Year 674 was a common year starting on Sunday of the Julian calendar. The denomination 674 for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years. Siege of Constantinople: The Arab fleet enters the Sea of Marmara and appears before the southern walls of Constantinople, in an attempt to blockade the Byzantine capital. April – A Muslim expeditionary force disembarks on the Thracian shore, lays siege to the massive Theodosian Walls, on the landward side to the west. Summer – Abu Ayyub al-Ansari and standard-bearer of Muhammad, is killed during the first attempt of the siege of the city. Winter – Arab forces under Yazid retire to Cyzicus. For the next 4 years the Arab fleet installs a loose blockade around Constantinople; the Muslim-Arabs raid Crete and enslaving many people.. King Ecgfrith of Northumbria defeats a coalition led by the Mercians, he annexes the region of Lindsey. King Æscwine succeeds his father Cenfus as ruler of Wessex.
King Vikramaditya I of Chalukya defeats the Pallavan army in battle, destroys its capital Kanchi. In Korea, Anapji is constructed by order of King Munmu of Silla. In Japan, Princess Ōku proceeds to the Ise Jingu. Æthelthryth, former queen of Northumbria, gives large areas of land to bishop Wilfrid to found Hexham Abbey. The Monkwearmouth monastery is founded by Benedict Biscop in Northumbria; the first glass windows are placed in English churches. Poppo, king of Frisia Sulayman ibn Abd al-Malik, Muslim caliph Abu Ayyub al-Ansari, friend of Muhammad Hassan ibn Thabit, Arab poet and companion of Muhammad Hongren, Chán patriarch of the Tang Dynasty Seaxburh, queen of Wessex
Jan Assmann is a German Egyptologist. Assmann studied Egyptology and classical archaeology in Munich, Paris, Göttingen. In 1966–67, he was a fellow of the German Archaeological Institute in Cairo, where he continued as an independent scholar from 1967 to 1971. After completing his habilitation in 1971, he was named a professor of Egyptology at the University of Heidelberg in 1976, where he taught until his retirement in 2003, he was named an Honorary Professor of Cultural Studies at the University of Constance, where he is today. In the 1990s, Assmann and his wife Aleida Assmann developed a theory of cultural and communicative memory that has received much international attention, he is known beyond Egyptology circles for his interpretation of the origins of monotheism, which he considers as a break from earlier cosmotheism, first with Atenism and with the Exodus from Egypt of the Israelites. Assmann suggests that the ancient Egyptian religion had a more significant influence on Judaism than is acknowledged.
He used the term "normative inversion" to suggest that some aspects of Judaism were formulated in direct reaction to Egyptian practices and theology. He ascribed the principle of normative inversion to a principle established by Manetho, used by Maimonides in his references to the Sabians, his book The Price of Monotheism received some criticism for his notion of The Mosaic Distinction. 1996 Max Planck Award for Research 1998 German Historians’ Prize 1998 Honorary Doctorate in Theology from the Theology Faculty, Munster 2004 Soc. Sc. D. Yale University 2005 Ph. D. Hebrew University of Jerusalem 2006 Order of Merit of the Federal Republic of Germany, First Class 2006 Alfried Krupp Prize for Scholarship 2011 Großer Literaturpreis der Bayerischen Akademie der Schönen Künste 2017 Balzan Prize for Collective Memory together with his wife Aleida Assmann 2018 Peace Prize of the German Book Trade together with his wife Aleida Assmann Re und Amun: Die Krise des polytheistischen Weltbilds im Ägypten der 18.-20.
Dynastie. Fribourg and Göttingen 1983. Ägypten: Theologie und Frömmigkeit einer frühen Hochkultur. The Search for God in Ancient Egypt trans. David Lorton ISBN 0-8014-8729-3 "Maât: l'Égypte pharaonique et l'idée de justice sociale" in: Conférences, essais et leçons du Collège de France. Paris: Julliard, 1989. German: Ma`at: Gerechtigkeit und Unsterblichkeit im alten Ägypten. Munich 1990. Stein und Zeit: Mensch und Gesellschaft im Alten Ägypten. Munich 1991. Das kulturelle Gedächtnis: Schrift, Erinnerung und politische Identität in frühen Hochkulturen. Munich 1992. ISBN 3-406-36088-2 ASIN B001C84TR4trans.: Cultural Memory and Early Civilization: Writing and Political Imagination. Cambridge University Press, 2011. ISBN 0-521-18802-4, ISBN 978-0-521-18802-9Monotheismus und Kosmotheismus ISBN 3-8253-0026-9 Egyptian Solar Religion ISBN 0-7103-0465-X Ägypten: Eine Sinngeschichte; the Mind of Egypt: History and Meaning in the Time of the Pharaohs. Moses der Ägypter: Entzifferung einer Gedächtnisspur. Munich 1998.
