Soviet Air Forces
The Soviet Air Forces was the official designation of one of the air forces of the Soviet Union. The other was the Soviet Air Defence Forces; the Air Forces were formed from components of the Imperial Russian Air Service in 1917, faced their greatest test during World War II. The groups were involved in the Korean War, dissolved along with the Soviet Union itself in 1991–92. Former Soviet Air Forces' assets were subsequently divided into several air forces of former Soviet republics, including the new Russian Air Force. "March of the Pilots" was its song. The All-Russia Collegium for Direction of the Air Forces of the Old Army was formed on 20 December 1917; this was a Bolshevik aerial headquarters led by Konstantin Akashev. Along with a general postwar military reorganisation, the collegium was reconstituted as the "Workers' and Peasants' Red Air Fleet", established on 24 May 1918 and given the top-level departmental status of "Main Directorate", it became the Directorate of the USSR Air Forces on 28 March 1924, the Directorate of the Workers-Peasants Red Army Air Forces on 1 January 1925.
Its influence on aircraft design became greater. From its earliest days, the force mimicked ground forces' organization in the 1930s, by which time it was made up of air armies, aviation corps, aviation divisions, aviation regiments. After the creation of the Soviet state many efforts were made in order to modernize and expand aircraft production, led by its charismatic and energetic commander, General Yakov Alksnis, an eventual victim of Joseph Stalin's Great Purge. Domestic aircraft production increased in the early 1930s and towards the end of the decade, the Soviet Air Force was able to introduce Polikarpov I-15 and I-16 fighters and Tupolev SB and SB-bis and DB-3 bombers. One of the first major tests for the VVS came in 1936 with the Spanish Civil War, in which the latest Soviet and German aircraft designs were employed against each other in fierce air-to-air combat. At first, the I-16 proved superior to any Luftwaffe fighters, managed to achieve local air superiority wherever they were employed.
However, the Soviets refused to supply the plane in adequate numbers, their aerial victories were soon squandered because of their limited use. Bf 109s delivered to Franco's Spanish Nationalist air forces secured air superiority for the Nationalists, one they would never relinquish; the defeats in Spain coincided with the arrival of Stalin's Great Purge of the ranks of the officer corps and senior military leadership, which affected the combat capabilities of the expanding Soviet Air Forces. Newly promoted officers lacked flying and command experience, while older commanders, witnessing the fate of General Alksnis and others, lacked initiative referring minor decisions to Moscow for approval, insisting that their pilots comply with standardized and predictable procedures for both aerial attack and defence. On 19 November 1939, VVS headquarters was again titled the Main Directorate of the Red Army Air Forces under the WPRA HQ. Between 1933 and 1938, the Soviet government planned and funded missions to break numerous world aviation records.
Not only did aviation records and achievements become demonstrations of the USSR's technological progress, they served as legitimization of the socialist system. With each new success, Soviet press trumpeted victories for socialism, popularizing the mythology of aviation culture with the masses. Furthermore, Soviet media idolized record-breaking pilots, exalting them not only as role models for Soviet society, but as symbols of progress towards the socialist-utopian future; the early 1930s saw a shift in ideological focus away from collectivist propaganda and towards "positive heroism." Instead of glorifying socialist collectivism as a means of societal advancement, the Soviet Communist Party began uplifting individuals who committed heroic actions that advanced the cause of socialism. In the case of aviation, the government began glorifying people who utilized aviation technology instead of glorifying the technology itself. Pilots such as Valery Chkalov, Georgy Baydukov, Alexander Belyakov, Mikhail Gromov—as well as many others—were raised to the status of heroes for their piloting skills and achievements.
