The traditional China calendar, or Former Calendar, Traditional Calendar or Lunar Calendar, is a lunisolar calendar which reckons years and days according to astronomical phenomena. It is defined by GB/T 33661-2017, "Calculation and promulgation of the Chinese calendar", issued by the Standardisation Administration of China on 12 May 2017. Although modern day China uses the Gregorian calendar, the traditional Chinese calendar governs holidays in China and in overseas Chinese communities, it lists the dates of traditional Chinese holidays and guides people in selecting auspicious days for weddings, moving, or starting a business. Like Chinese characters, variants of this calendar are used in different parts of the Chinese cultural sphere. Korea and the Ryukyu Islands adopted the calendar, it evolved into Korean and Ryukyuan calendars; the main difference from the traditional Chinese calendar is the use of different meridians, which leads to some astronomical events—and calendar events based on them—falling on different dates.
The traditional Japanese calendar derived from the Chinese calendar, but its official use in Japan was abolished in 1873 as part of reforms after the Meiji Restoration. Calendars in Mongolia and Tibet have absorbed elements of the traditional Chinese calendar, but are not direct descendants of it. Days begin and end at midnight, months begin on the day of the new moon. Years begin on the second new moon after the winter solstice. Solar terms govern the end of each month. Written versions in ancient China included stems and branches of the year and the names of each month, including leap months as needed. Characters indicated whether a month was short; the traditional Chinese calendar was developed between 771 and 476 BC, during the Spring and Autumn period of the Eastern Zhou dynasty. Before the Zhou dynasty, solar calendars were used. One version of the solar calendar is the five-elements calendar. A 365-day year was divided into five phases of 73 days, with each phase corresponding to a Day 1 Wu Xing element.
A phase began followed by six 12-day weeks. Each phase consisted of two three-week months. Years began followed by a bǐngzǐ day and a 72-day fire phase. Other days were tracked using the Yellow River Map. Another version is a four-quarters calendar. Weeks were ten days long, with one month consisting of three weeks. A year had 12 months, with a ten-day week intercalated in summer as needed to keep up with the tropical year; the 10 Heavenly Stems and 12 Earthly Branches were used to mark days. A third version is the balanced calendar. A year was 365.25 days, a month was 29.5 days. After every 16th month, a half-month was intercalated. According to oracle bone records, the Shang dynasty calendar was a balanced calendar with 12 to 14 months in a year; the first lunisolar calendar was the Zhou calendar, introduced under the Zhou dynasty. This calendar set the beginning of the year at the day of the new moon before the winter solstice, it set the shàngyuán as the winter solstice of a dīngsì year, making the year it was introduced around 2,758,130.
Several competing lunisolar calendars were introduced by states fighting Zhou control during the Warring States period. The state of Lu issued its own Lu calendar. Jin issued the Xia calendar in AD 102, with a year beginning on the day of the new moon nearest the March equinox. Qin issued the Zhuanxu calendar, with a year beginning on the day of the new moon nearest the winter solstice. Song's Yin calendar began its year on the day of the new moon after the winter solstice; these calendars are known as the six ancient calendars, or quarter-remainder calendars, since all calculate a year as 365 1⁄4 days long. Months begin on the day of the new moon, a year has 12 or 13 months. Intercalary months are added to the end of the year; the Qiang and Dai calendars are modern versions of the Zhuanxu calendar, used by mountain peoples. After Qin Shi Huang unified China under the Qin dynasty in 221 BC, the Qin calendar was introduced, it followed most of the rules governing the Zhuanxu calendar, but the month order was that of the Xia calendar.
