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Year 648 was a leap year starting on Tuesday of the Julian calendar. The denomination 648 for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years. Emperor Constans II, to quiet the intense controversy caused by the Monothelete doctrine, issues an imperial edict forbidding the subject to be discussed; this edict, distributed by patriarch Paul II in Constans' name, is known as the Typos. King Sigebert II of Austrasia is advised by Remaclus to establish a double-monastery at Stavelot and Malmedy; as a missionary bishop he founds an abbey on the River Amblève. King Cenwalh of Wessex returns from a 3-year exile in East Anglia to reclaim his kingdom, he gives 3,000 hides of land around Ashdown to his nephew Cuthred sub-king of Berkshire. Cenwahl invites bishop Birinus to establish under his direction the Old Minster in Winchester. Together they have a small stone church built. Tang general Ashina She'er re-establishes Tang control of Karasahr, leads a military campaign against the Tarim Basin kingdom of Kucha in Xinjiang, a vassal of the Western Turkic Khaganate.

In an early skirmish in the run up to the Second Tikal-Calakmul War, B'alaj Chan K'awiil scores a military victory over his half-brother, who had galled him by using the same royal emblem as he did. Dos Pilas becomes a vassal state of Calakmul; the Book of Jin is compiled in China during the Tang Dynasty. Its chief editor is the chancellor Fang Xuanling. Pope Theodore I excommunicates Paul II of Constantinople. Kōbun, emperor of Japan Redbad, king of Frisia Tōchi, Japanese princess Fang Xuanling, chancellor of the Tang Dynasty Ma Zhou, chancellor of the Tang Dynasty Xiao, empress of the Sui Dynasty

Bavarian Autosport

Bavarian Autosport was the trade name of Bavarian Auto Service, Inc. an award-winning mail-order and internet retailer of replacement parts and accessories for BMW and MINI automobiles. It had one retail store at its headquarters in New Hampshire. Bavarian Auto Service was founded in 1973 as an automotive service center specializing in the repair and modification of BMW automobiles, its first location was in New Hampshire. In 1977 it moved to New Hampshire. In addition to repair services, the company began to offer an inventory of new and used parts that BMW enthusiasts in the northeastern United States could purchase to do their own repairs and modifications. In the late 1970s, it began to advertise its BMW accessories throughout North America. In 1983 it produced its first catalog. In 1996 the company moved to New Hampshire, where it had built a three-story warehouse; that same year it began operating under the name Bavarian Autosport. The company's website was launched in 1996, it became an e-commerce site in 2001.

When BMW launched the new MINI in 2002, the company began offering parts and accessories for MINIs as well. In 2003, the company launched a quarterly newsletter that contains step-by-step do-it-yourself repairs, in-depth product features and a technical Q&A with “Bavarian Otto”, a cartoon character developed to make automotive repairs and maintenance seem less intimidating. In 2008, the company started posting many of these Q&A online at blog., a searchable, online knowledgebase that now contains more than 1,000 Q&A and dozens of D. I. Y. Videos; as of 2016, Bavarian Autosport was still owned and operated by the three friends who founded the company. On March 8, 2019, Bavarian Autosport announced via its Facebook page that after 45 years in business, they would be closing their doors.

National colours of Italy

The national colours of Italy are green and red, collectively known in Italian as il tricolore. The three Italian national colors appeared for the first time in Genoa on 21 August 1789 on the cockade of Italy shortly after the outbreak of the French Revolution. Green and red are national colours of Bulgaria, Iran and Mexico. In sport in Italy, savoy azure has been used or adopted as the colour for many national teams, the first being the men's football team in 1910; the national auto racing colour of Italy is instead rosso corsa, while in other disciplines such as cycling and winter sports, which use white. In historical research aimed at studying the origin of the Italian tricolour we have considered the hypothesis that green and red have been used as national colours since medieval times, thus wanting to trace the creation of the Italian tricolour to remote epochs: in reality these conjectures on the origin of the colours, which would link the presumed medieval tricolour to that born in the Napoleonic era, are to be rejected, given the total absence of sources that prove this link.

In the Middle Ages the three colours were forcibly recognized in some events of history of Italy, such as on the flagpole of the Carroccio during the battle of Legnano, on the banners of the Tuscan Guelphs, whose coat of arms was formed by a red eagle on a white field above a green snake, blazon, granted by Pope Clement IV, on the sign of the Sienese contrada of the Goose, on the tricolour uniforms of the servants of the Duchess of Milan Valentina Visconti. Other scholars have suggested the prefiguration of the Italian tricolour in pictorial works; these hypotheses, based this time on artistic representations, are to be discarded because they are not based on historical findings. The reason for the historical inconsistency of the hypothetical presence of the tricolour in historical events and artistic works prior to the modern era lies in the fact that at the time the Italian national awareness, which appeared centuries had not yet occurred; the three colours of the Italian flag are cited, in literature, in some verses of canto XXX of the Purgatorio in the Divine Comedy, this has fueled theories that would like the birth of the tricolour connected to Dante Alighieri: they too are considered groundless by scholars, as Dante in these verses he did not think of a politically united Italy, but of the theological virtues, or rather of charity and faith, with the last two being metaphorically symbolized in the Italian flag.

The tricolore was symbolically important preceding and throughout the Risorgimento leading to Italian unification. The first documented trace of the use of Italian national colours is dated 21 August 1789: in the historical archives of the Republic of Genoa it is reported that eyewitnesses had seen some demonstrators pinned on their clothes hanging a red and green cockade on their clothes; the Italian gazettes of the time had in fact created confusion about the facts of French revolution on the replacement of green with blue, reporting the news that the French tricolour was green and red. The green was maintained by the Italian Jacobins because it represented nature and therefore - metaphorically - natural rights, or social equality and freedom. In September 1794, Luigi Zamboni and Giambattista de Rolandis created a cockade by uniting the white and red of the flag of Bologna with green, a symbol of liberty and hope that the populace of Italy join the revolution begun in Bologna to oust the foreign occupying forces.

This tricolore was considered a symbol of redemption that from its creation was "consecrated to immortality of the triumph of faith and sacrifice" of those who created it. Napoleon Bonaparte, in a letter from Milan to an executive director on 11 October 1796, stated that the Legione Lombarda had chosen these colours as the national colours. In a solemn ceremony at the Piazza del Duomo on 16 November 1796, a military flag was presented to the Legione Lombarda, which would become a unit in the Cisalpine Republic military, was the first tricolore military standard to fly at the head of an Italian military unit; the first official Italian flag of an Italian sovereign state was created for the Cispadane Republic in Reggio Emilia on 7 January 1797 based on a proposal by government deputy Giuseppe Compagnoni. The formation of the Cisalpine Republic was decreed by Napoleon on 29 June 1797, consisted of most of the Cispadane Republic and Transpadane Republic, which included between them Milan, the portion of Parma north of the Po river, Bologna and Romagna, the Venetian Republic.

Its flag was proclaimed to be the tricolore, representing the "red and white of Bologna and the green of liberty". Young Italy, a political movement founded in 1831 by Giuseppe Mazzini calling for a national revolution to unify all Italian-speaking provinces, used a "theatrical" uniform based on the national colours; these colours had been in use in the Cispadane Republic, Transpadane Republic, Cisalpine Republic, Italian Republic, the Kingdom of Italy, precursors to the

Howard Griffiths (conductor)

Howard Griffiths is a British conductor. Griffiths was born in Hastings, he studied music at the Royal College of London. He has lived in Switzerland since 1981. Since the season 2007/08, he is General Music Director of the Brandenburgisches Staatsorchester, Frankfurt. In 2013, he renewed his contract for the third time until 2018. Howard Griffiths was Artistic Director and Principal Conductor of the Zurich Chamber Orchestra from 1996 to 2006 and continued its long tradition of excellence in every respect, his work with the orchestra involved extended tours of Europe, the United States and China, which were enthusiastically received by audiences and critics alike, both in Switzerland and abroad. Howard Griffiths has appeared as a guest conductor with many leading orchestras all over the world; these include the Royal Philharmonic Orchestra of London, the Orchestre National de France, Radio Moscow’s Tchaikovsky Symphony Orchestra, the Israel Philharmonic Orchestra, the Orchestra of the Age of Enlightenment, the Warsaw Philharmonic, the Basle Symphony Orchestra, the London Mozart Players, the Orquesta Nacional de España, the WDR Symphony Orchestra as well as other radio orchestras in Germany.

In addition, he works with youth orchestras, being a founder of the Jugend Symphony Orchestra Zurich and a regular guest with the National Youth Orchestra of Germany as well as periods with the Swiss Youth Symphony Orchestra and the National Youth Orchestra of South Africa. Howard Griffiths is always receptive to new, unconventional projects, for example for crossover projects with different orchestras and soloists like Giora Feidman, Roby Lakatos, Burhan Öçal, Abdullah Ibrahim, Maurice Steger or Igudesman & Joo. About 100 CD recordings with various labels bear witness to Howard Griffiths’ broad artistic range; these recordings include works by contemporary Swiss and Turkish composers as well as première recordings of rediscovered music dating from the 18th and 19th centuries. Howard Griffiths’ recordings of all the eight symphonies by Beethoven’s pupil Ferdinand Ries met with worldwide critical acclaim. Readers of the British magazine Classic CD voted a recording of works by Gerald Finzi “Classical CD of the Year” in this category.

