Territorial and Reserve Forces Act 1907
This reorganisation formed a major part of the Haldane Reforms, named after the creator of the Act, Richard Haldane. A number of attempts at reform under the Conservative government of 1901-1905 had failed to any lasting changes to the system. With the Liberal victory in December 1905, Haldane was appointed as Secretary of State for War and he decided on a regular Expeditionary Force and an auxiliary Territorial Force, which would be liable for home defence, with an expanded reserve for the Regular Army. After some examination of the best way to implement this, Haldane put forward a bill in the winter of 1906. It was put before the Commons on 4 March, debated in late March and throughout April, in 1899, with the outbreak of the South African War, the British Army was committed to its first large-scale overseas deployment since the 1850s. The intervening period had seen extensive redevelopments of the Regular Army, in the early 1880s, the next step was taken by the Childers Reforms, which formally amalgamated the regiments into a single two-battalion unit along with the militia and volunteers.
The regular units were supported by their own reserves, discussed above, thirty to forty percent of recruits were young men who passed into the Regular Army, and only twenty percent served their full six-year service. Recruits to the force were usually personally wealthy, providing their own horses and uniforms, training requirements were low, with an annual eight-day camp. The third arm was the Volunteers, mainly drawn from small businessmen, there were some engineer and medical units, but no service corps. The reforms had ensured that a force of regular troops was based in the United Kingdom for service as an expeditionary force, over. However, once the decision was taken to send a corps-size field force to fight in the South African War, the system began to show a strain. In some units, this meant reservists made up over 50% of the battalion strength and this was the end of the planned mobilisation, no thought had been given pre-war to mobilising the Militia, Yeomanry or Volunteers as formed units for foreign service.
43,000 reservists had been sent overseas with the regular forces—out of a total of 80, on 16 December, the first request was sent from South Africa for auxiliary troops, and a commitment was made to send a considerable force of militia and picked yeomanry and volunteers. In early January, the reinforcements to be sent out included one company of volunteers for each regular battalion, one complete volunteer battalion. Sir Ian Hamilton commented that the men from the Militia Reserve who were in regular battalions were quite excellent, every commanding officer I asked about them said they were first class men. The Militia battalions that had come out, had lost many of their officers and they had been somewhat short of officers to start with. That was what they were best suited for under the circumstances and they were employed as integral companies of the regular battalions, and were well regarded in the field. The Yeomanry, were not employed as complete units, whilst the initial request for auxiliaries had called for 8,000 irregulars
Many thousands of Type 99s and other Arisaka variants were brought to the United States by soldiers as war trophies during and after World War II. The Arisaka rifle was designed by Colonel Arisaka Nariakira, who was promoted to lieutenant general and received the title of baron from Emperor Meiji. During destructive tests, the Arisakas were shown to be stronger than the M1903 Springfield, Lee–Enfield, some of the early issue Type 99 rifles were fitted with a folding wire monopod intended to improve accuracy in the prone position. The rear sights featured folding horizontal extensions to give a degree of lead suitable for firing against aircraft, the Arisaka bolt-action service rifle was used everywhere in the Imperial Japanese Army and the Imperial Japanese Navy. Prior to World War II, Arisakas were used by the British Navy and Russian Army, in Finland, the Czech Legions that fought in the Russian Revolution were almost entirely armed with Type 30s and 38s. Many captured Arisaka rifles were employed by neighboring countries both during and after World War II, in such as China and Cambodia.
However, after the Japanese surrender in the summer of 1945, all manufacturing of rifles and ammunition stopped abruptly, since most Imperial Japanese Armory contents were thrown into Tokyo Harbor after the signing of the surrender, spare ammunition became rare. Additional 6. 5×50mmSR ammunition was, produced in China for use in their captured rifles, to date, no documentation from either Japanese or U. S. forces has been found that required the defacing. Most of the Arisakas with surviving insignias are in Japan, though there are a few remaining on samples taken as war trophies before the surrender, and those captured by Chinese forces. Some of the captured Sino Arisakas were exported to the United States, examples including a number of Type 38 carbines rebarrelled and rechambered for the 7. 62×39mm round. Some Type 38 rifles captured by the Kuomintang forces were converted to fire the 7. 92×57mm Mauser round. Many of the Chrysanthemum Seals were completely ground off, but some were merely defaced with a chisel, first rifle of the Arisaka series.
