The Workers' and Peasants' Red Army shortened to Red Army was the army and the air force of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, after 1922, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. The army was established after the 1917 October Revolution; the Bolsheviks raised an army to oppose the military confederations of their adversaries during the Russian Civil War. Beginning in February 1946, the Red Army, along with the Soviet Navy, embodied the main component of the Soviet Armed Forces; the Red Army provided the largest land force in the Allied victory in the European theatre of World War II, its invasion of Manchuria assisted the unconditional surrender of Imperial Japan. During operations on the Eastern Front, it accounted for 75–80% of casualties the Wehrmacht and Waffen-SS suffered during the war and captured the Nazi German capital, Berlin. In September 1917, Vladimir Lenin wrote: "There is only one way to prevent the restoration of the police, and, to create a people's militia and to fuse it with the army."
At the time, the Imperial Russian Army had started to collapse. 23% of the male population of the Russian Empire were mobilized. The Tsarist general Nikolay Dukhonin estimated that there had been 2 million deserters, 1.8 million dead, 5 million wounded and 2 million prisoners. He estimated the remaining troops as numbering 10 million. While the Imperial Russian Army was being taken apart, "it became apparent that the rag-tag Red Guard units and elements of the imperial army who had gone over the side of the Bolsheviks were quite inadequate to the task of defending the new government against external foes." Therefore, the Council of People's Commissars decided to form the Red Army on 28 January 1918. They envisioned a body "formed from the class-conscious and best elements of the working classes." All citizens of the Russian republic aged 18 or older were eligible. Its role being the defense "of the Soviet authority, the creation of a basis for the transformation of the standing army into a force deriving its strength from a nation in arms, furthermore, the creation of a basis for the support of the coming Socialist Revolution in Europe."
Enlistment was conditional upon "guarantees being given by a military or civil committee functioning within the territory of the Soviet Power, or by party or trade union committees or, in extreme cases, by two persons belonging to one of the above organizations." In the event of an entire unit wanting to join the Red Army, a "collective guarantee and the affirmative vote of all its members would be necessary." Because the Red Army was composed of peasants, the families of those who served were guaranteed rations and assistance with farm work. Some peasants who remained at home yearned to join the Army. If they were turned away they would prepare care-packages. In some cases the money they earned would go towards tanks for the Army; the Council of People's Commissars appointed itself the supreme head of the Red Army, delegating command and administration of the army to the Commissariat for Military Affairs and the Special All-Russian College within this commissariat. Nikolai Krylenko was the supreme commander-in-chief, with Aleksandr Myasnikyan as deputy.
Nikolai Podvoisky became the commissar for Pavel Dybenko, commissar for the fleet. Proshyan, Steinberg were specified as people's commissars as well as Vladimir Bonch-Bruyevich from the Bureau of Commissars. At a joint meeting of Bolsheviks and Left Socialist-Revolutionaries, held on 22 February 1918, Krylenko remarked: "We have no army; the demoralized soldiers are fleeing, panic-stricken, as soon as they see a German helmet appear on the horizon, abandoning their artillery and all war material to the triumphantly advancing enemy. The Red Guard units are brushed aside like flies. We have no power to stay the enemy; the Russian Civil War occurred in three periods: October 1917 – November 1918: From the Bolshevik Revolution to the First World War Armistice, developed from the Bolshevik government's nationalization of traditional Cossack lands in November 1917. This provoked the insurrection of General Alexey Maximovich Kaledin's Volunteer Army in the River Don region; the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk aggravated Russian internal politics.
The situation encouraged direct Allied intervention in the Russian Civil War, in which twelve foreign countries supported anti-Bolshevik militias. A series of engagements resulted, amongst others, the Czechoslovak Legion, the Polish 5th Rifle Division, the pro-Bolshevik Red Latvian Riflemen. January 1919 – November 1919: Initially the White armies advanced: from the south, under General Anton Denikin; the Whites defeated the Red Army on each front. Leon Trotsky reformed and counterattacked: the Red Army repelled Admiral Kolchak's army in June, the armies of General Denikin and General Yudenich in October. By mid-Nove
A battle honour is an award of a right by a government or sovereign to a military unit to emblazon the name of a battle or operation on its flags, uniforms or other accessories where ornamentation is possible. In European military tradition, military units may be acknowledged for their achievements in specific wars or operations of a military campaign. In Great Britain and those countries of the Commonwealth which share a common military legacy with the British, battle honours are awarded to selected military units as official acknowledgement for their achievements in specific wars or operations of a military campaign; these honours take the form of a place and a date. Theatre honours, a type of recognition in the British tradition allied to battle honours, were introduced to honour units which provided sterling service in a campaign but were not part of specific battles for which separate battle honours were awarded. Theatre honours could be listed and displayed on regimental property but not emblazoned on the colours.