Howard Griffiths performs with numerous renowned artists, is extremely committed to supporting and promoting young musicians. This is reflected in his work for the Orpheum Foundation for the Advancement of Young Soloists, of which he has been Artistic Director since 2000. Enthusiastic, Howard Griffiths keeps engaging in musical projects for and with children and young adults. Multiple Educational Projects emerged from the collaboration with the Brandenburg Staatsorchester. In 2012, Howard Griffiths published the musical children’s book “Die Hexe und der Maestro”, enthusiastically received by audiences and critics. In 2013, the book was published as "the Maestro" in English. In the annual New Year’s Honours List, announced on New Year’s Day by Queen Elizabeth II, Howard Griffiths was appointed a Member of the Order of the British Empire Griffiths is married to the Turkish violist Semra Griffiths, who plays in the Zurich Opera orchestra, their son Kevin Griffiths is a conductor. Goldberg Magazine biography of Howard Griffiths "Conductor's Homepage".

Retrieved 22 September 2009

15th G7 summit

The 15th G7 Summit was held in the business district of La Défense to the west of Paris, France between July 14 to 16, 1989. The venue for the summit meetings was the Grande Arche, rushed to completion for celebrations marking the bicentennial of the French Revolution and for the world economic summit meeting, held in the top of the Arche; this event was called the "Summit of the Arch."The Group of Seven was an unofficial forum which brought together the heads of the richest industrialized countries: France, West Germany, Japan, the United Kingdom, the United States and the President of the European Commission. The summits were not meant to be linked formally with wider international institutions; the G7 is an unofficial annual forum for the leaders of Canada, the European Commission, Germany, Japan, the United Kingdom and the United States. The 15th G7 summit was the first summit for U. S. President George H. W. Bush and was the last summit for Italian Prime Minister Ciriaco De Mita, it was the first and only summit for Japanese Prime Minister Sōsuke Uno.

These summit participants are the current "core members" of the international forum: The heads of state and government of over a dozen developing countries were represented at this summit gathering in Paris. The summit was intended as a venue for resolving differences among its members; as a practical matter, the summit was conceived as an opportunity for its members to give each other mutual encouragement in the face of difficult economic decisions. Issues which were discussed at this summit included: International Economic Situation International Monetary Developments and Coordination Improving Economic Efficiency Trade Issues General Problems of Development The Situation in the Poorest Countries Strengthened Debt Strategy for the Heavily Indebted Countries Environment Drug Issues International Cooperation against AIDS While the agenda-setting or parameter-setting functions of the summit are important, the associated action or inaction which comes afterwards is important as well; these remain conceptually distinct aspects of the G7 summits.

A symbol of the mixed legacy of this summit is the Grande Arche itself. The total expenditure on the building reached 3.74 billion francs, all but 5.7 percent of, covered by private investors, with the state remaining owner of the roof area. A Frommer's review in 2010 characterizes it as a "politician's folly."In 1989, the summit leaders called for "adoption of sustainable forest management practices, with a view to preserving the scale of the world's forests," but there is little evidence of follow-up action. G8 Bayne and Robert D. Putnam.. Hanging in There: The G7 and G8 Summit in Maturity and Renewal. Aldershot, Hampshire: Ashgate Publishing. ISBN 978-0-7546-1185-1; the G8 system and the G20: Evolution and Documentation. Aldershot, Hampshire: Ashgate Publishing. ISBN 978-0-7546-4550-4. Keeping International Commitments: Compliance and the G7, 1988-1995. New York: Garland Publishing. ISBN 978-0-8153-3332-6. Autonomous Policy Making by International Organizations. London: Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-16486-3.

University of Toronto: G8 Research Group, G8 Information Centre G7 1989, delegations & documents

Zavodski District

Zavodski District is an administrative subdivision of the city of Minsk, Belarus. It was formed in 1938 under the name Stalin district and The "Factory district" was named in 1961 after the plants "Minsk Tractor Works" and "Minsk Automobile Plant" were constructed. Within current borders the district is approved in 10 November 1997 when the township "Sosny" was added to it; the district is situated in the south-eastern area of the city and borders with Partyzanski and Lieninski districts. Maly Trostenets extermination camp was located within Zavodski district. Zavodski is served by the tram line and by the subway line "Aŭtazavodskaja", it is crossed by the beltway "MKAD". Minsk Zoo Maly Trostenets Zavodski District official website