In May 1937, Stalin charged pilots Chkalov and Belyakov with the mission to navigate the first transpolar flight in history. On 20 June 1937, the aviators landed their ANT-25 in Washington. A month Stalin ordered the departure of a second crew to push the boundaries of modern aviation technology further. In July 1937 Mikhail Gromov, along with his crew Sergei Danilin and Andrei Yumashev, completed the same journey over the North Pole and continuing on to Southern California, creating a new record for the longest nonstop flight; the public reaction to the transpolar flights was euphoric. The media called the pilots "Bolshevik knights of culture and progress." Soviet citizens celebrated Aviation Day on 18 August with as much zeal as they celebrated the October Revolution anniversary. Literature including poems, short stories, novels emerged celebrating the feats of the aviator-celebrities. Feature films like Victory, Tales of Heroic Aviators, Valery Chkalov reinforced the "positive hero" imagery, celebrating the aviators' individuality within the context of a socialist government.
Soviet propaganda, newspaper articles, other forms of media sought to connect Soviet citizens to relevant themes from daily life. For aviation, Stalin's propagandists drew on Russian folklore. Examples i
Soviet Union in the Korean War
Though not belligerent during the Korean War, the Soviet Union played a significant, covert role in the conflict. It provided material and medical services, as well as Soviet pilots and aircraft, most notably MiG 15 fighter jets, to aid the North Korean-Chinese forces against the United Nations Forces; the Soviet 25th Army took part in the Soviet advance into northern Korea after World War II had ended, was headquartered at Pyongyang for a period. Like the American forces in the south, Soviet troops remained in Korea after the end of the war to rebuild the country. Soviet soldiers were instrumental in the creation and early development of the North Korean People's Army and Korean People's Air Force, as well as for stabilizing the early years of the Northern regime; the Shineuiju Air Force Academy was founded under Soviet leadership on 25 October 1945 in order to train new pilots. Because at the time the war broke out in 1950, the Communist Soviet Union and their allies were locked into a "Cold War" with capitalist countries, both sides felt that the Korean War carried the potential to further destabilize the precarious relations between both sides, while offering possible advantages.
As American and UN soldiers were deployed in the war on the South Korean side, it was assured that Soviet forces could not engage in open and direct hostilities against the South without provoking conflicts with other UN countries. Instead, the Soviet Union was compelled to conceal its participation in the conflict so as to minimize the risk of escalating the "Cold War" into a "Hot War" with NATO and the United States and its allies elsewhere, which could have led to a nuclear war. By denying its participation, the Soviets prevented the Korean War from escalating. Participation on the North Korean side was contrary to the UN Security Council Resolution 84 by which the Soviet Union was technically bound. Along with several "Eastern Block" countries, the Soviet Union sent over 20 doctors to Korea to aid Communist forces there, similar to Indian, Norwegian and Swedish medical detachments in Southern Korea who did not have military force engaged, but offered humanitarian support instead. Soviet military aid was instrumental to equipping both the North Korean and Chinese forces fighting in Korea.
The Soviet PPSh-41 submachine gun was supplied to both countries' armies, as was the T-34/85 medium tank, of great importance during the initial offensives by the Communist side when no US armour or anti-tank rockets could penetrate its heavy sloped armour. Soviet material aid was fundamental for the air forces of both North Korea and China. By April 1950, the Soviet Union had provided 63 of the North Korean Air Force's 178 aircraft, which until September 1950 proved effective against minimal South Korean air defenses An important area in which Soviet intervention was key in the Korean War was in the air-war. Soviet innovation in aircraft design, as well as the experience of many of its pilots following the Second World War meant that the'new' states of China and North Korea were dependent on Soviet help in this area. Both the Chinese and North Korean air forces were structured and equipped along Soviet lines because of the help that the Soviet Union had given them in their first years. In October 1950, the Chinese air force comprised only two fighter divisions, one bomber regiment, one attack aircraft regiment and was much in its infancy.