Since battle honours are emblazoned on colours, artillery units, which do not have colours in the British military tradition, were awarded honour titles instead. These honour titles were permitted to be used as part of their official nomenclature, for example 13 Field Regiment. Similar honours in the same tenor include unit citations. Battle honours, theatre honours, honour titles and their ilk form a part of the wider variety of distinctions which serve to distinguish military units from each other. For the British Army, the need to adopt a system to recognise military units' battlefield accomplishments was apparent since its formation as a standing army in the part of the 17th century. Although the granting of battle honours had been in place at the time, it was not until 1784 that infantry units were authorised to bear battle honours on their colours. Before a regiment's colours were practical tools for rallying troops in the battlefield and not quite something for displaying the unit's past distinctions.
The first battle honour to be awarded in the British Army was granted to the 15th Hussars for the Battle of Emsdorf in 1760. Thereafter, other regiments received battle honours for some of their previous engagements; the earliest battle honour in the British Army is Tangier 1662–80, granted to the Tangier Horse, the oldest line cavalry regiment of the British army, who in 1969 amalgamated with the Royal Horse Guards to become The Blues and Royals. Awarded the honour was the 2nd Regiment of Foot, or the Tangier Regiment now The Princess of Wales's Royal Regiment, the senior English regiment in the Union, for their protracted 23-year defence of the Colony of Tangier; the battle honour is still held by the Princess of Wales's Royal Regiment. During these early years of the British standing army, a regiment needed only to engage the enemy with musketry before it was eligible for a battle honour. However, older battle honours are carried on the standards of the Yeomen of the Guard and the Honourable Corps of Gentlemen at Arms, neither of which are part of the army, but are instead the Sovereign's Bodyguard, in the personal service of the sovereign.
The need to develop a centralised system to oversee the selection and granting of battle honours arose in the 19th century following the increase of British military engagements during the expansion of the Empire. Thus in 1882, a committee was formed to adjudicate applications of battle honour claims; this committee called the Battles Nomenclature Committee, still maintains its function in the British Army today. A battle honour may be granted to infantry/cavalry regiments or battalions, as well as ships and squadrons. Battle honours are presented in the form of a name of a country, region, or city where the unit's distinguished act took place together with the year when it occurred. Not every battle fought will automatically result in the granting of a battle honour. Conversely, a regiment or a battalion might obtain more than one battle honour over the course of a larger operation. For example, the 2nd Battalion of the Scots Guards were awarded two battle honours for their role in the Falklands War.
While in Korea, Princess Patricia's Canadian Light Infantry earned both "Kapyong" and "Korea 1951–1953". A unit does not have to defeat their adversary to earn a battle honour: the Hong Kong Volunteer Defence Corps received the battle honour "Hong Kong" despite the defeat and capture of most of the force during the Japanese invasion of Hong Kong, while the cruiser HMAS Sydney was awarded the naval engagement honour "Kormoran 1941" after being sunk with all aboard by the German raider Kormoran. Supporting corps/branches such as medical, ordnance, or transport do not receive battle honours; however and uniquely the Royal Logistic Corps has five battle honours inherited from its previous transport elements, such as the Royal Waggon Train. Commonwealth artillery does not maintain battle honours as they carry neither colours nor guidons—though their guns by tradition are afforded many of the same respects and courtesies. However, both the Royal Artillery and Royal Engineers were in 1832 granted by King William IV the right to use the Latin "Ubique", meaning everywhere, as a battle honour.
This is worn on the cap badge of both the Corps of Royal Enginee
331st Rifle Division (Soviet Union)
The 331st Rifle Division was formed as an infantry division of the Red Army in the summer of 1941, based on a cadre of volunteer workers and reservists from the Bryansk Oblast, so was known from the beginning as the 331st Bryansk Proletarian Rifle Division. It fought to defend Moscow during the last stages of the German invasion, went over to the offensive in early December, it spent much of the next twelve months in the same general area, west of the capital, taking part in the futile battles against the German-held salient at Rzhev. On September 25, 1943, the division shared credit with several other units for the liberation of the city of Smolensk and was given its name as an honorific; the 331st had a distinguished career as a combat unit, ending its combat path in Czechoslovakia, advancing on Prague. The formation of the 331st Rifle Division began on August 27, 1941, in the Tambov Oblast of the Oryol Military District, under the command of Maj. Gen. Fyodor Petrovich Korol. Korol led the division until February 13, 1942.
It was based on the first wartime shtat for rifle divisions. Its order of battle was: 1104th Rifle Regiment 1106th Rifle Regiment 1108th Rifle Regiment 896th Artillery Regiment 253rd Antitank Battalion 298th Antiaircraft Battery 508th Mortar Battalion 394th Reconnaissance Company 509th Sapper Battalion 783rd Signal Battalion 417th Medical/Sanitation Battalion 410th Chemical Protection Company 397th Motor Transport Company 186th Field Bakery 756th Divisional Veterinary Hospital 1411th Field Postal Station 773rd Field Office of the State BankThe division was moved to the Moscow Military District in October where it was assigned to the newly-forming 26th Army, under the Reserve of the Supreme High Command; some elements of the division entered active service in a dramatic manner, by first marching through Red Square in the famous October Revolution anniversary parade on November 7 straight on to the front lines just 10–15 km away, being assigned to the 20th Army of the Western Front. The division played a vigorous role in the defense of Moscow.
Maj. Gen. Leonid Mikhailovich Sandalov, former chief of staff of the 20th Army, inspected the 1106th Rifle Regiment on its arrival in Moscow and noted, "The warmly clothed and adequately equipped sub-units of the regiment made a good impression." As November moved into December, the 331st, fighting in the area of the Moscow-Volga canal, stopped the enemy advance at Lobnia Station, 25 km from Moscow. On December 2, as one of the harbingers of the wider counter-offensive that started a few days the division took part in a strong counter-attack from the area of Khlebnikovo towards Krasnaia Poliana. Backed by tanks and artillery, the attack made limited gains, but on the 6th it merged with the general offensive, broke into the village with the help of 28th Rifle Brigade, secured it, took a German 210mm gun, used to shell Moscow, as a trophy. In the next two days the division and the brigade advanced 4.5 km further and penetrated the German defenses, but the lack of skis and armor support limited the planned advance of 30 km to only about 10 – 12 km.
By December 20 the division had liberated the town of Volokolamsk. Following this victory, 20th Army attempted to continue its advance, but had little success until, on December 23, the Army commander was ordered to concentrate on a narrow-front breakthrough near Volokolamsk station and to cease advancing on a broad front. By noon on January 2, 1942, the 331st had captured Khvorostinin, but failed to take Birkino with armor support; the latter was liberated on the 4th, by the next day the division was fighting on the outskirts of Posadinki with elements of German 35th Infantry Division. On January 7, 20th Army was ordered to regroup to carry on the offensive against increasing resistance; this group was ordered to "destroy the enemy in the area Zubovo - 137-km Station and by the end of the day reach the area Kuryanovo - Vysokovo." The attack was to be supported by a one-hour artillery preparation by a long-range artillery group. The regrouping was completed by January 9, although the 331st was still fighting for Posadinki over these two days.
The new offensive began at 1030 hours. On January 10; the forward edge of the German defense was crushed quickly, but only after persistent attacks. Beginning at 1400 the division, backed by 64th Rifle Brigade, waged an unsuccessful fight against two enemy battalions in a wooded stronghold east of Aksenovo. Over the next two days the Germans continued to hold out, while the 331st suffered significant losses until it took Aksenovo in the 13th; the next day German forces along the attack sector began falling back towards a defensive line near Gzhatsk. This withdrawal continued with tired Soviet forces in slow pursuit; the division, "which disposed of an insignificant number of troops", was held back along the line of the Ruza River. Gzhatsk would not be liberated until March, 1943; the 331st would remain in Western Front. In early 1942 it was transferred to the 5th Army, before returning to the 20th Army, where it remained until March, 1943. General Korol was succeeded by Col. Gavriil Antonovich Kutalev in February, by Col. Aleksandr Emelyanovich Kletz in March.
On April 10, Col. Pyotr Filippovich Berestov took command and he wo
Qurghonteppa or Kurganteppa known as Bokhtar, is a city in southwestern Tajikistan, which serves as the capital of the Khatlon region. Qurghonteppa is the largest city of southern Tajikistan, is located 100 kilometres south of Dushanbe and 150 kilometres north of Kunduz, Afghanistan, it is estimated that the population of the city is close to 102,000 people, making it the third-largest city in the country. The population fluctuates depending on season. Along with the capital Dushanbe, Qurghonteppa is demographically much more diverse than other major Tajik cities such as Khujand, Kulob or Istaravshan. Ethnicities include Tajiks, Russians, Tatars, Kazakhs and many more; the city had a large number of ethnic Russians who were employed by the industrial and agricultural complexes in and around the city. The political opposition in Tajikistan comes from Qurghonteppa. Bokhtar Qurghonteppa, became the epicenter of conflict by the summer of 1992 and was damaged during the civil war. Many of the local Kulobi and Uzbeks were forced to flee in 1992 following advances and attacks from the pro-opposition Gharmi forces.
