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Year 641 was a common year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar. The denomination 641 for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years. February 11 – Emperor Heraclius, age 65, dies of dropsy at Constantinople after a 31-year reign, he reorganized the imperial administration, but lost Armenia, Palestine and much of Mesopotamia to the Muslim Arabs. Heraclius is succeeded by his sons Constantine III and Heraklonas; the Muslim conquest of Egypt continues with the siege of Alexandria. May – Constantine III, age 29, dies of tuberculosis after a four-month reign, leaving his half-brother Heraklonas sole emperor. Rumors spread. September – The Byzantine Senate turns against Martina and her son Heraklonas, who are both mutilated and exiled to Rhodes. Supported by general Valentinus, Constantine's son Constans II, age 10, succeeds to the throne. Constans II establishes a new civil-military defensive organisation, based upon geographical military district.

Byzantine forces maintain the frontier along the line of the Taurus Mountains. Aega, Mayor of the Palace and regent of Neustria and Burgundy, dies during the reign of King Clovis II, he is replaced by a relative of Dagobert I's mother. The Lombards under King Rothari conquer Genoa and all remaining Byzantine territories in the lower Po Valley, including Oderzo. Arechis I, duke of Benevento, dies after a 50-year reign and is succeeded by his son Aiulf I. Prince Oswiu of Bernicia conquers Gododdin as far north as Manau, on behalf of his half-brother, King Oswald. King Bridei II dies after a 5-year reign, is succeeded by his brother Talorc III as ruler of the Picts. November 8 – Siege of Alexandria: Muslim Arabs under'Amr ibn al-'As capture Alexandria after a fourteen-month siege. Byzantine officials formally capitulate to Amr; the city of Fustat is founded in Egypt. It becomes the first capital of Egypt under Muslim rule. Emperor Taizong of the Tang dynasty instigates a civil war in the Western Turkic Khaganate, by supporting Isbara Yabghu Qaghan.

November 17 – Emperor Jomei of Japan, age 48, dies after a 12-year reign. Uija becomes the last king of the Korean kingdom of Baekje. Asparukh, ruler of the Bulgarian Empire February 11 – Heraclius, Byzantine emperor November 17 – Jomei, emperor of Japan Aega, Mayor of the Palace Arechis I, duke of Benevento Bridei II, king of the Picts Constantine III, emperor of the Byzantine Empire Mu, king of Baekje Ouyang Xun, Confucian scholar and calligrapher Zaynab bint Jahsh, wife of Muhammad

Beat the World

Beat the World is a film written and directed by Robert Adetuyi released in 2011. It was produced by InnerCity Films and Telefilm Canada - Equity Investment Program; the film stars Tyrone Brown, Mishael Morgan, Nikki Grant, Christian Mio Loclair and Parkour artist Chase Armitage. The plot involves three dance crews from around the world preparing to do battle at the international Beat the World competition in Detroit. Three dance crews prepare to do battle at the international Beat the World competition in Detroit. In the final showdown to become world champions lifelong hopes and lives, are at stake; the original soundtrack was produced by Frank Fitzpatrick and released on Hip Hop Connect, an independent label and production company specializing in conscious rap, hip hop and film soundtracks. KRS-One K'Naan Ziggy Marley Nneka Les Nubians MV Bill Talib Kweli Sway LinaA portion of the proceeds were donated to the Debbie Allen Dance Academy through EarthTones. Film review aggregator Rotten Tomatoes shows five critic reviews with a tomatometer rating of 0% rotten with an average critic score of 3.4/10.