The intercalary month, known as the second Jiǔyuè, was placed at the end of the year. The Qin calendar was used into the Han dynasty. Emperor Wu of Han r. 141 – 87 BC introduced reforms halfway through his reign. His Taichu Calendar defined a solar year as 365 385⁄1539 days, the lunar month was 29 43⁄81 days; this calendar introduced the 24 solar terms. Solar terms were paired, with the 12 combined periods known as climate terms; the first solar term of the period was known as a pre-climate, the second was a mid-climate. Months were named for the mid-climat
1st millennium BC
The 1st millennium BC is the period of time between from the year 1000 BC to 1 BC. It encompasses the Iron Age in the Old World and sees the transition from the Ancient Near East to classical antiquity. World population doubled over the course of the millennium, from about 100 million to about 200–250 million; the Neo-Assyrian Empire dominates the Near East in the early centuries of the millennium, supplanted by the Achaemenid Empire in the 6th century. Ancient Egypt is in decline, falls to the Achaemenids in 525 BC. In Greece, Classical Antiquity begins with the colonization of Magna Graecia and peaks with the conquest of the Achaemenids and the subsequent flourishing of Hellenistic civilization; the Roman Republic supplants the Etruscans and the Carthaginians. The close of the millennium sees the rise of the Roman Empire; the early Celts dominate Central Europe. In East Africa, the Nubian Empire and Aksum arise. In South Asia, the Vedic civilization blends into the Maurya Empire; the Scythians dominate Central Asia.
In China, the Spring and Autumn period sees the rise of Confucianism. Towards the close of the millennium, the Han Dynasty extends Chinese power towards Central Asia, where it borders on Indo-Greek and Iranian states. Japan is in the Yayoi period; the Maya civilization rises in Mesoamerica. The first millennium BC is the formative period of the classical world religions, with the development of early Judaism Zoroastrianism in the Near East, Vedic religion and Vedanta and Buddhism in India. Early literature develops in Greek, Hebrew, Sanskrit and Chinese; the term Axial Age, coined by Karl Jaspers, is intended to express the crucial importance of the period of c. the 8th to 2nd centuries BC in world history. World population more than doubled over the course of the millennium, from about an estimated 50–100 million to an estimated 170–300 million. Close to 90% of world population at the end of the first millennium BC lived in the Iron Age civilizations of the Old World; the population of the Americas was below 20 million, concentrated in Mesoamerica.
The population of Oceania was less than one million people. 10th century BC Near East: Neo-Assyrian Empire Near East: Shoshenq I invades Canaan Aegean: Helladic period ends 9th century BC Egypt: 872 BC: Nile floods the Temple of Luxor Egypt: 836 BC: Civil war in Egypt North Africa: 814 BC: Carthage founded China: 841 BCndash. Greece: Archaic Greece, Greek alphabet Greece: Homer 776 BC: Greece: First Olympiad 753 BC: Europe: foundation of Rome 7th century BC 671 BC: Assyrian conquest of Egypt Near East: 631 BC: Death of Ashurbanipal, decline of the Assyrian Empire 6th century BC Egypt: 592 BC: Psamtik II sacks Napata Sudan: Aspelta moves the Kushite capital to Meroe Near East: 539 BC: Achaemenid conquest of Babylon under Cyrus the Great South Asia: Śramaṇa movement and "second urbanisation" South Asia: Early Buddhism Europe: 509 BC: Roman Republic 5th century BC China: 479 BC: death of Confucius China: 476 BC: Warring States period China: 486 BC: Grand Canal construction begins Near East: Second Temple Judaism, redaction of the Hebrew Bible Greece: beginning of the classical period.
Greece: Greco-Persian Wars Greece: 440 BC: Herodotus' Histories Greece: 431 BC: Peloponnesian War Oceania: Austronesian expansion reaches Western Polynesia 4th century BC Greece: 395 BC: Corinthian War Egypt: 343 BC: Achaemenid conquest Greece/Asia/Egypt: 330s BC: conquests of Alexander the Great, end of the Achaemenid Empire, Macedonian Empire, beginning of the Hellenistic period South Asia: Mauryan Empire 3rd century BC China: Qin Unified China China: 206 BC: Han Dynasty South Asia: 261 BC: Kalinga war Rome: Roman expansion in Italy Rome/Carthage: Punic Wars 264 BC: First Punic War 218 BC Second Punic War 2nd century BC Rome/Carthage: 149 BC Third Punic War, Roman province of Africa Rome/Greece: 146 BC Battle of Corinth, beginning of the Roman era South Asia: 185 BC: Fall of the Maurya Empire China: Confucianism became the state ideology of China 1st century BC China: 91 BC: Records of the Grand Historian finished Rome/Europe: 58-50 BC Gallic Wars Rome: 32/30 BC: Final War of the Roman Republic Rome/Egypt: 31 BC: Roman conquest of Egypt Rome/Europe/West Asia/Africa: 27 BC: Roman Empire Some of the central figures of the Axial Age are legendary or semi-legendary, with no contemporary written records available RulersChina: Dynasties in Chinese history, List of Chinese monarchs Egypt: Third Intermediate Period of Egypt Carthage: List of monarchs of Carthage Assyrian Empire: List of Assyrian kings Babylonia: Neo-Babylonian_dynasty Canaan / Biblical Levant: Kings of Israel and Judah Achaemenid Persia: List of monarchs of Persia Kingdom of Kush: List of monarchs of Kush Classical Greece: Monarchs: List of kings of Sparta, Thirty Tyrants Athenian democracy: Pericles Macedon: List of ancient Macedonians, Argead dynasty Hellenistic period: Ptolemaic Dynasty, Antigonid dynasty, Hasmonean dynasty Rome: kings of Rome, List of Roman consuls Parthian Empire: List of Parthian kings India: List of Indian monarchsReligion, p
The Buddhist calendar is a set of lunisolar calendars used in mainland Southeast Asian countries of Cambodia, Laos and Thailand as well as in Sri Lanka and Chinese populations of Malaysia and Singapore for religious or official occasions. While the calendars share a common lineage, they have minor but important variations such as intercalation schedules, month names and numbering, use of cycles, etc. In Thailand, the name Buddhist Era is a year numbering system shared by the traditional Thai lunisolar calendar and by the Thai solar calendar; the Southeast Asian lunisolar calendars are based on an older version of the Hindu calendar, which uses the sidereal year as the solar year. One major difference is that the Southeast Asian systems, unlike their Indian cousins, do not use apparent reckoning to stay in sync with the sidereal year. Instead, they employ their versions of the Metonic cycle. However, since the Metonic cycle is not accurate for sidereal years, the Southeast Asian calendar is drifting out of sync with the sidereal one day every 100 years.
Yet no coordinated structural reforms of the lunisolar calendar have been undertaken. Today, the traditional Buddhist lunisolar calendar is used for Theravada Buddhist festivals, no longer has the official calendar status anywhere; the Thai Buddhist Era, a renumbered Gregorian calendar, is the official calendar in Thailand. The calculation methodology of the current versions of Southeast Asian Buddhist calendars is based on that of the Burmese calendar, in use in various Southeast Asian kingdoms down to the 19th century under the names of Chula Sakarat and Jolak Sakaraj; the Burmese calendar in turn was based on the "original" Surya Siddhanta system of ancient India. One key difference with Indian systems is that the Burmese system has followed a variation of the Metonic cycle, it is unclear from where, how the Metonic system was introduced. The Burmese system, indeed the Southeast Asian systems, thus use a "strange" combination of sidereal years from Indian calendar in combination with the Metonic cycle better for tropical years.
In all Theravada traditions, the calendar's epochal year 0 date was the day in which the Buddha attained parinibbāna. However, not all traditions agree on when it took place. In Burmese Buddhist tradition, it was 13 May 544 BCE, but in Thailand, it was 11 March 545 BCE, the date which the current Thai lunisolar and solar calendars use as the epochal date. Yet, the Thai calendars for some reason have fixed the difference between their Buddhist Era numbering and the Christian/Common Era numbering at 543, which points to an epochal year of 544 BCE, not 545 BCE. In Myanmar, the difference between BE and CE can be 543 or 544 for CE dates, 544 or 543 for BCE dates, depending on the month of the Buddhist Era. In Sri Lanka, the difference between BE and CE is 544; the calendar recognizes two types of months: sidereal month. The Synodic months are used to compose the years while the 27 lunar sidereal days, alongside the 12 signs of the zodiac, are used for astrological calculations; the days of the month are counted in two halves and waning.