The Chinese committed several Air Regiments to Korea, these were equipped with the Soviet-supplied MiG 15 fighters, however lack of training meant that the Chinese high command was anxious for Soviet pilots, some of whom were in China tasked with training the pilots for the Chinese air force. Frustrated by the quality and shortage of Chinese pilots, in April 1951, Stalin took the decision to involve Soviet airforce pilots in the war, flying under the markings of the Chinese People's Liberation Army Air Force or North Korean Peoples' Army Air Force. In addition to the known MiG-15 force of 64th Fighter Corps, there were significant anti-aircraft gun and technical units despatched to Korea as part of the same unit. Aleksandr Smorchkov Nikolay Ivanov Semyon Fedorets Yevgeny Pepelyayev Sergei Kramarenko Soviet pilots were active in Korea from April 1951. In order to hide this direct Soviet intervention, precautions were taken to disguise their involvement, open knowledge of which would have been a major diplomatic embarrassment for the USSR.
Soviet pilots wore Chinese uniforms when flying, whilst rules were prescribed to stop Soviet pilots flying near the coast or front lines and from speaking Russian on the aircraft radio. All aircraft flown carried North Korean markings; when not flying, for reasons of ethnicity, on the ground Soviet pilots'played' the roles of Soviet commercial travellers rather than Chinese or North Korean soldiers. Soviet pilots flying MiG-15 jets participated in battles around the Yalu River Valley on the Chinese-Korean border in the area known as "Mig Alley" and in operations against UN "trainbusting" attacks in Northern Korea, with considerable success; the lack of a shared language between Soviet and North Korean pilots led to incidences of friendly fire as other MiG fighters were mistaken f
Karelo-Finnish Soviet Socialist Republic
The Karelo-Finnish Soviet Socialist Republic called Soviet Karelia or known as Karelia, was a republic of the Soviet Union. It existed from 1940 until it was made part of the Russian SFSR in 1956 as the Karelian Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic; the latter became the Republic of Karelia, a federal subject of Russia, on November 13, 1991. The Karelo-Finnish Soviet Socialist Republic was established by the Soviet government on March 31, 1940 by merging the KASSR with the Finnish Democratic Republic; the latter was created in territory ceded by Finland in the Winter War by the Moscow Peace Treaty, namely the Karelian Isthmus and Ladoga Karelia, including the cities of Viipuri and Sortavala. The entire Karelian population of the ceded areas, about 422,000 people, was evacuated to Finland, the territories were settled by peoples from other parts of the Soviet Union. Creating a new Republic of the Union for an ethnic group that neither was large in absolute terms, nor constituted anything close to a majority in its territory, nor had been a separate independent nation prior to its incorporation into the USSR, was unprecedented in the history of the USSR.
Some historians believe that the elevation of Soviet Karelia from an Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic to an SSR was a political move as a "convenient means for facilitating the possible incorporation of additional Finnish territory" into the USSR. In the ensuing Continuation War, Finland re-annexed the territory that it had lost in 1940 and occupied most of the Karelian lands, within the USSR prior to 1940, including the capital Petrozavodsk. In 1944, the Soviet Union recaptured the area. Soviet sovereignty was recognized by Finland in the Moscow Paris Peace Treaty; the Finnish Karelians were evacuated to Finland again. In September 1944, the Karelian Isthmus with Vyborg was transferred from the Karelo-Finnish SSR to the Leningrad Oblast of the RSFSR, but Ladoga Karelia remained a part of the republic. On July 16, 1956, the republic was incorporated into the Russian SFSR as the Karelian Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic; this move can be explained in the context of the general post-war improvement of Finno-Soviet relations, which included such steps as the Soviets' return of the Porkkala Naval Base leased territory to full Finnish sovereignty, leasing Maly Vysotsky Island and the Soviet section of the Saimaa Canal back to Finland.