Qurghonteppa International Airport serves a handful of cities in Tajikistan and Kazakhstan. The city is considered to be the heart of cotton cultivation in Tajikistan. Bokhtar and Kulob are the main cities of south Tajikistan. Bokhtar is a regional hub for banking and telecommunications industries; the city was renamed on January 22, 2018 to "Bokhtar".. Tajik immigrant workers have contributed to the local economy since early 2000s. Bokhtar has a semi-arid climate, with cool winters and hot summers. Precipitation is quite low, peaks in spring, while summers are dry. Sergei Mandreko - football coach Nurudin N. Mukhitdinov - politician Finnish electronic duo Pan Sonic have a track entitled "Radio Qurghonteppa" on their 2010 farewell album Gravitoni. List of cities in Tajikistan Vakhsh Qurghonteppa football club Buddhistic cloister of Ajina-Tepa Kurgan Tepe in Encyclopaedia Iranica Online
Nookat Eski-Nookat, Iski-Naukat or Naukat, is a city in Osh Region of Kyrgyzstan. It is the seat of Nookat District. According to 2009 Census the population of Nookat was 14,371; the main street, forms part of the main Osh-Batken highway and is very dusty and busy, lined by willow and plane trees. Nookat came to signify the repression during the Kurmanbek Bakiyev regime as villagers were imprisoned and sentenced to lengthy prison terms following civil unrest in the fall of 2008. Following the revolt in April 2010, the villagers, of the Uzbek minority, were released
Central Asian Military District
The Red Banner Central Asian Military District was a military district of the Soviet Armed Forces, which existed in 1926–1945 and 1969–1989, with its headquarters at Tashkent and Almaty. By USSR Order No.304 of 4 June 1926, the Turkestan Front was renamed the Central Asian Military District. On 22 June 1941 the Central Asian Military District included the 4th Cavalry Corps, the 27th Mechanised Corps (9th and 53rd Tank Divisions and 221st Mechanised Division, the 58th Rifle Corps, the independent 238th Polish Rifle Division, as well as the Air Forces of the Central Asian Military District and district troops. On 9 July 1945, the district was split into the Steppe Military Districts; the district was reformed in 1969. In 1988 the CAMD included the 32nd Army and 17th Army Corps and troops directly subordinate to district command. Air support was carried out by the 73rd Air Army, air defence by the 12th and 14th Air Defence Armies; the 32nd Army includes a tank and three motor rifle divisions, anti-aircraft and missile brigades and rocket regiments, separate Flame-tank Regiment, others.
The 17th Army Corps included the 8th Guards Motor Rifle Division and the 68th Motor Rifle Division (the former 372nd Rifle Division, 68th Mountain Motor Rifle Brigade, the 30th independent Motor Rifle Regiment, plus a separate battalion. District units included the 80th Guards Training Motor Rifle Division and the 134th Motor Rifle Division, two communications brigades, a chemical protection missile brigade, a separate air assault battalion, the 23rd independent Helicopter Transport Regiment. In addition, the 57th Air Assault Brigade was based at Aktogay; the district was disestablished and its territory incorporated into the Turkestan Military District from 5 January 1989. 1926—1928 — Konstantin Avksentevsky 1928—1933 — Pavel Dybenko 1933—1937 — Komkor Mikhail Velikanov 1937 — Komkor Ivan Gryaznov 1937 — Komandarm 2nd rank Aleksandr Loktionov 1937—1938 — Komkor Leonid Petrovsky 1938—1941 — Komkor Iosif Apanasenko 1941 — General Major Sergei Trofimenko, 1941 — June 1944 — Lieutenant General Pavel Kurbatkin Jul 1944 - May 1945 — Major General Macarius Lipatov 24 Jun 1969 - 23 Nov 1977 - General of the Army Nikolay Grigorevich Lyashchenko 24 Nov 1977 - 26 Nov 1980 - General Colonel Pyotr Georgievich Lushev 27 Nov 1980 - 26 Jun 1984 General Colonel Dmitri Yazov 27 Jun 1984 - 21 Jan 1987 - Colonel-General Vladimir Nikolaevich Lobov 22 Jan 1987 - 5 Jan 1989 - Colonel-General Aleksandr Vasilevich Kovtunov Military Encyclopedic Dictionary, Moscow, 1984, 2002.
