in Normandy during the afternoon of D-Day,6 June 1944, and fought its way across Europe ending the war in Kiel and Hamburg, Germany. Although the 7th Armoured Division was disbanded during the 1950s, the history, when Italian troops were massed for the invasion of Abyssinia in 1935, a Mobile Force was assembled in Egypt in case the war spread. When rain and sandstorms led to vehicles being bogged down, it known as the Immobile Farce within the ranks. After the Munich Crisis, elements of what would become the 7th Armoured Division arrived in the Middle East in 1938 to increase British strength in Egypt, the Mobile Force – initially the Matruh Mobile Force – was established on the coast some 120 mi west of Alexandria.
It was formed from the Cairo Cavalry Brigade and supported by the 3rd Regiment Royal Horse Artillery, a company of the Royal Army Service Corps, the Force was organised as a cavalry brigade, a tank group and a pivot group. It was joined by the 1st battalion of the Kings Royal Rifle Corps from Burma and its first commander, Hobart was an armoured warfare expert and saw that his troops were properly prepared to fight in the desert despite their poor equipment. The Kings Royal Rifle Corps battalion joined the group as a Motor Battalion. By September 1939 the artillery was equipped with 25 pounder gun-howitzers, the next month the first cruiser tanks were issued. In December 1939, Major-General Michael OMoore Creagh succeeded Hobart, who had fallen foul of his superiors, the division was meant to be equipped with 220 tanks. However, at the outbreak of the Second World War, in September 1939, most of the units troops had already been deployed for two years by 1940 and it took as long as three months for mail to arrive.
On 16 February 1940, the Mobile Division, which had changed names during the middle of 1939 to be called the Armoured Division, after the Italian declaration of war, the Western Desert Force, under the command of Major-General Richard OConnor, was massively outnumbered. As such, it proved to be no match for the British, the Western Desert Force captured 130,000 Italians as prisoners of war between December 1940 and February 1941 in piecemeal battles. Lieutenant Colonel John Combe led this ad hoc group, which was known as Combe Force after him, the Italians had proven so weak that Hitler was forced to send the Afrika Korps, under Erwin Rommel, as reinforcements. In April 1941, the Allied troops in Tobruk were cut off by the Germans and Italians, on 7 June, the division was again prepared for battle as part of Operation Battleaxe, having received new tanks and additional personnel. In the attack plan for Operation Battleaxe, the 7th force was divided between the Coast Force and Escarpment Force, this Allied push failed, and the 7th Armoured Division was forced to withdraw on the third day of fighting.
On 18 November, as part of Operation Crusader the whole of the 7th Armoured Division was concentrated on breaking through and they faced only the weakened 21st Panzer Division. However, the XXX Corps commander, Lieutenant-General Willoughby Norrie, aware that the 7th Armoured Division was down to 200 tanks, during the wait, in the early afternoon of 22 November, Rommel attacked Sidi Rezegh with the 21st Panzer and captured the airfield
The Worcestershire Regiment was a line infantry regiment in the British Army, formed in 1881 under the Childers Reforms by the amalgamation of the 29th Regiment of Foot and the 36th Regiment of Foot. In September 2007, the regiment amalgamated with the Cheshire Regiment, the regiment was formed in 1881 under the Childers Reforms by the amalgamation of the 29th Regiment of Foot and the 36th Regiment of Foot. The 1st Battalion was initially deployed to India, while the 2nd Battalion was initially deployed to Ireland, the 1st Battalion was based at Ladybrand during the Second Boer War, while the 2nd Battalion saw heavy fighting near the Modder River. As the war dragged on, a number of regiments containing large centres of population formed additional regular battalions, the Worcestershire regiment formed 3rd and 4th regular Battalions in February 1900, when the existing militia battalions were relabeled as the 5th and 6th battalions. Troops from the regiment shot dead two men during the Llanelli railway strike in August 1911, during the First World War, members of the Regiment won nine Victoria Crosses,70 Distinguished Service Orders,288 Military Crosses,227 Distinguished Conduct Medals.
The 1st Battalion landed at Le Havre as part of the 24th Brigade in the 8th Division in November 1914 for service on the Western Front. The 1st Battalion placed an important role at the Battle of Neuve Chapelle in March 1915 but lost their commanding officer, Lieutenant-Colonel E. C. F. Wodehouse, who was killed-in-action. The 2nd Battalion landed at Boulogne-sur-Mer as part of the 5th Brigade in the 2nd Division August 1914 for service on the Western Front. The 3rd Battalion landed at Rouen as part of the 7th Brigade in the 3rd Division in August 1914 for service on the Western Front, the 3rd Battalion saw action at the Battle of Messines in June 1917. The 4th Battalion took part in the Battle of Le Transloy in October 1916, the 2/7th and 2/8th Battalions landed in France as part of the 2nd Gloucester & Worcester Brigade in the 2nd South Midland Division in May 1916 for service on the Western Front. The 10th Battalion landed in France as part of the 57th Brigade in the 19th Division in July 1915 for service on the Western Front.
The 11th Battalion landed in France as part of the 78th Brigade in the 26th Division in September 1915 for service on the Western Front, in December 1918, the regiment was used to suppress the Taranto Revolt, executing one of the rebels by firing squad. During the Second World War,994 officers and other ranks of the Worcestershire Regiment were killed in action or died of their wounds, the regiment was awarded 36 battle honours. The battalion was destined to see service in the Western Desert, in July 1940, the battalion was assigned to the 21st Infantry Brigade, serving alongside the 2nd Battalion, West Yorkshire Regiment and the 1st Battalion, Essex Regiment. The brigade was assigned to the 5th Indian Infantry Division and saw service in the East African Campaign. On 22 June 1942, the battalion, still fighting in North Africa, along with 30,000 other British Commonwealth troops, of the men of the original battalion, only 68 officers and men remained. The battalion was reformed in England by the redesignation of the 11th Battalion, the 2nd Battalion was a Regular Army unit.
On the outbreak of the Second World War in 1939, it was stationed in British India, the brigade was part of the 19th Indian Infantry Division, the Dagger Division