The 15th of the waxing is the civil full moon day. The civil new moon day is the last day of the month; because of the inaccuracy of the calendrical calculation systems, the mean and real New Moons coincide. The mean New Moon precedes the real New Moon; as the Synodic lunar month is 29.5 days, the calendar uses alternating months of 29 and 30 days. Various regional versions of Chula Sakarat/Burmese calendar existed across various regions of mainland Southeast Asia. Unlike Burmese systems, Lan Na, Lan Xang and Sukhothai systems refer to the months by numbers, not by names; this means reading ancient texts and inscriptions in Thailand requires constant vigilance, not just in making sure one is operating for the correct region, but for variations within regions itself when incursions cause a variation in practice. However, Cambodian month system, which begins with Margasirsa as the first month, demonstrated by the names and numbers; the Buddhist calendar is a lunisolar calendar in which the months are based on lunar months and years are based on solar years.
One of its primary objectives is to synchronize the lunar part with the solar part. The lunar months twelve of them, consist alternately of 29 days and 30 days, such that a normal lunar year will contain 354 days, as opposed to the solar year of ~365.25 days. Therefore, some form of addition to the lunar year is necessary; the overall basis for it is provided by cycles of 57 years. Eleven extra days are inserted in every 57 years, seven extra months of 30 days are inserted in every 19 years; this provides 20819 complete days to both calendars. This 57-year cycle would provide a mean year of about 365.2456 days and a mean month of about 29.530496 days, if not corrected. As such, the calendar adds an intercalary month in leap years and sometimes an intercalary day in great leap years; the intercalary month not only corrects the length of the year but corrects the accumulating error of the month to extent of half a day. The average length of the month is further corrected by adding a day to Nayon
8th century BC
The 8th century BC started the first day of 800 BC and ended the last day of 701 BC. The 8th century BC is a period of great change for several significant civilizations. In Egypt, the 23rd and 24th dynasties lead to rule from Nubia in the 25th Dynasty; the Neo-Assyrian Empire reaches the peak of its power, conquering the Kingdom of Israel as well as nearby countries. Greece colonizes other regions of the Mediterranean Black Sea. Rome is founded in 753 BC, the Etruscan civilization expands in Italy; the 8th century BC is conventionally taken as the beginning of Classical Antiquity, with the first Olympiad set at 776 BC, the epics of Homer dated to between 750 and 650 BC. Iron Age India enters the Vedic period. Vedic ritual is annotated in many priestly schools in Brahmana commentaries, the earliest Upanishads mark the beginning of Vedanta philosophy. Late 8th century BC: Earrings and rosettes, from the tomb of Queen Yabay in Kalhu are made, they are now at Baghdad. Discovered in 1988. Second half of the 8th century BC: In the Kingdom of Judah, Jerusalem begins an expansion in population and size, going from a small town into a major city.
797 BC: Thespieus, King of Athens, dies after a reign of 27 years and is succeeded by his son Agamestor. 783 BC: Shalmaneser IV succeeds his father Adad-nirari III as king of Assyria. 782 BC: Founding of Erebuni by the orders of King Argishtis I at the site of current-day Yerevan. 782 BC: Death of King Xuan of Zhou, King of the Zhou Dynasty of China. 781 BC: King You of Zhou becomes King of the Zhou Dynasty of China. 780 BC: The first historic solar eclipse is recorded in China. 778 BC: Agamestor, King of Athens, dies after a reign of 17 years and is succeeded by his son Aeschylus. 776 BC: retrospectively set as the first Olympiad. The history of the Olympic Games is believed to reach as far back as the 13th century BC. 774 BC: End of the reign of king Pygmalion of Tyre. 773 BC: Death of Shoshenq III, king of Egypt. 773 BC: Ashur-Dan III succeeds his brother Shalmaneser IV as king of Assyria. 771 BC: End of the Western Zhou Dynasty in China as "western" barbarian tribes sack the capital Hao. King You of Zhou is killed.
Crown Prince Ji Yijiu will reign as King Ping of Zhou. 770 BC: Beginning of the Eastern Zhou Dynasty in China as King Ping of Zhou becomes the first King of the Zhou to rule from the new capital of Chengzhou. June 15, 763 BC: A solar eclipse at this date is used to fix the chronology of the Ancient Near East. Mid-8th century BC: Model of temple, found in the Sanctuary of Hera, Argos, is made, it is now at Athens. 756 BC: Founding of Cyzicus. 755 BC: Ashur-nirari V succeeds Ashur-Dan III as king of Assyria. 755 BC: Aeschylus, King of Athens, dies after a reign of 23 years and is succeeded by Alcmaeon. 753 BC: Alcmaeon, King of Athens, dies after a reign of 2 years. He is replaced by Harops, elected Archon for a ten-year term. April 21, 753 BC: Rome founded by Romulus. Beginning of the Roman'Ab urbe condita' calendar. February 26, 747 BC: Nabonassar becomes king of Babylon. 747 BC: Meles becomes king of Lydia. 747 BC: The Lusatian culture city at Biskupin is founded. 745 BC: The Crown of Assyria is seized by Pul, who takes the name Tiglath-Pileser III.
743 BC: Duke Zhuang of the Chinese state of Zheng comes to power. 740 BC: Tiglath-Pileser III conquers the city of Arpad in Syria after two years of siege. 740 BC: Start of Ahaz's reign of Judah. 739 BC: Hiram II becomes king of Tyre. 738 BC: King Tiglath-Pileser III of Assyria invades Israel, forcing it to pay tribute. 734 BC: Syracuse was founded as a colony by Corinth. 734 BC: Naxus in Sicily founded as a colony of Chalcis in Euboea. 732 BC: Hoshea becomes the last king of Israel. 730 BC: Osorkon IV succeeds Sheshonq IV as king of the Twenty-second dynasty of Egypt. 730 BC: Piye succeeds his father Kashta as king of the Nubian kingdom of Napata. 730 BC: Mattan II succeeds Hiram II as king of Tyre. 728 BC: Piye invades Egypt, conquering Memphis, receives the submission of the rulers of the Nile Delta. He founds the Twenty-fifth dynasty of Egypt. 727 BC: Babylonia makes itself independent of Assyria. 724 BC: The Assyrians start a four-year siege of Tyre. 724 BC: The diaulos footrace introduced at the Olympics.
722 BC: Spring and Autumn period of China's history begins as King Ping of Zhou of the Zhou Dynasty reigns in name only. 722 BC: Israel is conquered by Assyrian king Sargon II. 720 BC: End of the Assyrian siege of Tyre. 719 BC: King Huan of Zhou of the Zhou Dynasty becomes ruler of China. 718 BC: Gyges becomes the ruler of Lydia. 717 BC: Assyrian king Sargon conquers the Hittite stronghold of Carchemish. 717 BC: Sargon II founds a new capital for Assyria at Dur-Sharrukin. 716 BC: Roman legend marks this as the date that Romulus ended his rule. 715 BC: Start of the reign of Roman King Numa Pompilius. 713 BC: Numa Pompilius reforms the Roman calendar. 712 BC: Numa Pompilius creates the office of Pontifex Maximus. 706 BC: Spartan immigrants found Taras colony in southern Italy. 705 BC: Sennacherib succeeds Sargon II as king of Assyria. 704 BC: Sennacherib moves the capital of Assyria to Nineveh. 701 BC: King Hezekiah of Judah, backed by Egypt, revolts against king Sennacherib of Assyria. Sennacherib fails in his attempt to take Jerusalem.
700 BC: The Scythians start settling in Cimmerian areas replacing the previous inhabitants. 700 BC: End of the Villanovan culture in northern Italy and rise of the Etruscan civilization. 700 BC: The Upanishads, a sacred text of Hinduism, are written around this time. Greeks colonize Black Seas. Thraco-Cimmerian influence in Central Eu
7th century BC
The 7th century BC began the first day of 700 BC and ended the last day of 601 BC. The Assyrian Empire continued to dominate the Near East during this century, exercising formidable power over neighbors like Babylon and Egypt. In the last two decades of the century, the empire began to unravel as numerous enemies made alliances and waged war from all sides; the Assyrians left the world stage permanently when their capital Nineveh was destroyed in 612 BC. These events gave rise to the Neo-Babylonian Empire, which would dominate the region for much of the following century. 699 BC: Khallushu succeeds Shuttir-Nakhkhunte as king of the Elamite Empire. 697 BC: Death of King Huan of Zhou, King of the Zhou Dynasty of China. 696 BC: King Zhuang of Zhou becomes King of the Zhou Dynasty of China. 696 BC: The Cimmerians ravage Phrygia, possible migration of the Armenians. 691 BC: King Sennacherib of Assyria defeats king Humban-nimena of Elam in the Battle of Halule. 690 BC: Taharqa, a king of the Twenty-fifth Dynasty, ascends the throne of Egypt.
690s: BC—W'rn Hywt of D'mt in Ethiopia appears in the inscriptional record and mentions the king of Saba', Karib'il Watar. C. 690 BC-664 BC—Sphinx of Taharqa, from Temple T, Nubia, is made. Twenty-fifth dynasty of Egypt, it is now kept at London. 689 BC: King Sennacherib of Assyria sacks Babylon. 687 BC: Gyges becomes king of Lydia. 687 BC: Hezekiah succeeded by Manasseh as king of Judah. 682 BC: Death of King Zhuang of Zhou, King of the Zhou Dynasty of China. 681 BC: King Xi of Zhou becomes King of the Zhou Dynasty of China. 681 BC: Esarhaddon succeeds Sennacherib as king of Assyria. 677 BC: Death of King Li of Zhou, King of the Zhou Dynasty of China. 677 BC: Esarhaddon leads the Assyrian army against rebellious Arab tribes, advances as far as the Brook of Egypt. 676 BC: King Hui of Zhou becomes King of the Zhou Dynasty of China. 675 BC: Esarhaddon begins the rebuilding of Babylon. 674 BC: Esarhaddon puts down a revolt in Ashkelon supported by Taharqa, king of Egypt. In response, the Assyrians invade Egypt.
673 BC: Tullus Hostilius becomes king of Rome. 671 BC: Esarhaddon again invades Egypt, capturing Memphis as well as a number of the royal family. 669 BC: Assurbanipal succeeds his father Esarhaddon as king of Assyria. 669 BC: Argos defeats Sparta for the last time, this time using a hoplite phalanx, at the battle of Hysiae. 668 BC: Shamash-shum-ukin, son of Esarhaddon, becomes King of Babylon. 668 BC: Egypt revolts against Assyria. 668 BC: Nineveh, capital of Assyria becomes the largest city of the world, taking the lead from Thebes in Egypt. 667 BC: Byzantium founded by Megaran colonists under Byzas. 664 BC: First naval battle in Greek recorded history, between Corinth and Corcyra. 664 BC: Assurbanipal captures and sacks Thebes, Egypt. 664 BC: Psammetichus I succeeds Necho I as king of Lower Egypt. 664 BC: Taharqa appoints his nephew Tantamani as his successor of Upper Egypt. February 11, 660 BC—Traditional founding date of Japan by Emperor Jimmu. 660 BC: First known use of the Demotic script. 660 BC: Psammetichus I drives the Assyrians out of Egypt.
660 BC: Estimated date of the impact that created the Kaali crater 650s BC: The Spartan Creed by Ancient Greek poet Tyrtaeus 650s BC: Occupation begins at Maya site of Piedras Negras, Guatemala. 657 BC: Cypselus becomes the first tyrant of Corinth. 656 BC: Psammetichus extends his control over all of Egypt. End of Twenty-fifth Dynasty. 653 BC: Atta-Khumma-In-Shushinak and Khumbanigash II succeed Shilhak-In-Shushinak and Tempti-Khumma-In-Shushinak as kings of the Elamite Empire. 652 BC: Babylonia rises in revolt under Shamash-shum-ukin against the Assyrians. 652 BC: Achaemenid dynasty in Persia. 651 BC: King Xiang of Zhou becomes King of the Zhou Dynasty of China. 650 BC: The town of Abdera in Thrace is founded by colonists from Clazomenae. 650 BC: A climate change affects all the Bronze Age cultures in Europe with colder and wetter climate, tribes from the Scandinavian Nordic Bronze Age cultures are pushed downwards into the European continent. 640s BC: Assyrian king Ashurbanipal founds library, which included our earliest complete copy of the Epic of Gilgamesh.
649 BC: Indabigash succeeds Tammaritu as a king of the Elamite Empire. 649 BC: Babylonian revolt under Shamash-shum-ukin is crushed by the Assyrians. 648 BC: Pankration becomes an event at the Ancient Olympic Games. April 6, 648 BC: Earliest Greek-chronicled solar eclipse. 647 BC: King Assurbanipal of Assyria sacks Susa 642 BC: Ancus Marcius becomes king of Rome. C.641 BC: Josiah becomes king of Judah. 640 BC: Decisive victory of Assyria over Elamite Empire. 632 BC: Cylon, Athenian noble, seizes the Acropolis in a failed attempt to become king. 632 BC: In the Battle of Chengpu, the Chinese kingdom of Jin and her allies defeat the kingdom of Chu and her allies. 631 BC: Founding of Cyrene, a Greek colony in Libya. 631 BC: Sadyates becomes king of Lydia. 627 BC: Death of Assurbanipal, king of Assyria. 626 BC: Nabopolassar revolts against Assyria, founds the Neo-Babylonian Empire. 625 BC: Medes and Babylonians assert their independence from Assyria and attack Nineveh. 623 BC: Sin-shar-ishkun succeeds his brother Assur-etel-ilani as king of Assyria.
622 BC: Text of Deuteronomy found in the Temple in Jerusalem. The Hebrew prophet Ezekiel said to be born this year. 619 BC: Alyattes becomes king of Lydia. 619 BC: Death of King Xiang of Zhou, King of the Zhou Dynasty of China. 618 BC: King Qing of Zhou becomes King of the Zhou Dynasty of China. 616 BC: Lucius Tarquinius Priscus becomes
The Roman Empire was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization. Ruled by emperors, it had large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, North Africa, the Middle East, the Caucasus. From the constitutional reforms of Augustus to the military anarchy of the third century, the Empire was a principate ruled from the city of Rome; the Roman Empire was ruled by multiple emperors and divided in a Western Roman Empire, based in Milan and Ravenna, an Eastern Roman Empire, based in Nicomedia and Constantinople. Rome remained the nominal capital of both parts until 476 AD, when Odoacer deposed Romulus Augustus after capturing Ravenna and the Roman Senate sent the imperial regalia to Constantinople; the fall of the Western Roman Empire to barbarian kings, along with the hellenization of the Eastern Roman Empire into the Byzantine Empire, is conventionally used to mark the end of Ancient Rome and the beginning of the Middle Ages. The previous Republic, which had replaced Rome's monarchy in the 6th century BC, became destabilized in a series of civil wars and political conflict.
In the mid-1st century BC Julius Caesar was appointed as perpetual dictator and assassinated in 44 BC. Civil wars and proscriptions continued, culminating in the victory of Octavian, Caesar's adopted son, over Mark Antony and Cleopatra at the Battle of Actium in 31 BC; the following year Octavian conquered Ptolemaic Egypt, ending the Hellenistic period that had begun with the conquests of Alexander the Great of Macedon in the 4th century BC. Octavian's power was unassailable and in 27 BC the Roman Senate formally granted him overarching power and the new title Augustus making him the first emperor; the first two centuries of the Empire were a period of unprecedented stability and prosperity known as the Pax Romana. It reached its greatest territorial expanse during the reign of Trajan. A period of increasing trouble and decline began with the reign of Commodus. In the 3rd century, the Empire underwent a crisis that threatened its existence, but was reunified under Aurelian. In an effort to stabilize the Empire, Diocletian set up two different imperial courts in the Greek East and Latin West.
Christians rose to power in the 4th century following the Edict of Milan in 313 and the Edict of Thessalonica in 380. Shortly after, the Migration Period involving large invasions by Germanic peoples and the Huns of Attila led to the decline of the Western Roman Empire. With the fall of Ravenna to the Germanic Herulians and the deposition of Romulus Augustulus in 476 AD by Odoacer, the Western Roman Empire collapsed and it was formally abolished by emperor Zeno in 480 AD; the Eastern Roman Empire, known in the post-Roman West as the Byzantine Empire, collapsed when Constantinople fell to the Ottoman Turks of Mehmed II in 1453. Due to the Roman Empire's vast extent and long endurance, the institutions and culture of Rome had a profound and lasting influence on the development of language, architecture, philosophy and forms of government in the territory it governed Europe; the Latin language of the Romans evolved into the Romance languages of the medieval and modern world, while Medieval Greek became the language of the Eastern Roman Empire.