Moses the Egyptian: The Memory of Egypt in Western Monotheism ISBN 0-674-58739-1Weisheit und Mysterium: Das Bild der Griechen von Ägypten. Munich 2000. ISBN 3-406-45899-8 Herrschaft und Heil: Politische Theologie in Altägypten, Israel und Europa. Munich 2000. ISBN 3-596-15339-5 Religion und kulturelles Gedächtnis: Zehn Studien. ISBN 3-406-45915-3Religion and Cultural Memory: Ten Studies trans. Rodney Livingstone, SUP ISBN 0-8047-4523-4Der Tod als Thema der Kulturtheorie ISBN 3-518-12157-X Tod und Jenseits im Alten Ägypten. ISBN 3-406-49707-1Death And Salvation In Ancient Egypt, trans. David Lorton ISBN 0-8014-4241-9Altägyptische Totenliturgien, Bd.1, Totenliturgien in den Sargtexten ISBN 3-8253-1199-6 Die Mosaische Unterscheidung oder der Preis des Monotheismus. Munich 2003.trans. Robert Savage: The Mosaic Distinction or The Price of Monotheism ISBN 0-8047-6160-4Ägyptische Geheimnisse ISBN 3-7705-3687-8 Theologie und Weisheit im alten Ägypten ISBN 3-7705-4069-7 Die Zauberflöte ISBN 3-446-20673-6 Thomas Mann und Ägypten: Mythos und Monotheismus in den Josephsromanen.
Monotheismus und die Sprache der Gewalt ISBN 3-85452-516-8 Of God and Gods: Egypt and the Rise of Monotheism From Akhenaten to Moses. Ancient Egypt and religious change. Exodus: Die Revolution der Alten Welt ISBN 978-3-406-67430-3Books in EnglishThe Mind of Egypt: History and Meaning in the Time of the Pharaohs, trans. Andrew Jenkins ISBN 0-674-01211-9 Of God and Gods: Egypt and the Rise of Monotheism ISBN 0-299-22554-2 The Invention of Religion: Faith and Covenant in the Book of Exodus. Princeton University Press. 2018. ISBN 9780691157085. Media related to Jan Assmann at Wikimedia Commons Short biography at litrix.de, German Literature Online Jan Assmann on IMDb Professor page at the University of Constance Profile at the University of Heidelberg's Institute for Egyptology
In Australia and further education or TAFE institutions provide a wide range of predominantly vocational courses qualifying courses under the National Training System/Australian Qualifications Framework/Australian Quality Training Framework. Fields covered include business, hospitality, construction, visual arts, information technology and community work. Individual TAFE institutions are known as either colleges or institutes, depending on the state or territory. TAFE colleges are owned and financed by the various state and territory governments; this is in contrast to the university sector, whose funding is predominantly the domain of the federal government and whose universities are predominantly owned by the state governments. TAFE colleges award Australian Qualifications Framework qualifications accredited in the Vocational Education and Training sector that align to Certificate I, Certificate II, Certificate III, Certificate IV, Advanced Diploma, Graduate Certificate and Graduate Diploma qualifications.
In many instances, TAFE study at a Diploma or above level can be used as partial credit towards bachelor's degree-level university programs. From 2002 the TAFE education sector has been able to offer bachelor's degrees and post-graduate diploma courses to fill niche areas vocationally focused areas of study based on industry needs; as at June 2009 10 TAFE colleges now confer their own degree-level awards and post graduate diplomas, though not beyond the level of bachelor's degree. However Melbourne Polytechnic has been accredited in 2015 to offer two master's degree courses; some universities, e.g. Charles Darwin University and Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology, offer vocational education courses; some high schools deliver courses developed and accredited by TAFEs. Students who enrol in these undergraduate degree courses at TAFE are required to pay full fees and are not entitled to Commonwealth Government supported student fee loans, known as HECS loans, but may access a FEE-HELP loan scheme.
While Universities have the ability and power to design and offer their own degree courses, each TAFE degree course must be assessed and approved by the Higher Education Accreditation Committee. TAFEs in some states can teach senior high school qualifications, like the Victorian Certificate of Education, Victorian Certificate of Applied Learning, the Higher School Certificate; some universities, e.g. Charles Darwin University and Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology, offer TAFE courses; some high schools deliver courses developed and accredited by TAFEs. Some private institutions offer courses from TAFEs, however they more offer other vocational education and training courses. Many Australians refer to all sub-degree courses as "TAFE" courses, no matter what institution creates or delivers the course. Before the 1990s, the TAFEs had a near monopoly in the sector. TAFE courses provide students an opportunity for certificate and advanced diploma qualifications in a wide range of areas. In most cases, TAFE campuses are grouped into TAFE institutions along geographic lines.