Carbine variant of the Type 30,300 mm shorter, officially designated as Type 35 navy rifle. Design improvement based on the Type 30 for the Imperial Japanese Navy Land Forces by Major Nambu Kijirō, chambered in 6. 5×50mmSR Type 38, Type 30 cartridge is usable. A short variant exists for ease of handling, its length is between the rifle and the carbine. One of the most produced and commonly encountered model, designed in 1905 and simultaneously produced until 1942 with 3,400,000 built. Carbine variant of the Type 38,300 mm shorter, carbine derived from the Type 38 rifle. Chambered in 6. 5×50mmSR Type 38, Type 30 cartridge is usable, distinguishing features are its folding spike bayonet and two-piece takedown cleaning rods concealed within the buttstock
Windsor is a historic market town and unparished area in the Royal Borough of Windsor and Maidenhead in Berkshire, England. It is widely known as the site of Windsor Castle, one of the residences of the British Royal Family. The town is situated 23 miles west of Charing Cross, London,7 miles south east of Maidenhead and it is immediately south of the River Thames, which forms its boundary with its ancient twin town of Eton. Windlesora is first mentioned in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, the name originates from old English Windles-ore or winch by the riverside. By the late 12th century the settlement at Windelsora was renamed Old Windsor, the early history of the site is unknown, although it was almost certainly settled some years before 1070 when William the Conqueror had a timber motte and bailey castle constructed. The focus of royal interest at that time was not the castle, from about the 8th century, high status people started to visit the site occasionally, and possibly this included royalty.
From the 11th century the sites link with king Edward the Confessor is documented, after the Conquest of 1066 royal use of the site increased, probably because it offered good access to woodlands and opportunities for hunting – a sport which practised military skills. Windsor Castle is noted in the Domesday Book under the entry for Clewer, although this might seem strange, it occurred because plans for the castle had changed since 1070, and more land had been acquired in Clewer on which to site a castle town. This plan was not actioned until the early 12th century, King Henry married his second wife at Windsor Castle in 1121, after the White Ship disaster. The settlement at Old Windsor largely transferred to New Windsor during the 12th century,1170, under Henry II, following the civil war of Stephens reign. At about the time, the present upper ward of the castle was rebuilt in stone. It had a merchant guild from the early 13th century and, under patronage, was made the chief town of the county in 1277.
Somewhat unusually, this gave no new rights or privileges to Windsor. Windsors position as town of Berkshire was short-lived, however. Wallingford took over this position in the early 14th century, as a self-governing town Windsor enjoyed a number of freedoms unavailable to other towns, including the right to hold its own borough court, the right of membership and some financial independence. The town accounts of the 16th century survive in part, although most of the once substantial borough archive dating back to the 12th century was destroyed, probably in the late 17th century. New Windsor was a significant town in the Middle Ages. Its prosperity came from its association with the royal household
Kent /ˈkɛnt/ is a county in South East England and one of the home counties. It borders Greater London to the north west, Surrey to the west and East Sussex to the south west, the county shares borders with Essex via the Dartford Crossing and the French department of Pas-de-Calais through the Channel Tunnel. France can be clearly in fine weather from Folkestone and the White Cliffs of Dover. Hills in the form of the North Downs and the Greensand Ridge span the length of the county, because of its relative abundance of fruit-growing and hop gardens, Kent is known as The Garden of England. The title was defended in 2006 when a survey of counties by the UKTV Style Gardens channel put Kent in fifth place, behind North Yorkshire, Devon. Haulage and tourism are industries, major industries in north-west Kent include aggregate building materials, printing. Coal mining has played its part in Kents industrial heritage. Large parts of Kent are within the London commuter belt and its transport connections to the capital.
Twenty-eight per cent of the county forms part of two Areas of Outstanding Natural Beauty, the North Downs and The High Weald, the area has been occupied since the Palaeolithic era, as attested by finds from the quarries at Swanscombe. The Medway megaliths were built during the Neolithic era, There is a rich sequence of Bronze Age, Iron Age, and Roman era occupation, as indicated by finds and features such as the Ringlemere gold cup and the Roman villas of the Darent valley. The modern name of Kent is derived from the Brythonic word Cantus meaning rim or border and this describes the eastern part of the current county area as a border land or coastal district. Julius Caesar had described the area as Cantium, or home of the Cantiaci in 51 BC, the extreme west of the modern county was by the time of Roman Britain occupied by Iron Age tribes, known as the Regnenses. East Kent became a kingdom of the Jutes during the 5th century and was known as Cantia from about 730, the early medieval inhabitants of the county were known as the Cantwara, or Kent people.
These people regarded the city of Canterbury as their capital, in 597, Pope Gregory I appointed the religious missionary as the first Archbishop of Canterbury. In the previous year, Augustine successfully converted the pagan King Æthelberht of Kent to Christianity, the Diocese of Canterbury became Britains first Episcopal See with first cathedral and has since remained Englands centre of Christianity. The second designated English cathedral was in Kent at Rochester Cathedral, in the 11th century, the people of Kent adopted the motto Invicta, meaning undefeated. This naming followed the invasion of Britain by William of Normandy, the Kent peoples continued resistance against the Normans led to Kents designation as a semi-autonomous county palatine in 1067. Under the nominal rule of Williams half-brother Odo of Bayeux, the county was granted powers to those granted in the areas bordering Wales
Queen's Own Royal West Kent Regiment
The Queens Own Royal West Kent Regiment was a line infantry regiment of the British Army in existence from 1881 to 1961. The regiment was created on 1 July 1881 as part of the Childers Reforms, originally as the Queens Own, by the amalgamation of the 50th Regiment of Foot and the 97th Regiment of Foot. In January 1921, the regiment was renamed the Royal West Kent Regiment and, in April of the year, was again renamed. Throughout its existence, the Queens Own Royal West Kent Regiment was popularly and operationally known as the Royal West Kents, when the regiment was formed, Kent was one of five counties that was split to create more than one regiment. Kent was split into two areas, with those in West Kent forming the Queens Own Royal West Kent Regiment, the dividing line that separated the two regimental areas was east of the River Medway. The regiments recruitment area covered both the towns and rural areas of West Kent and a number of south-east London suburbs that were included in the County of London.
It spent two years on duty in Cyprus before being transferred to Sudan, where it fought at the Battle of Ginnis during the Mahdist War. It spent the years up to the outbreak of the First World War on garrison duty, the 2nd Battalion was deployed to South Africa shortly after its formation, in the aftermath of the First Boer War. It was posted to Ireland and spent the years of the 19th century in the United Kingdom before being sent back to South Africa for the Second Boer War. Its only action was a skirmish at Biddulphsberg, alongside the 2nd battalions of the Grenadier and it served in Ceylon, Hong Kong, Singapore and Multan before the outbreak of the First World War. Between 1881 and 1913, the regiment lost 219 men,22 killed in action or died from wounding,12 by accident, a memorial for those who died in service exists in All Saints Church, which is located next to the regiments barracks. The 4th Volunteer Battalion was disbanded, and the 1st VB was formed into the 4th and 5th Battalions of the QORWK in the Kent Brigade of the TFs Home Counties Division, during the First World War, over 60,000 men served with the Queens Own.
