click links in text for more info

656 BC

The year 656 BC was a year of the pre-Julian Roman calendar. In the Roman Empire, it was known as year 98 Ab urbe condita; the denomination 656 BC for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years. Thebes submits to the Egyptian ruler Psamtik I of Sais, who has allied himself with Gyges of Lydia and employs Libyan soldiers in a rebellion against Assyrian rule with help from Carian and Ionian mercenaries. Psamtik permits the city's mayor Mentuemhat to retain his position, not only the most powerful Theban but the fourth prophet of Amon. Psamtik I extends his control over all Egypt; the Twenty-fifth Dynasty, subsequent Nubian period, end in Ancient Egypt. King Shamash-shum-ukin of Babylon forms a secret alliance with Arabs, Elamites and Egyptians against his half brother Ashurbanipal

Crusade of the Poor

The Crusade of the Poor was an unauthorised military expedition—one of the so-called "popular crusades"—undertaken in the spring and summer of 1309 by members of the lower classes from England, northern France and the German Rhineland. Responding to an appeal for support for a crusade to the Holy Land, the men, overwhelmingly poor, marched to join a small professional army being assembled with Papal approval. Along the way, they engaged in persecution of Jews and combat with local authorities. None of them reached the Holy Land and their expedition was dispersed; the Crusade of the Poor was the first major popular expression of support for crusading after the fall of the Crusader states in the Holy Land. Acre, the last remaining city of the Kingdom of Jerusalem, fell to the Mamluks in 1291. In August 1308, Pope Clement V issued instructions for the preaching of a crusade to be launched against the Mamluks in the spring of 1309; this was to be a preliminary expedition led by the Hospitallers, a religious military order.

The preaching of the crusade was to solicit funds and prayers, not direct participation on the part of the laity. In early 1309 the crusade was postponed until the autumn. In June and July 1309, Clement sent letters reminding those bishops charged with the preaching of the crusade north of the Alps that they were to solicit only funds and prayers and to discourage participation. Indulgences were offered to those providing money. In the spring of 1309, the preachers had whipped up intense crusade fervour. Large groups of would-be crusaders—tens of thousands in some accounts—began marching towards the Papal court at Avignon; these men had "taken the cross", that is, stitched crosses onto their clothing in imitation of the First Crusaders, but their participation had been rejected by the bishops preaching the crusade. Although most marched on Avignon intending to join the Hospitaller army, a few embarked on ships on the Danube intending to reach the Holy Land on their own; the universally hostile chronicle sources, most notably the Annals of Ghent, agree that they were poor: landless peasants, agricultural labourers and underemployed urban artisans.

There were a few wealthier German townsmen and some knights, but the higher nobility was not represented. Although the majority were men, women joined. According to the annalist of Ghent, "countless common people from England, Flanders and Germany... set off to conquer the Holy Land." The dominant component seems to have been German. The English component is exaggerated in the chronicles, since it would have been easy for the English authorities to stop such would-be crusaders at the channel ports. Crusaders are recorded from as far away as Pomerania in eastern Silesia in Poland; the poor crusaders called themselves the "Brothers of the Cross" viewing themselves as something of a military order of their own. The chroniclers stress, that the movement was without any leader. Too poor to pay their own way to Avignon, they relied on charity, while engaging in widespread robbery and plunder to fund their march; the Jews became a favoured target. Over 100 Jews who took refuge in the castle of Born in the Duchy of Guelders were massacred.

The Jews of Leuven and Tienen took refuge in the castle of Genappe in Brabant. When the crusaders besieged the castle, Duke John II of Brabant, who owed the Jews protection, sent an army to chase them off, they suffered heavy losses in the fighting with ducal troops. Despite the lack of leadership and planning, about 30–40,000 crusaders arrived at Avignon in July 1309, it is possible that a few made it to the port of the planned embarkation point. The "Brothers" asked Pope Clement to upgrade the planned expedition into a full crusade to legitimise their actions and permit them to fulfill their vows. Instead, on 25 July, Clement granted a 100-year indulgence to any German who had taken the cross—and to anyone who had financed such a one—but was unable to fulfill his vow to go to the Holy Land on account of the lack of ships; the Hospitallers steadfastly refused to ship any of the "Brothers". Thus, the entire body of crusaders, unable to fight on their own, was forced to disperse. According to the annalist of Ghent, they "returned in confusion to their own homes."

On 4 November 1309, Pope Clement admitted what had long been suspected, that the Hospitaller expedition would not go to the Holy Land. It was a preparatory campaign to help defend Cyprus and enforce the prohibition on Catholics trading with Muslims; the official expedition was ready to sail from the Italian port of Brindisi in January 1310, but was delayed until spring by bad weather. It was under the direct command of the grand master, Foulques de Villaret, accompanied by a papal legate, Pierre de Pleine-Chassagne; the force contained two or three hundred knights and about three thousand foot soldiers. When the fleet sailed it was still unknown. Rather than go to the Holy Land, it sailed for the Byzantine island of Rhodes, it was in Greek waters on 13 May. The crusader army participated in the final conquest of the city of Rhodes in August. Although no expedition to the Holy Land came out of the preaching of 1308–9, Rhodes was a strategically important base for future campaigns and the Hospitallers made it their headquarters in 1311.

Housley, Norman. The Avignon Papacy and the Crusades, 1305–1378. Clarendon, 1986

Asociación Nacional de Guías Scouts del Perú

The Asociación Nacional de Guías Scouts del Perú is the national Guiding organization of Peru. It served 6,100 members as of 2010. In 1916, the "Society of Girl Guides" was founded by Elsa Hansen Daranyi; the coeducational organization founded in 1945 became an associate member of the World Association of Girl Guides and Girl Scouts in 1960 and a full member in 1963. The association is divided in five sections according to age: Giros y Girasoles - ages 4 to 6 Haditas - ages 7 to 10 Guías de la Luz - ages 10 to 13 Guías del Sol - ages 13 to 17 Guías de Servicio - ages 17 and olderThe Girl Guide emblem incorporates elements of the coat of arms of Peru. Prometo por mi honor, hacer todo lo posible. Una Guía es responsable y digna de confianza. Una Guía es leal. Una Guía es útil. Una Guía es amiga de todos y hermana de toda Guía. Una Guía es cortés. Una Guía protege a los animales y plantas y ve en la naturaleza la obra de Dios. Una Guía es obediente. Una Guía tiene valor y afronta con optimismo las dificultades.

Una Guía hace buen uso de su tiempo y es cuida sus pertenencias y respeta las ajenas. Una Guía es pura de pensamiento, palabra y obra. Asociación de Scouts del Perú Official Website

Zeigler, Illinois

Zeigler is a city in Franklin County, United States. The population was 1,801 at the 2010 census; the current mayor is Dennis Mitchell. Zeigler is located in southwestern Franklin County at 37°53′59″N 89°3′12″W. Illinois Route 149 passes through the center of town, leading east 7.5 miles to West Frankfort and west 4 miles to Royalton. Interstate 57 is 6 miles east of Zeigler via Route 149. Illinois Route 148 follows the western border of Zeigler, leading north 5 miles to Christopher and south 7 miles to Herrin. According to the 2010 census, Zeigler has a total area of 1.357 square miles, of which 1.35 square miles is land and 0.007 square miles is water. In 2005 James Leuwen characterized Ziegler as a "sundown town", where blacks were discouraged from living. While Illinois is 14% black, in the 2000 census 0.18% of the population of Zeigler was black. As of the census of 2000, there were 1,669 people, 712 households, 439 families residing in the city; the population density was 1,940.8 people per square mile.

There were 809 housing units at an average density of 940.8/sq mi. The racial makeup of the city was 98.86% White, 0.18% African American, 0.06% Native American, 0.12% Asian, 0.78% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.48% of the population. There were 712 households out of which 27.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 47.1% were married couples living together, 10.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 38.3% were non-families. 34.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 19.2% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.28 and the average family size was 2.94. In the city, the population was spread out with 22.5% under the age of 18, 8.5% from 18 to 24, 28.2% from 25 to 44, 22.3% from 45 to 64, 18.6% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39 years. For every 100 females, there were 92.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 89.2 males. The median income for a household in the city was $22,344, the median income for a family was $30,776.

Males had a median income of $27,721 versus $17,500 for females. The per capita income for the city was $13,781. About 13.7% of families and 17.5% of the population were below the poverty line, including 27.1% of those under age 18 and 7.6% of those age 65 or over. Nick Holonyak, invented the first useful visible LED in 1962.

Horner–Wadsworth–Emmons reaction

The Horner–Wadsworth–Emmons reaction is a chemical reaction used in organic chemistry of stabilized phosphonate carbanions with aldehydes to produce predominantly E-alkenes. In 1958, Leopold Horner published a modified Wittig reaction using phosphonate-stabilized carbanions. William S. Wadsworth and William D. Emmons further defined the reaction. In contrast to phosphonium ylides used in the Wittig reaction, phosphonate-stabilized carbanions are more nucleophilic but less basic. Phosphonate-stabilized carbanions can be alkylated. Unlike phosphonium ylides, the dialkylphosphate salt byproduct is removed by aqueous extraction. Several reviews have been published; the Horner–Wadsworth–Emmons reaction begins with the deprotonation of the phosphonate to give the phosphonate carbanion 1. Nucleophilic addition of the carbanion onto the aldehyde 2 producing 3a or 3b is the rate-limiting step. If R2 = H intermediates 3a and 4a and intermediates 3b and 4b can interconvert with each other; the final elimination of 4a and 4b yield -alkene 5 and -alkene 6, with the by-product being a dialkyl-phosphate.

The ratio of alkene isomers 5 and 6 is dependent upon the stereochemical outcome of the initial carbanion addition and upon the ability of the intermediates to equilibrate. The electron-withdrawing group alpha to the phosphonate is necessary for the final elimination to occur. In the absence of an electron-withdrawing group, the final product is the α-hydroxyphosphonate 3a and 3b. However, these α-hydroxyphosphonates can be transformed to alkenes by reaction with diisopropylcarbodiimide; the Horner–Wadsworth–Emmons reaction favours the formation of -alkenes. In general, the more equilibration amongst intermediates, the higher the selectivity for -alkene formation. Thompson and Heathcock have performed a systematic study of the reaction of methyl 2-acetate with various aldehydes. While each effect was small, they had a cumulative effect making it possible to modify the stereochemical outcome without modifying the structure of the phosphonate, they found greater -stereoselectivity with the following conditions: Increasing steric bulk of the aldehyde Higher reaction temperatures Li > Na > K salts Using the solvent DME over THFIn a separate study, it was found that bulky phosphonate and bulky electron-withdrawing groups enhance E-alkene selectivity.

The steric bulk of the phosphonate and electron-withdrawing groups plays a critical role in the reaction of α-branched phosphonates with aliphatic aldehydes. Aromatic aldehydes produce exclusively -alkenes. In case -alkenes from aromatic aldehydes are needed, the Still–Gennari modification can be used; the stereoselectivity of the Horner–Wadsworth–Emmons reaction of ketones is poor to modest. Since many substrates are not stable to sodium hydride, several procedures have been developed using milder bases. Masamune and Roush have developed mild conditions using lithium chloride and DBU. Rathke extended this to magnesium halides with triethylamine. Several other bases have been found effective. W. Clark Still and C. Gennari have developed conditions. Using phosphonates with electron-withdrawing groups together with dissociating conditions nearly exclusive Z-alkene production can be achieved. Ando has suggested that the use of electron-deficient phosphonates accelerates the elimination of the oxaphosphetane intermediates.

Wittig reaction Michaelis–Arbuzov reaction Michaelis–Becker reaction Peterson reaction Tebbe olefination

2014 Mastung bus bombing

Mastung bus bombing refers to the bomb attack on the bus carrying pilgrims returning from Iran on 21 January 2014, while it was passing through Mastung District on Quetta-Taftan Highway. At least 22 people die and another 32 were wounded in the attack; the bus came under attack at 6:15 pm when it crossed Pakistan-Iran border in Taftan on Quetta-Taftan Highway. During the bombing it was confirmed that 22 pilgrims were killed and 32 were injured, eight of which were women. On it turned that two injured pilgrims have died due to the severity of their injuries bring the number of dead to 24. According to Asadur Rehman Gilani, a homeland security secretary, an estimate of 80 to 100 kilograms of explosives were used to destroy the bus and three other vehicles; the attack was condemned by Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif, President Mamnoon Hussain as well as such parties as the Majils-e-Wahadat-e-Muslimeen and Hazara Democratic Party. Abdul Malik Baloch have reported the attack. On the same day it was reported that amount of dead have climbed to 29 while the bodies were laid to rest next day at Bahisht-e-Zainab and Bahisht-e-Zahra graveyards which are located at Hazara Town and Quetta.

On January 23 the relatives of the victims held a sit in. As of January 24, 2014 the Pakistani forces have detained 25 individuals and have restricted further travel to the region