Paula Citron of The Globe and Mail found the film to be predictable and the dance sequences to be over-edited, commenting: "... if the audience is not there for the story -, just a hat to hang the dance on - they must be there for the dance. Because Adetuyi's film is one long music video, the dance portions are shot in 30-second bites, so one never gets a sense of an entire routine. All we get is fast-cut teasers."In his review for NOW Toronto, Norman Wilner criticised the acting skills of the accomplished dancers and found the plot to be hackneyed, concluding:"... It's all just atrociously acted filler between the dance sequences, which Adetuyi shoots so haphazardly that it's impossible to appreciate the artists or choreography."Bruce DeMara, reviewing for the Toronto Star found the plot and theme of beating the world to be clichéd. He criticised their editing, he concluded: "... There are a couple of decent performances that shine through, notably Brown as Yuson and Ray Johnson as his friend, both of whom have solid onscreen presence but need a better film to demonstrate it in.

Adetuyi has the makings of a decent filmmaker. He just needs to stick to the basics: believable dialogue and characters and a storyline that takes a few chances." Beat the World on IMDb

1913 International Lawn Tennis Challenge

The 1913 International Lawn Tennis Challenge was the 12th edition of what is now known as the Davis Cup. With Great Britain's win in 1912, the competition returned to Europe for the first time in five years; this prompted several new teams creating the largest field to date. The first round tie between Germany and France, played at Wiesbaden, Germany was the first Davis Cup tie to be played on clay courts, or indeed any surface but grass; the United States would triumph in the final, played at Worple Road in Wimbledon, United Kingdom on 25–28 July. Canada and South Africa all competed for the first time. Belgium returned for the first time since 1904. United States vs. Australasia Germany vs. France Canada vs. South Africa United States vs. Germany Canada vs. Belgium Great Britain vs. United States


Kaoteon is an extreme metal band, based in the Netherlands formed in 1998 by Anthony Kaoteon. KAOTEON is an extreme metal band with origins in Lebanon but a dislike to all borders from mental to physical and everything in between; the band was formed in war torn Beirut as a one-man band in 1998 by Anthony Kaoteon under the name Chaotaeon. They changed their name after an incident with the authorities; the police thought. The members were detained for days during a heavy investigation which led to false accusations that the band is satanic. KAOTEON released Damnatio Memoriae on 23 February 2018 that featured Frederick Widigs on drums and Linus Klausenitzer on bass. On 24 February 2018 the band performed at Complexity Fest with The Faceless and Sikth... and were joined by Simon Schilling ex-Belphegor and current Marduk) drummer. On the 11th of June, Kaoteon were awarded the "Global Metal" award at the 2018 Metal Hammer Golden Gods Awards. KAOTEON released a new self titled album on 17th of January 2020 featuring Adrian Erlandsson on drums and Linus Klausenitzer on bass.

Studio albumsProvenance of Hatred – 2003 by Unsung Heroes Records, Extreminal Records and Ketzer Records on CD and by Diabolical Masquerade as a tape Veni Vidi Vomui – 2011 by Osmose Productions Damnatio Memoriae – 23 February 2018 Kaoteon - 17 January 2020Single"Anthem of the Dead" – 2008 "Global Metal" award by Metal Hammer Golden Gods Awards 2018 Anthony Kaoteon – guitarist/composer/founder Walid WolfLust – All vocals/lyrics Adrian Erlandsson – drums on Kaoteon Linus Klausenitzer – bass on Damnatio Memoriae and Kaoteon Fredrik Widigs – drums on Damnatio Memoriae "Kaoteon Want to Smash'Middle Eastern Metal' Stereotypes", Vice Media, 16 February 2018. Official website Kaoteon profile on Metal Archives

Beethoven House

The Beethoven House in Bonn, Germany, is a memorial site and cultural institution serving various purposes. Founded in 1889 by the Beethoven-Haus association, it studies the life and work of composer Ludwig van Beethoven; the centrepiece of the Beethoven-Haus is Beethoven's birthplace at Bonngasse 20. This building houses the museum; the neighbouring buildings accommodate a research centre comprising a collection, a library and publishing house, a chamber music hall. Here, music lovers and experts from all over the world can share their ideas; the Beethoven-Haus is financed by means of public funds. The house at Bonngasse 20 featuring a baroque stone facade was erected around 1700 on an older cellar vault, it is one of the few remaining middle-class houses from the era of the prince elector. Back it was in the neighbourhood preferred by the employees of the courts, in the heart of the town between the castle, the town hall with the market square and the banks of the Rhine River. Today, this is the opera close by.

In the first half of the 19th century an additional, somewhat smaller, timbered house was built on the property behind the house. Five families temporarily lived in back buildings. Three tailors and one shoemaker had their shops here. In 1836 the entrance door was replaced with a gate entrance. After the back part of the house was identified as Beethoven's birthplace around 1840 by Beethoven's friend Franz Gerhard Wegeler, a physician, Carl Moritz Kneisel, a teacher, the new owner opened a restaurant on the ground floor in 1873 with the name Beethoven’s Geburtshaus. A beer and concert hall was added in the yard in 1887. In 1888 a grocery merchant sold it a year later; the Beethoven Haus association, founded in 1889 to preserve the house, spared the house from demolition. The following years were characterised by renovation and remodelling works to turn the house into a memorial site. At the time, major parts of the building were still as they had been in the second half of the 18th century. In order to preserve spacious museum rooms, the floor plans of the main house were changed and an office for the association, plus a library and a flat for the janitor were installed.

Construction changes in Beethoven's flat were limited to the stairs and the passageways to the front building. The inner yard was decorated with trellises and sandstone slabs, a garden replaced the place where the beer hall had been, it has not been remodelled since. In order to preserve the character of Beethoven's birthplace in its contemporary environment and to protect the building, the association bought the neighbouring house number 22 in 1893. After installing a fire protection wall, the building was sold again. In 1907 house number 18 "Im Mohren" was bought to extend the property. At first it was used as an apartment building. In 1927 the newly founded Beethoven archive moved in. In the mid-1930s both houses were extensively renovated; the Beethoven-Haus survived both World Wars unscathed. In the Second World War, Senior Building Officer Theodor Wildemann serving as the association's chairman, in his role as Deputy Provincial Curator, made sure that the collection was brought to an underground shelter near Siegen, thereby avoiding any war-related losses or damages.

During a bombing of the Bonn city centre on 18 October 1944, a fire bomb fell on the roof of Beethoven's birthplace. Due to the help of janitors Heinrich Hasselbach and Wildemans, who were awarded the German Federal Cross of Merit, as well as Dr. Franz Rademacher from the Rhenish National Museum, the bomb did not cause a disaster; the damages were repaired in the early 1950s. In the late 1960s, the third renovation took place. For the fourth, basic renovation of the buildings from 1994 to 1996 the Beethoven-Haus was awarded the Europa Nostra award for cultural heritage in 1998 as the first institution in Germany. In January 2003 the Deutsche Post AG issued a stamp featuring the Beethoven-Haus; the stamp belongs to the definitive stamp series "Sights". In 1767, court singer Johann van Beethoven moved into the garden wing of the house at Bonngasse 20 after marrying Maria Magdalena Keverich from Koblenz/Ehrenbreitstein. Johann's father, bandmaster Ludwig van Beethoven, the composer's grandfather, moved into a flat located in the house diagonally opposite.

The front building was the residence of his family. His son Johann Peter Salomon, a friend of Joseph Haydn, would become important for Beethoven as well; the ground floor of the Beethovens' flat accommodated a utility room with a cellar. The first floor housed a somewhat larger room for the family, it was in one of the tiny attic chambers that Ludwig van Beethoven was born on 16 or 17 December 1770 and baptised in St. Remigius on 17 December 1770; the child was named after his grandfather Ludwig van Beethoven, a reputable court bandmaster and wine merchant, his godfather. The baptism celebration took place in the neighbouring house Im Mohren at the residence of Beethoven's godmother Anna Gertrud Baum, née Müller; the family grew quickly. However, out of the seven children only Ludwig and two brothers survived: Kaspar Anton Karl and Nikolaus Johann. Around 1774 the Beethoven family moved into the house Zum Walfisch owned by baker Fischer at Rheingasse no. 24. Ludwig van Beethoven's father and grandfather had temporarily lived too.

The family made its living b


One's self-concept is a collection of beliefs about oneself. Self-concept embodies the answer to "Who am I?". Self-concept is distinguishable from self-awareness, which refers to the extent to which self-knowledge is defined and applicable to one's attitudes and dispositions. Self-concept differs from self-esteem: self-concept is a cognitive or descriptive component of one's self, while self-esteem is evaluative and opinionated. Self-concept is made up of one's self-schemas, interacts with self-esteem, self-knowledge, the social self to form the self as a whole, it includes the past and future selves, where future selves represent individuals' ideas of what they might become, what they would like to become, or what they are afraid of becoming. Possible selves may function as incentives for certain behaviour; the perception people have about their past or future selves relates to their perception of their current selves. The temporal self-appraisal theory argues that people have a tendency to maintain a positive self-evaluation by distancing themselves from their negative self and paying more attention to their positive one.

In addition, people have a tendency to perceive the past self less favourably and the future self more positively. Psychologists Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow had major influence in popularizing the idea of self-concept in the west. According to Rogers, everyone strives to reach an "ideal self". Rogers hypothesized that psychologically healthy people move away from roles created by others' expectations, instead look within themselves for validation. On the other hand, neurotic people have "self-concepts, they are afraid to accept their own experiences as valid, so they distort them, either to protect themselves or to win approval from others."The self-categorization theory developed by John Turner states that the self-concept consists of at least two "levels": a personal identity and a social one. In other words, one's self-evaluation how others perceive them. Self-concept can alternate between one's personal and social identity. Children and adolescents begin integrating social identity into their own self-concept in elementary school by assessing their position among peers.

By age 5, acceptance from peers affects children's self-concept, affecting their behaviour and academic success. The self-concept is an internal model that uses self-assessments in order to define one's self-schemas. Features such as personality and abilities, occupation and hobbies, physical characteristics, etc. are assessed and applied to self-schemas, which are ideas of oneself in a particular dimension. A collection of self-schemas makes up one's overall self-concept. For example, the statement "I am lazy" is a self-assessment. Statements such as "I am tired", would not be part of someone's self-concept, since being tired is a temporary state and therefore cannot become a part of a self-schema. A person's self-concept may change with time as reassessment occurs, which in extreme cases can lead to identity crises. According to Carl Rogers, the self-concept has three different components: The view you have of yourself How much value you place on yourself What you wish you were like Researchers debate over when self-concept development begins.

Some assert that gender stereotypes and expectations set by parents for their children affect children's understanding of themselves by age 3. However, at this developmental stage, children have a broad sense of self they use words such as big or nice to describe themselves to others. While this represents the beginnings of self-concept, others suggest that self-concept develops around age 7 or 8. At this point, children are developmentally prepared to interpret their own feelings and abilities, as well as receive and consider feedback from peers and family. In adolescence, the self-concept undergoes a significant time of change. Self-concept changes more and instead, existing concepts are refined and solidified. However, the development of self-concept during adolescence shows a “U”-shaped curve, in which general self-concept decreases in early adolescence, followed by an increase in adolescence. Additionally, teens begin to evaluate their abilities on a continuum, as opposed to the "yes/no" evaluation of children.

For example, while children might evaluate themselves "smart", teens might evaluate themselves as "not the smartest, but smarter than average." Despite differing opinions about the onset of self-concept development, researchers agree on the importance of one's self-concept, which influences people's behaviors and cognitive and emotional outcomes including academic achievement, levels of happiness, social integration, self-esteem, life-satisfaction. Academic self-concept refers to the personal beliefs about their academic skills; some research suggests that it begins developing from ages 3 to 5 due to influence from parents and early educators. By age 10 or 11, children assess their academic abilities by comparing themselves to their peers; these social comparisons are referred to as self-estimates. Self-estimates of cognitive ability are most accurate when evaluating subjects that deal wi