The abolition of the Karelian SSR in 1956 was the only case in the history of the USSR of merging a member republic of the USSR into another republic. The State Emblem of the Soviet Union had to be changed to reflect this, with one of the 16 ribbons symbolizing constituent republics removed. Soviet ruble money bearing the Emblem was changed accordingly. In the waning days of the USSR, the Karelian ASSR became the Republic of Karelia, a subdivision of the Russian Federation, on November 13, 1991; the chairman of the Karelo-Finnish Supreme Soviet was Finnish communist Otto Wille Kuusinen. In the republic there was a separate Karelo-Finnish Communist Party led in the 1940s by G. N. Kupriyanov. Yuri Andropov served for some years as the first secretary of the republic's Komsomol branch, the Leninist Communist Youth League of the Karelo-Finnish Soviet Socialist Republic; the Council of People's Commissars was renamed the Council of Ministers in 1946. Winter War Karelia Karelia Karelian question in Finnish politics Republics of the Soviet Union First Secretary of the Karelian Communist Party
North American F-86 Sabre
The North American F-86 Sabre, sometimes called the Sabrejet, is a transonic jet fighter aircraft. Produced by North American Aviation, the Sabre is best known as the United States' first swept wing fighter that could counter the swept-wing Soviet MiG-15 in high-speed dogfights in the skies of the Korean War, fighting some of the earliest jet-to-jet battles in history. Considered one of the best and most important fighter aircraft in that war, the F-86 is rated in comparison with fighters of other eras. Although it was developed in the late 1940s and was outdated by the end of the 1950s, the Sabre proved versatile and adaptable and continued as a front-line fighter in numerous air forces until the last active operational examples were retired by the Bolivian Air Force in 1994, its success led to an extended production run of more than 7,800 aircraft between 1949 and 1956, in the United States and Italy. Variants were built in Australia; the Canadair Sabre added another 1,815 airframes, the redesigned CAC Sabre, had a production run of 112.
The Sabre is by far the most-produced Western jet fighter, with total production of all variants at 9,860 units. North American Aviation had produced the propeller-powered P-51 Mustang in World War II, which saw combat against some of the first operational jet fighters. By late 1944, North American proposed its first jet fighter to the U. S. Navy, which became the FJ-1 Fury, it was an unexceptional transitional jet fighter that had a straight wing derived from the P-51. Initial proposals to meet a United States Army Air Forces requirement for a medium-range, single-seat, high-altitude jet-powered day escort fighter/fighter bomber were drafted in mid-1944. In early 1945, North American Aviation submitted four designs; the USAAF selected one design over the others, granted North American a contract to build three examples of the XP-86. Deleting specific requirements from the FJ-1 Fury, coupled with other modifications, allowed the XP-86 to be lighter and faster than the Fury, with an estimated top speed of 582 mph, versus the Fury's 547 mph.
Despite the gain in speed, early studies revealed the XP-86 would have the same performance as its rivals, the XP-80 and XP-84. It was feared that, because these designs were more advanced in their development stages, the XP-86 would be canceled. Crucially, the XP-86 would not be able to meet the required top speed of 600 mph; the North American F-86 Sabre was the first American aircraft to take advantage of flight research data seized from the German aerodynamicists at the end of World War II. This data showed that a thin swept wing could reduce drag and delay compressibility problems that had bedeviled prop-powered fighters such as the Lockheed P-38 Lightning approaching the speed of sound. By 1944, German engineers and designers had established the benefits of swept wings based on experimental designs dating back to 1940. Study of the data showed that a swept wing would solve their speed problem, while a slat on the wing's leading edge that extended at low speeds would enhance low-speed stability.