V. I. Feskov, Golikov V. I. K. A. Kalashnikov, S. A. Slugin, The Armed Forces of the USSR after World War II, from the Red Army to the Soviet. Томск, 2013
The Soviet Army is the name given to the main land-based branch of the Soviet Armed Forces between February 1946 and December 1991, when it was replaced with the Russian Ground Forces, although it was not abolished until 25 December 1993. Until 25 February 1946, it was known as the Red Army, established by decree on 15 January 1918 "to protect the population, territorial integrity and civil liberties in the territory of the Soviet state." The Strategic Missile Troops, Air Defense Forces and Air Forces were part of the Soviet Army in addition to the Ground Forces. At the end of World War II the Red Army had over 500 rifle divisions and about a tenth that number of tank formations, their experience of war gave the Soviets such faith in tank forces that the infantry force was cut by two-thirds. The Tank Corps of the late war period were converted to tank divisions, from 1957 the rifle divisions were converted to motor rifle divisions. MRDs had three motorized rifle regiments and a tank regiment, for a total of ten motor rifle battalions and six tank battalions.
The Land Forces Chief Command was created for the first time in March 1946. Four years it was disbanded, only to be formed again in 1955. In March 1964 the Chief Command was again disbanded but recreated in November 1967. Marshal of the Soviet Union Georgi Zhukov became Chief of the Soviet Ground Forces in March 1946, but was succeeded by Ivan Konev in July, who remained as such until 1950, when the position of Chief of the Soviet Ground Forces was abolished for five years, an organisational gap that "probably was associated in some manner with the Korean War". From 1945 to 1948, the Soviet Armed Forces were reduced from about 11.3 million to about 2.8 million men, a demobilisation controlled first, by increasing the number of military districts to 33 reduced to 21 in 1946. The personnel strength of the Ground Forces was reduced from 9.8 million to 2.4 million. To establish and secure the USSR's eastern European geopolitical interests, Red Army troops who liberated eastern Europe from Nazi rule, in 1945 remained in place to secure pro-Soviet régimes in Eastern Europe and to protect against attack from Europe.
Elsewhere, they may have assisted the NKVD in suppressing anti-Soviet resistance in Western Ukraine and the Baltic states. Soviet troops, including the 39th Army, remained at Port Arthur and Dalian on the northeast Chinese coast until 1955. Control was handed over to the new Chinese communist government. Soviet Army forces on USSR territory were apportioned among military districts. There were 32 of them in 1945. Sixteen districts remained from the mid-1970s to the end of the USSR. Yet, the greatest Soviet Army concentration was in the Group of Soviet Forces in Germany, which suppressed the anti-Soviet Uprising of 1953 in East Germany. East European Groups of Forces were the Northern Group of Forces in Poland, the Southern Group of Forces in Hungary, which put down the Hungarian Revolution of 1956. In 1958, Soviet troops were withdrawn from Romania; the Central Group of Forces in Czechoslovakia was established after Warsaw Pact intervention against the Prague Spring of 1968. In 1969, at the east end of the Soviet Union, the Sino-Soviet border conflict, prompted establishment of a 16th military district, the Central Asian Military District, at Alma-Ata, Kazakhstan.
In 1979, the Soviet Union entered Afghanistan, to support its Communist government, provoking a 10-year Afghan mujahideen guerrilla resistance. Throughout the Cold War, Western intelligence estimates calculated that the Soviet strength remained ca. 2.8 million to ca. 5.3 million men. To maintain said strength range, Soviet law minimally required a three-year military service obligation from every able man of military age, until 1967, when the Ground Forces reduced it to a two-year draft obligation. By the middle of the 1980s, the Ground Forces contained about 210 divisions. About three-quarters were the remainder tank divisions. There were a large number of artillery divisions, separate artillery brigades, engineer formations, other combat support formations. However, only few formations were war ready. Three readiness categories, A, B, V, after the first three letters of the Cyrillic alphabet, were in force; the Category A divisions were certified combat-ready and were equipped. B and V divisions were 50 -- 75 % and 10 -- 33 % respectively.
The internal military districts contained only one or two A divisions, with the remainder B and V series formations. Soviet planning for most of the Cold War period would have seen Armies of four to five divisions operating in Fronts made up of around four armies. In February 1979, the first of the new High Commands in the Strategic Directions were created at Ulan-Ude; these new headquarters controlled multiple Fronts, a Soviet Navy Fleet. In September 1984, three more were established to control multi-Front operations in Europe and at Baku to handle southern operations. In 1955, the Soviet Union signed the Warsaw Pact with its East European socialist allies, establishing military coordination between Soviet forces and their socialist counterparts; the Soviet Army created and directed the Eastern European armies in its image for the remainder of the Cold War, shaping them for a potential confrontation with the North Atlant