Its adoption of Christianity led to the formation of Christendom during the Middle Ages. Greek and Roman art had a profound impact on the late medieval Italian Renaissance, while Rome's republican institutions influenced the political development of republics such as the United States and France; the corpus of Roman law has its descendants in many legal systems of the world today, such as the Napoleonic Code. Rome's architectural tradition served as the basis for Neoclassical architecture. Rome had begun expanding shortly after the founding of the republic in the 6th century BC, though it did not expand outside the Italian peninsula until the 3rd century BC, it was an "empire" long before it had an emperor. The Roman Republic was not a nation-state in the modern sense, but a network of towns left to rule themselves and provinces administered by military commanders, it was ruled, not by annually elected magistrates in conjunction with the senate. For various reasons, the 1st century BC was a time of political and military upheaval, which led to rule by emperors.
The consuls' military power rested in the Roman legal concept of imperium, which means "command". Successful consuls were given the honorary title imperator, this is the origin of the word emperor since this title was always bestowed to the early emperors upon their accession. Rome suffered a long series of internal conflicts and civil wars from the late second century BC onward, while extending its power beyond Italy; this was the period of the Crisis of the Roman Republic. Towards the end of this era, in 44 BC, Julius Caesar was perpetual dictator before being assassinated; the faction of his assassins was driven from Rome and defeated at the Battle of Philippi in 42 BC by an army led by Mark Antony and Caesar's adopted son Octavian. Antony and Octavian's division of the Roman world between themselves did not last and Octavian's forces defeated those of Mark Antony and Cleopatra at the Battle of Actium in 31 BC, ending the Final War of the Roman Republic. In 27 BC the Senate and People of Rome made Octavian princeps ("first citi
Balinese saka calendar
The Balinese saka calendar is one of two calendars used on the Indonesian island of Bali. Unlike the 210-day pawukon calendar, it is based on the phases of the Moon, is the same length as the Gregorian year. Based on a lunar calendar, the saka year comprises sasih, of 30 days each. However, because the lunar cycle is shorter than 30 days, the lunar year has a length of 354 or 355 days, the calendar is adjusted to prevent it losing synchronization with the lunar or solar cycles; the months are adjusted by allocating two lunar days to one solar day every 9 weeks. This day is called ngunalatri, Sanskrit for "minus one night". To stop the Saka from lagging behind the Gregorian calendar – as happens with the Islamic calendar, an extra month, known as an intercalary month, is added after the 11th month, or after the 12th month; the length of these months is calculated according to the normal 63-day cycle. An intercalary month is added whenever necessary to prevent the final day of the 7th month, known as Tilem Kapitu, from falling in the Gregorian month of December.
The names the twelve months are taken from a mixture of Old Balinese and Sanskrit words for 1 to 12, are as follows: Kasa Karo Katiga Kapat Kalima Kanem Kapitu Kawalu Kasanga Kadasa Jyestha SadhaEach month begins the day after a new moon and has 15 days of waxing moon until the full moon 15 days of waning, ending on the new moon. Both sets of days are numbered 1 to 15; the first day of the year is the day after the first new moon in March. Note, that Nyepi falls on the first day of Kadasa, that the years of the Saka era are counted from that date; the calendar is 78 years behind the Gregorian calendar, is calculated from the beginning of the Saka Era in India. It is used alongside the 210-day Balinese pawukon calendar, Balinese festivals can be calculated according to either year; the Indian saka calendar was used for royal decrees as early as the ninth century CE. The same calendar was used in Java until Sultan Agung replaced it with the Javanese calendar in 1633; the Balinese Hindu festival of Nyepi, the day of silence, marks the start of the Saka year.
Tilem Kepitu, the last day of the 7th month, is known as Siva Ratri, is a night dedicated to the god Shiva. Devotees stay up all meditate. There are another 24 ceremonial days in the Saka year celebrated at Purnama. Eiseman, Fred B. Jr, Bali: Sekalia and Niskala Volume I: Essays on Religion and Art pp 182–185, Periplus Editions, 1989 ISBN 0-945971-03-6 Haer, Debbie Guthrie. ISBN 981 3018 496 Hobart, Angela. ISBN 0 631 17687 X Ricklefs, M. C.