However,6,866 officers and other ranks lost their lives, among its first major engagements were the Battle of Mons on 23 August and the Battle of Le Cateau three days later. In October, the made a heroic stand at the Battle of Neuve Chapelle. Out of 750 men, only 300 commanded by a lieutenant, the 2nd Battalion was shipped from Multan to Mesopotamia, via Bombay, arriving in Basra in February 1915, where it was attached to the 12th Indian Brigade. Two companies were attached to the 30th Indian Brigade and were captured in the Siege of Kut in April 1916, the remaining companies were attached to 34th Indian Brigade, and were transferred to 17th Indian Division in August 1917. The 2nd Battalion remained in Mesopotamia for the duration of the war, the 1/4th and 1/5th Battalions were both part of the Kent Brigade, alongside the 4th and 5th Buffs, of the Home Counties Division were both sent to British India in late October 1914. The 3/4th Battalion landed at Le Havre in June 1917 and served as a Pioneer battalion on the Western Front, several of the Service battalions of the New Army fought in France and Flanders and in the Italian Front
The British Army is the principal land warfare force of the United Kingdom. As of 2017 the British Army comprises just over 80,000 trained Regular, or full-time and just over 26,500 trained Reserve, or part-time personnel. Therefore, the UK Parliament approves the continued existence of the Army by passing an Armed Forces Act at least once every five years, day to day the Army comes under administration of the Ministry of Defence and is commanded by the Chief of the General Staff. Repeatedly emerging victorious from these decisive wars allowed Britain to influence world events with its policies and establish itself as one of the leading military. In 1660 the English and Irish monarchies were restored under Charles II, Charles favoured the foundation of a new army under royal control and began work towards its establishment by August 1660. The Royal Scots Army and the Irish Army were financed by the Parliament of Scotland, the order of seniority of the most senior line regiments in the British Army is based on the order of seniority in the English army.
At that time there was only one English regiment of dragoons, after William and Marys accession to the throne, England involved itself in the War of the Grand Alliance, primarily to prevent a French invasion restoring Marys father, James II. Spain, in the two centuries, had been the dominant global power, and the chief threat to Englands early transatlantic ambitions. The territorial ambitions of the French, led to the War of the Spanish Succession and the Napoleonic Wars. From the time of the end of the Seven Years War in 1763, Great Britain was the naval power. As had its predecessor, the English Army, the British Army fought the Kingdoms of Spain and the Netherlands for supremacy in North America and the West Indies. With native and provincial assistance, the Army conquered New France in the North American theatre of the Seven Years War, the British Army suffered defeat in the American War of Independence, losing the Thirteen Colonies but holding on to Canada. The British Army was heavily involved in the Napoleonic Wars and served in campaigns across Europe.
The war between the British and the First French Empire of Napoleon Bonaparte stretched around the world and at its peak, in 1813, the regular army contained over 250,000 men. A Coalition of Anglo-Dutch and Prussian Armies under the Duke of Wellington, the English had been involved, both politically and militarily, in Ireland since being given the Lordship of Ireland by the Pope in 1171. The campaign of the English republican Protector, Oliver Cromwell, involved uncompromising treatment of the Irish towns that had supported the Royalists during the English Civil War, the English Army stayed in Ireland primarily to suppress numerous Irish revolts and campaigns for independence. Having learnt from their experience in America, the British government sought a political solution, the British Army found itself fighting Irish rebels, both Protestant and Catholic, primarily in Ulster and Leinster in the 1798 rebellion. The Haldane Reforms of 1907 formally created the Territorial Force as the Armys volunteer reserve component by merging and reorganising the Volunteer Force, Great Britains dominance of the world had been challenged by numerous other powers, in the 20th century, most notably Germany
Royal Army Medical Corps
The Royal Army Medical Corps is a specialist corps in the British Army which provides medical services to all Army personnel and their families, in war and in peace. Together with the Royal Army Veterinary Corps, the Royal Army Dental Corps and Queen Alexandras Royal Army Nursing Corps, because it is not a fighting arm, under the Geneva Conventions, members of the RAMC may only use their weapons for self-defence. Other ranks do not fix bayonets, neither do they prefix Surgeon in front of their rank as medical officers of the Royal Navy do. The RAMC, like every other British regiment, has its own distinctive unit insignia, dark blue beret, the default Army colour worn by units without distinctive coloured berets. There is a small attachment to Special Forces, the Medical Support Unit who wear the beret of the SAS. Cap badge depicting the Rod of Asclepius, surmounted by a crown, enclosed within a wreath, with the regimental motto In Arduis Fidelis. The cap badge is worn 1 inch above the eye on the beret.
The cap badge of the ranks must be backed by an oval patch of dull cherry-red coloured cloth measuring 3.81 cm wide and 6.35 cm high sewn directly to the beret. Officers do not use the backing, but have a cloth cap badge instead. Silver regimental collar badges, a miniature of the cap badge, stable belt comprising equal horizontal bands of dull cherry, royal blue, and old gold, reflecting the old uniform worn in the 1900s, the gold depicting the royal in the title. Silver belt buckle with engraved regimental badge, Medical services in the British armed services go as far back as the formation of the Standing Regular Army after the Restoration of Charles II in 1660. This was the first time a career was provided for a Medical Officer, known as the Regimental Surgeon, both in peacetime and in war. The Army was formed entirely on a basis, and an MO with a Warrant Officer as his Assistant Surgeon was appointed to each regiment. The MO was for the first time concerned in the health of his troops. This regimental basis of appointment for MOs continued until 1873, when an army medical service was set up.
There was much unhappiness in the Army Medical Service in the following years, for medical officers did not actually have military rank but advantages corresponding to relative military rank. They had inferior pay in India, excessive amounts of Indian and colonial service and they did not have their own identity as did the Army Service Corps, whose officers did have military rank. A number of complaints were published, and the British Medical Journal campaigned loudly, for over two years after 27 July 1887 there were no recruits to the Army Medical Department
Buffs (Royal East Kent Regiment)
The Buffs, formerly the 3rd Regiment of Foot, was a line infantry regiment of the British Army traditionally raised in the English county of Kent and garrisoned at Canterbury. It had a history dating back to 1572 and was one of the oldest regiments in the British Army, the regiment provided distinguished service over a period of almost four hundred years accumulating one hundred and sixteen battle honours. In 1881, under the Childers Reforms, it was known as the Buffs and and this regiment was, in turn, amalgamated with the Royal Hampshire Regiment, in September 1992, to create the Princess of Waless Royal Regiment. The origins of the regiment lay in Thomas Morgans Company of Foot, The London Trained Bands and it fought in the Low Countries during the Dutch Revolt and in the Anglo Spanish War, taking part in many sieges and battles in that time. In 1665, when the Second Anglo-Dutch War started, the British, using his own funds, Sir George Downing, the English ambassador to the Netherlands, raised the Holland Regiment from the starving remnants of those who refused to sign.
In 1665, it was known as the 4th Regiment and by 1668 as the 4th Regiment, in 1688, it became the 4th The Lord High Admirals Regiment and in 1689 it became the 3rd Regiment of Foot. The regiment wore coats with buff facings, whereas the 19th Regiment used coats faced in green, the nickname, The Old Buffs, arises from the need to distinguish the regiment from The Young Buffs, a nickname for the 31st Regiment of Foot. The regiment fought at the Battle of Malplaquet in September 1709 before returning to England in August 1714. The regiment was sent to Ostend in August 1742 for service in the War of the Austrian Succession and fought at the Battle of Dettingen in June 1743 and at the Battle of Fontenoy in May 1745. The regiment was named, as regiments, after the Colonel Commanding until 1744, at which point it became the 3rd Regiment of Foot. It returned to the Netherlands in April 1747 and saw action at the Battle of Lauffeld in July 1747 and it became the 3rd Regiment of Foot, The Buffs in 1751.
The regiment embarked for the West Indies in autumn 1758 for service in the Seven Years War and took part in the attack on Martinique in January 1759, after returning home, it took part in the capture of Belle Île in June 1761. It moved to Portugal and fought at the Battle of Valencia de Alcántara in August 1762 before returning to England in spring 1771, the regiment was sent to the West Indies in December 1795 for service in the French Revolutionary Wars. The regiment embarked for Portugal in August 1808 for service in the Peninsular War, the grenadier company of the regiment served under Sir John Moore at the Battle of Corunna in January 1809 before being evacuated to England that month. The rest of the regiment remained on the Peninsula and fought at the Battle of Talavera in July 1809 and it saw action at Battle of Albuera in May 1811 and the Battle of Vitoria in June 1813. It became part of the Army of Occupation of France in 1816 before returning home in autumn 1818, the regiment had a tour of service from 1821 until 1827 in the British colony of New South Wales.
For the duration of their service, The Buffs was divided into four detachments, the first was based in Sydney from 1821. The second arrived in Hobart in 1822, the third, entitled The Buffs Headquarters, arrived in Sydney in 1823
Royal Army Veterinary Corps
The Royal Army Veterinary Corps is an administrative and operational branch of the British Army responsible for the provision and care of animals. It is a corps, forming part of the Army Medical Services. Unusually, although it is responsible for providing what could be termed materiel, it is under the purview of the Adjutant-General, the original Army Veterinary Service within the Army Medical Department was founded in 1796 after public outrage concerning the death of Army horses. John Shipp was the first veterinary surgeon to be commissioned into the British Army when he joined the 11th Light Dragoons on 25 June 1796, the Honorary Colonel-in-Chief is the Princess Royal who has visited RAVC dog-handling units serving in Afghanistan. In late March 2016, the Ministry of Defence announced that Fitz Wygram House, the RAVC provides and cares for mainly dogs and horses, but tends to the various regimental mascots in the army, which range from goats to an antelope. Personnel include veterinary surgeons and veterinary technicians providing medical and surgical care to animals, dogs are used extensively in the theatre of war, and are organised within the Military Working Dog Regiment.
Horses are used primarily for ceremonial purposes, although the Corps continues to rehearse procedures for the deployment of horses. The main location for the RAVC is the Defence Animal Centre based at Melton Mowbray in Leicestershire and they are responsible for explosives and drug search dogs. Its only subsidiary regiment is the 1st Military Working Dog Regiment, sadie, a black labrador retriever belonging to 102 MWDSU and cared for by handler Lance Corporal Karen Yardley, won the PDSA Dickin Medal in 2007. In February 2010, Treo, a black Labrador-Spaniel crossbreed, was awarded the Dickin Medal for services in Afghanistan, in 2011 Lance Corporal Liam Tasker of 104 MWD Squadron was killed in Helmand Province, Afghanistan. He was posthumously mentioned in despatches and his Arms Explosive search dog, died shortly afterwards. Theo was posthumously awarded the Dickin Medal on 25 October 2012, a memorial to the RAVC and its predecessors was unveiled at the National Memorial Arboretum on 2 May 2014 by the Princess Royal.
The History of the Royal Army Veterinary Corps, 1919–1961, review of The History of the Royal Army Veterinary Corps 1919–1961. A History of the Royal Army Veterinary Corps, 1796–1919, Baillière & Co. p.268
Brigadier general is a senior rank in the armed forces. It is the lowest ranking general officer in some countries, usually sitting between the ranks of colonel and major general, when appointed to a field command, a brigadier general is typically in command of a brigade consisting of around 4,000 troops. In some countries a brigadier general is designated as a one-star general. The rank can be traced back to the militaries of Europe where a general, or simply a brigadier. An alternative rank of general was first used in the French revolutionary armies. Some countries, such as Brazil and Japan, some of these countries use the rank of colonel general to make four general-officer ranks. The naval equivalent is usually commodore and this gallery displays Air Force brigadier general insignia if they are different from the Army brigadier general insignia. Note that in many Commonwealth countries, the equivalent air force rank is Air Commodore, the rank of brigadier general is used in the Argentine Air Force.
Unlike other armed forces of the World, the rank of general is actually the highest rank in the Air Force. This is due to the use of the rank of brigadier and its derivatives to designate all general officers in the Air Force, brigadier-major, and brigadier-general. The rank of general is reserved for the Chief General Staff of the Air Force. The Argentine Army does not use the rank of brigadier-general, instead using brigade general which in turn is the lowest general officer before Divisional General, see Argentine Army officer rank insignia. When posted elsewhere, the rank would be relinquished and the former rank resumed and this policy prevented an accumulation of high-ranking general officers brought about by the relatively high turnover of brigade commanders. Brigadier general was used as an honorary rank on retirement. The rank insignia was like that of the current major general, as in the United Kingdom, the rank was replaced by brigadier. Prior to 2001, the Bangladesh Army rank was known as brigadier, in 2001 the Bangladesh Army introduced the rank of brigadier general, however the grade stayed equivalent to brigadier.
It is the lowest ranking general officer, between the ranks of Colonel and Major General, Brigadier General is equivalent to commodore of the Bangladesh Navy and air commodore of the Bangladesh Air Force. It is still popularly called brigadier