Because development of the XP-86 had reached an advanced stage, the idea of changing the sweep of the wing was met with resistance from some senior North American staff. Despite stiff opposition, after good results were obtained in wind tunnel tests, the swept-wing concept was adopted. Performance requirements were met by incorporating a 35° swept-back wing, using NACA 4-digit modified airfoils, using NACA 0009.5–64 at the root and NACA 0008.5–64 at the tip, with an automatic slat design based on that of the Messerschmitt Me 262 and an electrically adjustable stabilizer, another feature of the Me 262A. Many Sabres had the "6 -- 3; this modification changed the wing airfoils to the NACA 0009-64 mod at the root and the NACA 0008.1–64 mod at the tip. The XP-86 prototype, which would lead to the F-86 Sabre, was rolled out on 8 August 1947; the first flight occurred on 1 October 1947 with George Welch at the controls, flying from Muroc Dry Lake, California. The United States Air Force's Strategic Air Command had F-86 Sabres in service from 1949 through 1950.
The F-86s were assigned to the 22nd Bomb Wing, the 1st Fighter Wing and the 1st Fighter Interceptor Wing. The F-86 was the primary U. S. air combat fighter during the Korean War, with significant numbers of the first three production models seeing combat. The F-86 Sabre was produced under license by Canadair, Ltd as the Canadair Sabre; the final variant of the Canadian Sabre, the Mark 6, is rated as having the highest capabilities of any Sabre version. The F-86A set its first official world speed record of 671 miles per hour on September 15, 1948 at Muroc Dry Lake flown by Major Richard L. Johnson, USAF. Five years on 18 May 1953, Jacqueline Cochran became the first woman to break the sound barrier, flying a "one-off" Canadian-built F-86 Sabre Mk 3, alongside Chuck Yeager. Col. K. K. Compton won the 1951 Bendix air race in an F-86A with an average speed of 553.76 mph. The F-86 was produced as both a fighter-bomber. Several variants were introduced over its production life, with improvements and different armament implemented.
The XP-86 was fitted with a General Electric J35-C-3 jet engine. This engine was built by GM's Chevrolet division until production was turned over to Al
People's Volunteer Army
The People's Volunteer Army was the armed expatriate volunteer forces deployed by the People's Republic of China during the War to Resist the United States and aid North Korea. Although all units in the Chinese People's Volunteer Army were transferred from the People's Liberation Army under orders of Mao Zedong, the People's Volunteer Army was separately constituted in order to prevent an official war with the United States; the People's Volunteer Army entered Korea on October 19, 1950, withdrew by October 1958. The nominal commander and political commissar of the PVA was Peng Dehuai before the ceasefire agreement in 1953, although both Chen Geng and Deng Hua served as acting commander and commissar after April 1952 due to Peng's illness; the initial units in the PVA included 38th, 39th, 40th, 42nd, 50th, 66th Corp totaling 250,000 men, about 3 million Chinese civilian and military personnel served in Korea by July 1953. Although the United Nations forces were under United States command, this army was a UN "police" force.
In order to avoid an open war with the US and other UN members, the People's Republic of China deployed the People's Liberation Army under the name "volunteer army". About the name, there were various opinions. According to some scholars during the mid 1990s, after the Chinese Communists arranged strategic decisions to send soldiers to Korea, the first name of this army was "support army", but Huang Yanpei, the vice premier of the Government Administration Council of the Central People's Government at that time, suggested that the name "support army" will drive the international community think that China sent soldiers to Korea declaring war against the US. Therefore, the army's name was modified to "volunteer army" while different unit designations and footings were used instead, in order to show that China did not tend to declare war against the US, it was the people that volunteered to the battlefields in Korea. On the other hand, some recent studies show; because much earlier on July 7, 1950, the name had been changed to "volunteer army" by Zhou Enlai on his manuscript about the decision of the army's clothing and flags.
Despite arguments on the changing from "People's Support Army" to "People's Volunteer Army", the name was a homage to the Korean Volunteer Army that had helped the Chinese communists during the Second Sino-Japanese War and the Chinese Civil War. It managed to deceive the US intelligence and the UNC about the size and nature of the Chinese forces that entered Korea, they realized that the PVA was the PLA's North East Frontier Force, with other PLA formations transferred under NEFF's command as the Korean War dragged on. But the result was that they still admitted the name, "People's Volunteer Army", in order to minimize the war within the Korean Peninsula and prevent escalation of the war; the PVA soldier was reasonably well clothed, in keeping with the PLA's guerrilla origin and egalitarian attitudes. All ranks wore a cotton or woolen green or khaki shirt and trousers combination with leaders' uniforms being different in cut; the nominal strength of a PLA division was 9,500 men, with a regiment comprising 3,000 and a battalion consisting of 850.
However, many divisions sent to the Korean War were below-strength while the divisions stationed opposite Taiwan were above-strength. There was variation in organization and equipment as well as in the quantity and quality of the military equipment; some of the PLA's equipment was from the Imperial Japanese Army or were captured from the Kuomintang military forces. Some Czechoslovak-made weapons were purchased on the open market by the PRC. During the PVA's first offensive in the Korean War between October and November 1950, large quantities of captured American weapons were used due to the availability of the required ammunition and the increasing difficulty of constant re-supplying across the Yalu River due to numerous UN-/USA-conducted air interdiction operations. In addition, there was a local copy of the American Thompson submachine gun being produced by the PRC, based on the type of, exported to and used in China since the 1930s and by American/South Korean troops during the Korean War as well.
On, after the first year of the Korean War, the Soviet Union began to send more weapons and ammunition to the PRC, which started to produce unlicensed copies of some types of Soviet weapons, such as the PPSh-41 submachine gun, designated as the Type 50. The People's Republic of China had issued warnings that they would intervene if any non-South Korean forces crossed the 38th parallel, citing national security interests. Truman regarded the warnings as "a bold attempt to blackmail the UN". On October 8, 1950, the day after American troops crossed the parallel, Chairman Mao issued the order for the NEFF to be moved to the Yalu River, ready to cross. Mao Zedong sought Soviet aid and saw intervention as defensive: "If we allow the U. S. to occupy all of Korea... we must be prepared for the US to declare... war with China", he told Joseph Stalin. Premier Zhou Enlai was sent to Moscow to add force to Mao's cabled arguments. Mao delayed his forces while waiting for Soviet help, the planned attack was thus postponed from 13 October to 19 October.
Soviet assistance was limited to providing air support no closer than 60 miles from the battlefront. The MiG-15s in PRC colours would be an unpleasant surprise to
The Lavochkin La-11 was an early post-World War II Soviet long-range piston-engined fighter aircraft. One of the recommendations from the government testing of Lavochkin La-130 was to further develop it into a long-range escort fighter; the resultant La-134 prototype featured oil capacity. Armament was reduced to three cannons; the prototype flew in May 1947. The second prototype, La-134D had fuel capacity increased by an additional 275 l with wing and external fuel tanks; the aircraft was fitted with larger tires to accommodate the increased weight and amenities for long flights such as increased padding in the seat, a urinal. In addition, a full radio navigation suite was installed. Not combat performance with a full fuel load suffered. However, as the fuel load approached that of La-9, so did the performance; the aircraft was found to be poorly suited for combat above 7,000 m. The new fighter, designated La-11 entered production in 1947. By the end of production in 1951, a total of 1,182 aircraft were built.
The first documented combat use of La-11 took place on April 8, 1950, when four Soviet pilots shot down a United States Navy Consolidated PB4Y-2 Privateer over the Baltic Sea, with all 10 of the Privateer's crew lost. The same year, two La-11 pilots shot down a USN Lockheed P2V Neptune over the Sea of Japan near Vladivostok. From February 1950, the Soviet 106th Fighter Aviation Division moved to Shanghai to defend it against bombing by the ROCAF; the division included the 351st Fighter Regiment, equipped with the La-11. On March 7, the regiment claimed a North American B-25 Mitchell bomber, shot down near Nanjing. On March 14, 1950, a Martin B-26 Marauder bomber was claimed in Xuzhou. On March 20, 1950, five La-11 pilots encountered a group of North American P-51 Mustangs north-west of Shanghai, although the P-51 pilots retreated. On April 2, 1950, two P-51s were claimed by La-11 pilots over Shanghai. After that, MiG-15s of the Soviet 29th Fighter Regiment took over the air defence role; the ROCAF stopped bombing Shanghai that June and the Soviet units left in October 1950.
By July 1950, La-11s were flying combat air patrol missions over North Korea. On November 30, 1951, 16 La-11 fighter pilots of the 4th Fighter Aviation Regiment, Chinese People's Volunteer Army were escorting 9 Tu-2 PVA bombers to bomb the South Korean island of Taehwa-do, in the Pansong archipelago, they were attacked by more than 30 F-86 fighters of the United States Air Force: four Tu-2 bombers and three La-11s were shot down. The main target of La-11 pilots during the Korean War was the Douglas A-26 Invader night bomber, although numerous skirmishes with P-51s took place. Attempts to intercept Boeing B-29 Superfortress bombers proved fruitless. An La-11 required 26 minutes to reach the B-29's cruising altitude, once there, had a speed advantage of only 20 km/h making it easy for the B-29 to evade the attacker in a shallow dive. On July 23, 1954, a Douglas C-54 Skymaster military transport aircraft, registration VR-HEU, operated by Cathay Pacific Airways on a civilian passenger flight en route from Bangkok to Hong Kong, was shot down by two La-11 fighters of the 85th Fighter Regiment, People's Liberation Army Air Force off the coast of Hainan Island, killing 10 people in an incident that has become known as the 1954 Cathay Pacific Douglas DC-4 shootdown.
Although the four-engined propeller-driven Douglas was a C-54 Skymaster, the incident is known as "the DC-4 shootdown" because the C-54 is the military version of the Douglas DC-4, the aircraft was flying a commercial passenger run. Three days near the same location, two La-11s of the same unit were shot down by 2 AD-4 airplanes of the US Navy. During 1954–55, La-11 fighters of the PLAAF took part in the Battle of Yijiangshan Islands escorting the ships of the People's Liberation Army Navy and Tu-2 bombers. Soviet UnionSoviet Air Force Soviet Anti-Air Defence People's Republic of ChinaPeople's Liberation Army Air Force - Imported 163 La-11 fighters from 1950-1953; the last 18 La-11 airplanes retired in 1966. North KoreaNorth Korean Air Force IndonesiaIndonesian Air Force La-11, on display at Chinese Aviation Museum, China as Red 24 La-11, on display at Beijing Air and Space Museum, China as Red 09 La-11 F-911, on display at Indonesian Air Force Museum, Adisutjipto AB, Yogyakarta La-11, on display at Nizhny Novgorod Military Museum, Russia La-11 20, stored pending restoration by The Fighter Collection, Cambs La-11 10142/N2276Y, stored pending restoration with Kermit Weeks, Florida General characteristics Crew: 1 Length: 8.62 m Wingspan: 9.80 m Height: 3.47 m Wing area: 17.6 m² Empty weight: 2,770 kg Loaded weight: 3,730 kg Max.
Takeoff weight: 3,996 kg Powerplant: 1 × Shvetsov ASh-82FN air-cooled radial engine with a two-stage supercharger and fuel injection, 1,380 kW Performance Maximum speed: 674 km/h at altitude Range: 2,235 km Service ceiling: 10,250 m Rate of climb: 758 m/min Wing loading: 212 kg/m² Power/mass: 0.37 kW/kg Armament 3 × 23 mm Nudelman-Suranov NS-23 cannons, 75 rounds/gun Related development Lavochkin La-126 Lavochkin La-9 Related lists List of fighter aircraft Notes Bibliography Walkaround La-11 Fang https://web.archive.org/web/20110605030336/http://www.aviation.ru/La/#11 The initial version of this article was based on material from aviation.ru. It has been released under the GFDL by the copyright holder