624 Hektor

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624 Hektor
624Hektor-LB1-mag15.jpg
Star field showing Hektor (apmag 15)
Discovery [1]
Discovered by A. Kopff
Discovery site Heidelberg Obs.
Discovery date 10 February 1907
Designations
MPC designation (624) Hektor
Pronunciation /ˈhɛktɔːr/ HEK-tor
Named after
Hector (Greek mythology)[2]
1907 XM; 1948 VD
Jupiter trojan[1][3] · Hektor[4]
(Greek camp)[5]
Adjectives Hektorian
Orbital characteristics[3]
Epoch 23 March 2018 (JD 2458200.5)
Uncertainty parameter 0
Observation arc 111.28 yr (40,646 d)
Aphelion 5.3824 AU
Perihelion 5.1319 AU
5.2571 AU
Eccentricity 0.0238
12.05 yr (4,403 d)
136.09°
0° 4m 54.48s / day
Inclination 18.166°
342.79°
185.22°
Known satellites 1 (Skamandrios; D: 12±3 km[6]
Jupiter MOID 0.2752 AU
TJupiter 2.8990
Physical characteristics
Dimensions 370 km × 195 km × 195 km[7]
403 km × 201 km (derived)[6]
Mean diameter
147.37±2.33 km[8]
225 km[3]
226.68±15.15 km[9]
230.99±3.94 km[10]
250±26 km[6]
Mass (9.95±0.12)×1018 kg[9]
(7.9±1.4)×1018 kg[6]
Mean density
1.0±0.3 g/cm3[6]
1.63±0.32 g/cm3[9]
2.43±0.35 g/cm3[11]
6.9205 hours (0.28835 d)[6]
0.025[3]
0.034±0.001[10]
0.107±0.011[8]
D (Tholen)[3]
13.79 to 15.26[citation needed]
7.20[8] · 7.3[3] · 7.49[10]
0.078" to 0.048"[citation needed]

624 Hektor (/ˈhɛktɔːr/ HEK-tor) is the largest Jupiter trojan and the namesake of the Hektor family, with a highly elongated shape equivalent in volume to a sphere of approximately 225 to 250 kilometers diameter. It was discovered on 10 February 1907, by astronomer August Kopff at Heidelberg Observatory in southwest Germany, and named after the Trojan prince Hector, from Greek mythology.[1][2] It has one small 12-kilometer sized satellite, Skamandrios, discovered in 2006.

Description[edit]

Hektor is a D-type asteroid, dark and reddish in colour. It lies in Jupiter's leading Lagrangian point, L4, called the Greek camp after one of the two sides in the legendary Trojan War. Hektor is named after the Trojan hero Hektor and is thus one of two trojan asteroids that is "misplaced" in the wrong camp (the other one being 617 Patroclus in the Trojan camp).

Contact binary plus moon[edit]

Hektor is one of the most elongated bodies of its size in the Solar System, being approximately 403 km in its longest dimension, but averaging only around 201 km in its other dimensions, with a total volume equivalent to an approx 250 km diameter sphere, and an estimated mass of 7.9×1018 kg (thus density of 1.0g/cm3). It is thought that Hektor might be a contact binary (two asteroids joined by gravitational attraction) like 216 Kleopatra, composed of two more rounded lobes of 220 and 183 km mean diameters[6]. Hubble Space Telescope observations of Hektor in 1993 did not show an obvious bilobate shape because of a limited angular resolution. On 17 July 2006, the Keck 10-meter-II-telescope and its laser guide star adaptive optics (AO) system indicated a bilobate shape for Hektor[12], which was reinforced by later studies that, together with multiple historical lightcurves, suggest a rotation period of 6.9205 hours.[6]

Additionally, a 12-km-diameter moon of Hektor, named Skamandrios, S/2006 (624) 1, was detected orbiting with a semi-major axis of 623.5 km and an orbital period of 2.9651 days (71.162 hours).[13][6] It was confirmed with Keck observations in November 2011.[14] No mass estimate was provided, but the equivalent volume suggests an approximate mass of 8.74×1014 kg if the two bodies are of the same density.

Hektor is, so far, the only known binary trojan asteroid in the L4 point and the first known trojan with a satellite companion. 617 Patroclus, another large trojan asteroid located in the L5, is composed of two almost equal-sized components.[12]

The largest Jupiter trojans
Trojan Diameter (km)
624 Hektor 225
617 Patroclus 140
911 Agamemnon 131
588 Achilles 130
3451 Mentor 126
3317 Paris 119
1867 Deiphobus 118
1172 Äneas 118
1437 Diomedes 118
1143 Odysseus 115
Source: JPL Small-Body Database, NEOWISE data

Studies[edit]

624 Hektor was in a 2003 study of asteroids using the Hubble FGS.[15] Asteroids studied include (63) Ausonia, (15) Eunomia, (43) Ariadne, (44) Nysa, and (624) Hektor.[15] It has since been revisited several times, particularly as a test of the upgraded resolution of the Keck Observatory's LGS Adaptive Optics system which allowed Earth-based observation of binary asteroids for the first time,[12][6] the asteroid has also been imaged by the NEOWISE and AKARI all-sky studies, which reported highly divergent size estimates of 147.4[8] and 231.0 kilometers [10] respectively, although this mostly arises from large differences in estimated albedo (approximately 0.107 for NEOWISE, and a much lower 0.034 for AKARI) rather than its absolute magnitude being measured only briefly at opposing extremes of a widely varying cycle such as thought to account for the uncertainty over the size of 1173 Anchises (624 Hektor's own abs. mag. recorded as a relatively similar 7.20 and 7.49 by the two studies). It is, unusually, not included in the published IRAS results, and is therefore the largest Jupiter trojan to be omitted from that study.

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Largest Jupiter Trojans by survey(A)
(mean-diameter in kilometers; YoD: Year of Discovery)
Designation H WISE IRAS Akari Ln RP V–I YoD Ref
624 Hektor 7.2 225 233 230.99 L4 6.92 0.930 1907 list
617 Patroclus 8.19 140.362 140.92 140.85 L5 102.80 0.830 1906 list
911 Agamemnon 7.89 131.038 166.66 185.30 L4 6.59 0.980 1919 list
588 Achilles 8.67 130.099 135.47 133.22 L4 7.31 0.940 1906 list
3451 Mentor 8.4 126.288 116.30 117.91 L5 7.70 0.770 1984 list
3317 Paris 8.3 118.790 116.26 120.45 L5 7.09 0.950 1984 list
1867 Deiphobus 8.3 118.220 122.67 131.31 L5 58.66 0.930 1971 list
1172 Äneas 8.33 118.020 142.82 148.66 L5 8.71 0.950 1930 list
1437 Diomedes 8.3 117.786 164.31 172.60 L4 24.49 0.810 1937 list
1143 Odysseus 7.93 114.624 125.64 130.81 L4 10.11 0.860 1930 list
2241 Alcathous 8.64 113.682 114.63 118.87 L5 7.69 0.940 1979 list
659 Nestor 8.99 112.320 108.87 107.06 L4 15.98 0.790 1908 list
3793 Leonteus 8.7 112.046 86.26 87.58 L4 5.62 0.780 1985 list
3063 Makhaon 8.4 111.655 116.14 114.34 L4 8.64 0.830 1983 list
1583 Antilochus 8.6 108.842 101.62 111.69 L4 31.54 0.950 1950 list
884 Priamus 8.81 101.093 96.29 119.99 L5 6.86 0.900 1917 list
1208 Troilus 8.99 100.477 103.34 111.36 L5 56.17 0.740 1931 list
1173 Anchises 8.89 99.549 126.27 120.49 L5 11.60 0.780 1930 list
2207 Antenor 8.89 97.658 85.11 91.32 L5 7.97 0.950 1977 list
2363 Cebriones 9.11 95.976 81.84 84.61 L5 20.05 0.910 1977 list
4063 Euforbo 8.7 95.619 102.46 106.38 L4 8.85 0.950 1989 list
2357 Phereclos 8.94 94.625 94.90 98.45 L5 14.39 0.960 1981 list
4709 Ennomos 8.5 91.433 80.85 80.03 L5 12.28 0.690 1988 list
2797 Teucer 8.7 89.430 111.14 113.99 L4 10.15 0.920 1981 list
2920 Automedon 8.8 88.574 111.01 113.11 L4 10.21 0.950 1981 list
(15436) 1998 VU30 9.1 87.646 85.71 78.63 L4 8.97 0.870 1998 list
3596 Meriones 9.2 87.380 75.09 73.28 L4 12.96 0.830 1985 list
2893 Peiroos 9.23 86.884 87.46 86.76 L5 8.96 0.950 1975 list
4086 Podalirius 9.1 85.495 86.89 85.98 L4 10.43 0.870 1985 list
4060 Deipylos 9.3 84.043 79.21 86.79 L4 9.30 0.760 1987 list
1404 Ajax 9.3 83.990 81.69 96.34 L4 29.38 0.960 1936 list
4348 Poulydamas 9.5 82.032 70.08 87.51 L5 9.91 0.840 1988 list
5144 Achates 9.0 80.958 91.91 89.85 L5 5.96 0.920 1991 list
4833 Meges 8.9 80.165 87.33 89.39 L4 14.25 0.940 1989 list
2223 Sarpedon 9.41 77.480 94.63 108.21 L5 22.74 0.880 1977 list
(4489) 1988 AK 9.0 76.595 92.93 95.02 L4 12.58 0.950 1988 list
2260 Neoptolemus 9.31 76.435 71.65 81.28 L4 8.18 0.950 1975 list
5254 Ulysses 9.2 76.147 78.34 80.00 L4 28.72 0.970 1986 list
(3708) 1974 FV1 9.3 75.661 79.59 76.75 L5 6.55 0.980 1974 list
2674 Pandarus 9.1 74.267 98.10 101.72 L5 8.48 1.000 1982 list
3564 Talthybius 9.4 73.730 68.92 74.11 L4 40.59 0.900 1985 list
4834 Thoas 9.1 72.331 86.82 96.21 L4 18.19 0.950 1989 list
(7641) 1986 TT6 9.4 71.839 68.97 75.28 L4 27.77 0.980 1986 list
3540 Protesilaos 9.3 70.225 76.84 87.66 L4 8.95 0.940 1973 list
(11395) 1998 XN77 9.8 68.977 64.71 67.78 L4 17.38 1998 list
(4035) 1986 WD 9.6 68.733 68.23 66.99 L4 13.47 0.970 1986 list
5264 Telephus 9.4 68.472 73.26 81.38 L4 9.53 0.970 1991 list
1868 Thersites 9.5 68.163 70.08 78.89 L4 10.48 0.960 1960 list
(9799) 1996 RJ 9.6 68.033 64.87 72.42 L4 21.52 0.910 1996 list
4068 Menestheus 9.5 67.625 62.37 68.46 L4 14.40 0.950 1973 list
(23135) 2000 AN146 9.9 66.230 58.29 68.50 L4 8.69 0.860 2000 list
2456 Palamedes 9.3 65.916 91.66 99.60 L4 7.24 0.920 1966 list
3709 Polypoites 9.1 65.297 99.09 85.23 L4 10.04 1.000 1985 list
1749 Telamon 9.5 64.898 81.06 69.14 L4 16.98 0.970 1949 list
3548 Eurybates 9.6 63.885 72.14 68.40 L4 8.71 0.730 1973 list
4543 Phoinix 9.7 63.836 62.79 69.54 L4 38.87 1.200 1989 list
12444 Prothoon 9.8 63.835 64.31 62.41 L5 15.82 1996 list
4836 Medon 9.5 63.277 67.73 78.70 L4 9.82 0.920 1989 list
(16070) 1999 RB101 9.7 63.191 64.13 68.98 L5 20.24 0.960 1999 list
(15440) 1998 WX4 9.6 62.519 66.48 71.88 L4 21.43 0.970 1998 list
(4715) 1989 TS1 9.7 62.097 63.91 65.93 L5 8.81 0.850 1989 list
(34746) 2001 QE91 9.8 61.684 60.51 63.63 L5 19.63 0.950 2001 list
(38050) 1998 VR38 9.8 61.603 61.04 50.44 L4 18.85 0.990 1998 list
5130 Ilioneus 9.7 60.711 59.40 52.49 L5 14.77 0.960 1989 list
5027 Androgeos 9.6 59.786 57.86 n.a. L4 11.38 0.910 1988 list
(6090) 1989 DJ 9.4 59.568 74.53 81.92 L4 18.48 0.980 1989 list
(5648) 1990 VU1 9.7 59.295 63.91 n.a. L5 37.56 0.900 1990 list
7119 Hiera 9.7 59.150 76.40 77.29 L4 400 0.950 1989 list
4805 Asteropaios 10.0 57.647 53.16 43.44 L5 12.37 1990 list
16974 Iphthime 9.8 57.341 55.43 57.15 L4 78.9 0.960 1998 list
4867 Polites 9.8 57.251 58.29 64.29 L5 11.24 1.010 1989 list
2895 Memnon 10.0 56.706 55.67 n.a. L5 7.50 0.710 1981 list
4708 Polydoros 9.9 54.964 55.67 n.a. L5 7.52 0.960 1988 list
(21601) 1998 XO89 10.0 54.909 55.67 56.08 L4 12.65 0.970 1998 list
(12929) 1999 TZ1 9.9 54.077 61.04 55.34 L5 9.27 0.880 1999 list
17492 Hippasos 10.0 53.975 55.67 n.a. L5 17.75 1991 list
5652 Amphimachus 10.1 53.921 53.16 52.48 L4 8.37 1.050 1992 list
2759 Idomeneus 9.9 53.676 61.01 52.55 L4 32.38 0.910 1980 list
(5258) 1989 AU1 10.2 53.275 50.77 n.a. L4 19.85 1.010 1989 list
(12126) 1999 RM11 10.1 53.202 n.a. n.a. L5 n.a. ? 1999 list
(15502) 1999 NV27 10.0 53.100 55.67 50.86 L5 15.13 0.875 1999 list
4754 Panthoos 10.0 53.025 53.15 56.96 L5 27.68 1977 list
4832 Palinurus 10.0 52.058 53.16 n.a. L5 5.32 1.000 1988 list
5126 Achaemenides 10.5 51.922 44.22 48.57 L4 53.02 1989 list
3240 Laocoon 10.2 51.695 50.77 n.a. L5 11.31 0.880 1978 list
4902 Thessandrus 9.8 51.263 61.04 71.79 L4 738 0.960 1989 list
11552 Boucolion 10.1 51.136 53.16 53.91 L5 32.44 1993 list
(20729) 1999 XS143 10.4 50.961 46.30 n.a. L4 5.72 1.000 1999 list
(6545) 1986 TR6 10.1 50.951 53.16 n.a. L4 16.26 0.910 1986 list
4792 Lykaon 10.1 50.870 53.16 n.a. L5 40.09 0.960 1988 list
21900 Orus 10.0 50.810 55.67 53.87 L4 13.45 0.950 1999 list
1873 Agenor 10.1 50.799 53.76 54.38 L5 20.60 1971 list
5028 Halaesus 10.2 50.770 50.77 n.a. L4 24.94 0.900 1988 list
2146 Stentor 9.9 50.755 58.29 n.a. L4 16.40 1976 list
4722 Agelaos 10.0 50.378 53.16 59.47 L5 18.44 0.910 1977 list
5284 Orsilocus 10.1 50.159 53.16 n.a. L4 10.31 0.970 1989 list
11509 Thersilochos 10.1 49.960 53.16 56.23 L5 17.37 1990 list
5285 Krethon 10.1 49.606 58.53 52.61 L4 12.04 1.090 1989 list
4791 Iphidamas 10.1 49.528 57.85 59.96 L5 9.70 1.030 1988 list
9023 Mnesthus 10.1 49.151 50.77 60.80 L5 30.66 1988 list
5283 Pyrrhus 9.7 48.356 64.58 69.93 L4 7.32 0.950 1989 list
4946 Askalaphus 10.2 48.209 52.71 66.10 L4 22.73 0.940 1988 list
(22149) 2000 WD49 10.2 48.190 50.77 50.37 L4 7.84 1.090 2000 list
(32496) 2000 WX182 10.2 48.017 50.77 51.63 L5 23.34 0.950 2000 list
5120 Bitias 10.2 47.987 50.77 n.a. L5 15.21 0.780 1988 list
12714 Alkimos 10.1 47.819 61.04 54.62 L4 28.48 1991 list
(7352) 1994 CO 9.9 47.731 55.67 47.07 L5 648 0.850 1994 list
1870 Glaukos 10.6 47.649 42.23 n.a. L5 5.99 1971 list
4138 Kalchas 10.1 46.462 53.16 61.04 L4 29.2 0.810 1973 list
(23958) 1998 VD30 10.2 46.001 50.77 47.91 L4 562 0.990 1998 list
4828 Misenus 10.4 45.954 46.30 43.22 L5 12.87 0.920 1988 list
4057 Demophon 10.1 45.683 53.16 n.a. L4 29.82 1.060 1985 list
4501 Eurypylos 10.4 45.524 46.30 n.a. L4 6.05 1989 list
4007 Euryalos 10.3 45.515 48.48 53.89 L4 6.39 1973 list
5259 Epeigeus 10.3 44.741 42.59 44.42 L4 18.42 1989 list
30705 Idaios 10.4 44.546 46.30 n.a. L5 15.74 1977 list
16560 Daitor 10.7 43.861 51.42 43.38 L5 1991 list
(15977) 1998 MA11 10.4 43.530 46.30 51.53 L5 250 0.906 1998 list
7543 Prylis 10.6 42.893 42.23 n.a. L4 17.80 1973 list
4827 Dares 10.5 42.770 44.22 n.a. L5 19.00 1988 list
1647 Menelaus 10.5 42.716 44.22 n.a. L4 17.74 0.866 1957 list
(A) Used sources: WISE/NEOWISE catalog (NEOWISE_DIAM_V1 PDS, Grav, 2012); IRAS data (SIMPS v.6 catalog);
and Akari catalog (Usui, 2011); RP: rotation period and V–I (color index) taken from the LCDB

Note: missing data was completed with figures from the JPL SBDB (query) and from the LCDB (query form) for the
WISE/NEOWISE and SIMPS catalogs, respectively. These figures are given in italics. Also, listing is incomplete above #100.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c "624 Hektor (1907 XM)". Minor Planet Center. Retrieved 14 June 2018. 
  2. ^ a b Schmadel, Lutz D. (2007). Dictionary of Minor Planet Names – (624) Hektor. Springer Berlin Heidelberg. p. 63. ISBN 978-3-540-00238-3. Retrieved 14 June 2018. 
  3. ^ a b c d e f "JPL Small-Body Database Browser: 624 Hektor (1907 XM)" (2018-05-25 last obs.). Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Retrieved 14 June 2018. 
  4. ^ "Small Bodies Data Ferret". Nesvorny HCM Asteroid Families V3.0. Retrieved 19 October 2017. 
  5. ^ "List of Jupiter Trojans". Minor Planet Center. 4 October 2017. Retrieved 19 October 2017. 
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Marchis, F.; Durech, J.; Castillo-Rogez, J.; Vachier, F.; Cuk, M.; Berthier, J.; et al. (March 2014). "The Puzzling Mutual Orbit of the Binary Trojan Asteroid (624) Hektor" (PDF). The Astrophysical Journal Letters. 783 (2): 6. arXiv:1402.7336Freely accessible. Bibcode:2014ApJ...783L..37M. doi:10.1088/2041-8205/783/2/L37. Retrieved 14 June 2018. 
  7. ^ Storrs, Alex; Weiss, Ben; Zellner, Ben; Burleson, Win; Sichitiu, Rukmini; Wells, Eddie; et al. (February 1999). "Imaging Observations of Asteroids with Hubble Space Telescope" (PDF). Icarus. 137 (2): 260–268. Bibcode:1999Icar..137..260S. doi:10.1006/icar.1999.6047. Retrieved 14 June 2018. 
  8. ^ a b c d Grav, T.; Mainzer, A. K.; Bauer, J. M.; Masiero, J. R.; Nugent, C. R. (November 2012). "WISE/NEOWISE Observations of the Jovian Trojan Population: Taxonomy" (PDF). The Astrophysical Journal. 759 (1): 10. arXiv:1209.1549Freely accessible. Bibcode:2012ApJ...759...49G. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/759/1/49. Retrieved 13 June 2018.  (online catalog)
  9. ^ a b c Carry, B. (December 2012), "Density of asteroids" (PDF), Planetary and Space Science, 73, pp. 98–118, arXiv:1203.4336Freely accessible, Bibcode:2012P&SS...73...98C, doi:10.1016/j.pss.2012.03.009  See Table 1.
  10. ^ a b c d Usui, Fumihiko; Kuroda, Daisuke; Müller, Thomas G.; Hasegawa, Sunao; Ishiguro, Masateru; Ootsubo, Takafumi; et al. (October 2011). "Asteroid Catalog Using Akari: AKARI/IRC Mid-Infrared Asteroid Survey". Publications of the Astronomical Society of Japan. 63 (5): 1117–1138. Bibcode:2011PASJ...63.1117U. doi:10.1093/pasj/63.5.1117. Retrieved 13 June 2018.  (online, AcuA catalog p. 153)
  11. ^ Descamps, Pascal (January 2015). "Dumb-bell-shaped equilibrium figures for fiducial contact-binary asteroids and EKBOs" (PDF). Icarus. 245: 64–79. arXiv:1410.7962Freely accessible. Bibcode:2015Icar..245...64D. doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2014.08.002. Retrieved 14 June 2018. 
  12. ^ a b c Franck Marchis (November 2005). "Searching and Characterizing Multiple Trojan Asteroids with LGS AO Systems" (PDF) (PDF). Retrieved 14 June 2018. 
  13. ^ "IAUC 8732: S/2006 (624) 1 (Satellite Discovery)". Central Bureau for Astronomical Telegrams. International Astronomical Union. 21 July 2006. Retrieved 14 June 2018. 
  14. ^ @AllPlanets (11 November 2011). "Dome closed, Keck telescope is..." (Tweet) – via Twitter. 
  15. ^ a b Tanga, P.; Hestroffer, D.; Cellino, A.; Lattanzi, M.; Di Martino, M.; Zappalà, V. (April 2003). "Asteroid observations with the Hubble Space Telescope. II. Duplicity search and size measurements for 6 asteroids" (PDF). Astronomy and Astrophysics: 733–741. Bibcode:2003A&A...401..733T. doi:10.1051/0004-6361:20030032. Retrieved 14 June 2018. 

External links[edit]