Most TAFEs are given a locally recognised region of the country where they operate covering a wide range of subjects. A few TAFEs specialise in a single area of study; these are found near the middle of the capital cities, service the whole state or territory. For example, the Trade and Technician Skills Institute in Brisbane, specialises in automotive and construction, manufacturing and engineering, electrical/electronic studies for students throughout Queensland. Or the William Angliss Institute of TAFE in Melbourne which specialises in food and tourism courses for Victoria. In the Australian Capital Territory these include: Canberra Institute of Technology There are ten TAFE NSW Institutes in NSW which include: Hunter Institute Illawarra Institute New England Institute North Coast Institute Northern Sydney Institute Riverina Institute South Western Sydney Institute Sydney Institute Western Institute Western Sydney Institute, including OTEN In the Northern Territory these include: Charles Darwin University Batchelor Institute of Indigenous Tertiary Education In Queensland, TAFE Queensland includes: As of May 2014, the TAFE institutes have amalgamated into six regions of the central TAFE Queensland.
The regions of TAFE Queensland are: Brisbane Gold Coast East Coast South West North SkillsTech In South Australia: TAFE SA In Tasmania, there are two government TAFE organisations: TAFE Tasmania includes: Institute of TAFE Tasmania Drysdale Institute Australian Maritime College TAFE In Victoria these include: Bendigo Regional Institute of TAFE Box Hill Institute of TAFE Chisholm Institute East Gippsland Institute of TAFE Central Gippsland Institute of TAFE (Local: West and
The gcvB RNA gene encodes a small non-coding RNA involved in the regulation of a number of amino acid transport systems as well as amino acid biosynthetic genes. The GcvB gene is found in enteric bacteria such as Escherichia coli. GcvB regulates genes by acting as an antisense binding partner of the mRNAs for each regulated gene; this binding is dependent on binding to a protein called Hfq. Transcription of the GcvB RNA is activated by the adjacent GcvA gene and repressed by the GcvR gene. A deletion of GcvB RNA from Y. pestis changed colony shape as well as reducing growth. It has been shown by gene deletion. GcvB enhances the ability of the bacterium to survive low pH by upregulating the levels of the alternate sigma factor RpoS. A polymeric form of GcvB has been identified. Interaction of GcvB with small RNA SroC triggers the degradation of GcvB by RNase E, lifting the GcvB-mediated mRNA repression of its target genes. GcvB has been shown to regulate a large number of genes in E. Salmonella species.
GcvB was shown to bind to DppA which transport oligopeptides and dipeptides respectively. It has been shown to regulate gltL, argT, STM, livK, livJ, brnQ, sstT and cycA which are involved in uptake of a variety of amino acids. GcvB RNA is involved in regulating a variety of genes involved in amino acid biosynthesis such as ilvC, gdhA, thrL and serA. GcvB RNA binds PhoPQ mRNA. There is evidence. Native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis was used to show a higher molecular weight band corresponding to a potential polymer. Transmission electron microscopy was used to identify a filamentous structure for the polymer. However, the authors suggest, it was shown that a construct containing only the first 61 nucleotides including the first stem-loop was sufficient for polymerisation. Similar results were shown for the DsrA RNA; the physiological relevance of polymerisation is not known. The GcvB RNA is found in a range of bacteria including: Escherichia coli Yersinia pestis Haemophilus influenzae Vibrio cholerae Shigella dysenteriae Salmonella typhimurium Klebsiella pneumoniae Photorhabdus luminescens Pasteurella multocida Page for GcvB RNA at Rfam
Events in the year 2018 in Uganda. President: Yoweri Museveni Vice President: Edward Ssekandi Prime Minister: Ruhakana Rugunda February - Flood kills at least 45 people. 25 May – Bus accident left 22 people dead and another 15 were injured. 16 August - Arrest of opposition leader MP Bobi Wine 11 October - At least 41 people are killed after a river bursts its bank in Bududa, Uganda. Many more are injured and dozens are displaced. 5 January – Livingstone Mpalanyi Nkoyoyo, Anglican prelate, Archbishop of Uganda.8 January – James Makumbi and politician 1 February – Mowzey Radio, musician 22 June – Geoffrey Oryema, musician
Xaliproden is a drug which acts as a 5HT1A agonist. It has neurotrophic and neuroprotective effects in vitro, has been proposed for use in the treatment of several neurodegenerative conditions including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and Alzheimer's disease. Development of xaliproden for these two indications was discontinued in 2007 following analysis of Phase III data. While the drug did show an effect on hippocampal volume, there was insufficient evidence for efficacy in counteracting Alzheimer's related cognitive decline. While there were some indicators of efficacy in ALS, including a small but clinically noteworthy effect on some functional parameters, the overall benefit did not reach statistical significance when results across several Phase III trials were averaged. Xaliproden remains under investigation for treatment of chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy