The 6th century is the period from 501 to 600 in line with the Julian calendar in the Common Era. In the West, the century marks the beginning of the Middle Ages; the collapse of the Western Roman Empire late in the previous century left Europe fractured into many small Germanic kingdoms competing fiercely for land and wealth. From the upheaval the Franks rose to prominence and carved out a sizeable domain covering much of modern France and Germany. Meanwhile, the surviving Eastern Roman Empire began to expand under Emperor Justinian, who recaptured North Africa from the Vandals and attempted to recover Italy as well, in the hope of reinstating Roman control over the lands once ruled by the Western Roman Empire. In its second Golden Age, the Sassanid Empire reached the peak of its power under Khosrau I in the 6th century; the classical Gupta Empire of Northern India overrun by the Huna, ended in the mid-6th century. In Japan, the Kofun period gave way to the Asuka period. After being divided for more than 150 years among the Southern and Northern Dynasties, China was reunited under the Sui Dynasty toward the end of the 6th century.
The Three Kingdoms of Korea persisted throughout the century. The Göktürks became a major power in Central Asia after defeating the Rouran. In the Americas, Teotihuacan began to decline in the 6th century after having reached its zenith between AD 150 and 450. Classic Period of the Maya civilization in Central America. Early 6th century – Ah Suytok Tutul Xiu founds Uxmal. Early 6th century – Archangel Michael, panel of a diptych from the court workshop at Constantinople, is made, it is now kept at London. Early 6th century – Page with Rebecca at the Well, from "Book of Genesis" made in Syria or Palestine, is made, it is now kept at Vienna. By 6th century – Shilpa Shastras is written. Early 6th century – first academy of the east the Academy of Gundeshapur founded in Iran by Khosrau I of Persia. Early 6th century – Irish colonists and invaders, the Scots, began migrating to Caledonia. Migration from south-west Britain to Brittany. Early 6th century – Glendalough monastery, Wicklow Ireland founded on St. Kevin.
Many similar foundations in Ireland and Wales. Early 6th century – Zen Buddhism enters Vietnam from China. Early 6th century – Haniwa, from Kyoto, is made during the Kofun period Early 6th century – Basilica of Sant'Apollinare in Classe's apse's mosaic is completed. 502: Chinese annals mentioned the existence of the Buddhist Kingdom, Kanto Lim in South Sumatra in the neighborhood of present-day Palembang. 507: Battle of Vouillé 518: Eastern Roman Emperor Anastasius I dies and is succeeded by Justin I. 522: Byzantines obtain silkworm eggs and begin silkworm cultivation c. 524: Boethius writes his Consolation of Philosophy. 525: Having settled in Rome c. 500, Scythian monk Dionysius Exiguus invents the Anno Domini era calendar based on the estimated birth year of Jesus Christ. 527: Justinian I succeeds Justin I as Emperor of the Eastern Roman Empire. 529: Saint Benedict of Nursia founds the monastery of Monte Cassino in Italy. 532: Nika riots in Constantinople. They are put down a week by Belisarius and Mundus.
535: Postulated volcanic eruption in the tropics which causes several years of abnormally cold weather, resulting in mass famine in the Northern Hemisphere. 537: Battle of Camlann, final battle of legendary King Arthur. 541–542: First pandemic of bubonic plague hits Constantinople and the rest of Byzantine Empire. 543/544: One of Justinian's edict leads to the Three-Chapter Controversy 545: Nubian Kingdom of Nobatia converts to Christianity. Mid-6th century – Cassiodorus founds a cenobitic monastery and scriptorium at Vivarium in Italy Mid-6th century – Buddhist Jataka stories are translated into Persian by order of the Zoroastrian king Khosrau. Mid-6th century – Cave-Temple of Shiva at Elephanta Caves, India, is built. Post-Gupta period. Mid-6th century – Eternal Shiva, rock-cut relief in the Cave-Temple of Shiva at Elephanta Caves, is made Second half of 6th century – Virgin and Child with Saints and Angels, icon, is made, it is now kept at Egypt. 550: Kingdom of Funan dies out. 551: Bumin Khagan founded the Turkic Khaganate in the Central Asia 552: Buddhism introduced to Japan from Baekje during the Asuka period.
553: Second Council of Constantinople 554: Eviction of the Ostrogoths from Rome, the re-unification of all Italy under Byzantine rule. 561 to 592: Buddhist monk Jnanagupta translates 39 sutras from Sanskrit to Chinese. 563: The monastery on Iona is founded by St. Columba. 566: Birth of Lǐ Yuān, founder of the Tang Dynasty and Emperor of China under the name of Gaozu 568: Lombards invade Italy and establish a federation of dukedoms under a king. 569: Nubian kingdom of Alodia converts to Christianity. 569: Nubian kingdom of Makuria converts to Christianity. 570: Birth of the Islamic prophet, Muhammad. 574: The Byzantine empire is invaded by various Slavs, the Balkans are plundered by the Slavs. 577: China's Chen Dynasty invents matches. 579–590: Reign of Persian Shah Hormizd IV. 582–602: Reign of Byzantine Emperor Maurice. 585: Suebian Kingdom conquered by Visigoths in Spain. 587: Reccared, king of the Visigoths in Spain, converts to Catholicism. 588: Shivadeva ascends the throne of the Lichchhavi dynasty in Nepal.
589: Third Council of Toledo adds the "filioque" clause to the Nicene Creed in Spain. 589: China reunified under the Sui Dynasty. 590: Gregory the Great succeeds Pope Pelagius II as the 64th pope. 594: Beginning of the Bengali Calendar or
The Nanakshahi calendar is a tropical solar calendar, used in Sikhism and is based on the'Barah Maha'. Barah Maha was composed by the Sikh Gurus and translates as the "Twelve Months", it is a poem reflecting the changes in nature which are conveyed in the twelve-month cycle of the Year. The year begins with 1 Chet corresponding to 14 March; the first year of the Nanakshahi Calendar starts in 1469 CE: the year of the birth of Guru Nanak Dev. The Nanakshahi Calendar is named after the founder of Guru Nanak Dev. Sikhs have traditionally recognised luni-solar calendars: the Nanakshahi and Khalsa. Traditionally, both these calendars followed the Bikrami calendar with the Nanakshahi year beginning on Katak Pooranmashi and the Khalsa year commencing with Vaisakhi; the methods for calculating the beginning of the Khalsa era were based on the Bikrami calendar. The year length was the same as the Bikrami solar year. According to Steel, the calendar has twelve lunar months that are determined by the lunar phase, but thirteen months in leap years which occur every 2–3 years in the Bikrami calendar to sync the lunar calendar with its solar counterpart.
Kay abbreviates the Khalsa Era as KE. References to the Nanakshahi Era have been made in historic documents. Banda Singh Bahadur adopted the Nanakshahi calendar in 1710 C. E. after his victory in Sirhind according to which the year 1710 C. E. became Nanakshahi 241. However, Singh states the date of the victory as 14 May 1710 CE. According to Dilagira, Banda "continued adopting the months and the days of the months according to the Bikrami calendar". Banda Singh Bahadur minted new coins called Nanakshahi. Herrli states. Although Banda may have proclaimed this era, it cannot be traced in contemporary documents and does not seem to have been used for dating". According to The Panjab Past and Present, it is Gian Singh who "is the first to use Nanak Shahi Samvats along with those of Bikrami Samvats" in the Twarikh Guru Khalsa. According to Singha, Gian Singh was a Punjabi author born in 1822. Gian Singh wrote the Twarikh Guru Khalsa in 1891; the revised Nanakshahi calendar was designed by Pal Singh Purewal to replace the Bikrami calendar.
The epoch of this calendar is the birth of the first Sikh Guru, Nanak Dev in 1469 and the Nanakshahi year commences on 1 Chet. New Year's Day falls annually on; the start of each month is fixed. According to Kapel, the solar accuracy of the Nanakshahi calendar is linked to the Gregorian civil calendar; this is because the Nanaskhahi calendar uses the tropical year instead of using the sidereal year, used in the Bikrami calendar or the old Nanakshahi and Khalsa calendars. The amended Nanakshahi calendar was adopted in 1998 but implemented in 2003 by the Shiromani Gurdwara Prabhandak Committee to determine the dates for important Sikh events; the calendar was implemented during the SGPC presidency of Sikh scholar Prof. Kirpal Singh Badungar at Takhat Sri Damdama Sahib in the presence of Sikh leadership. Nanakshahi Calendar recognizes the adoption event, of 1999 CE, in the Sikh history when SGPC released the first calendar with permanently fixed dates in the Tropical Calendar. Therefore, the calculations of this calendar do not regress back from 1999 CE into the Bikrami era, fixes for all time in the future.
Features of the Original Nanakshahi calendar: Uses the accurate Tropical year rather than the Sidereal year Called Nanakshahi after Guru Nanak Year 1 is the Year of Guru Nanak's Birth. As an example, April 14, 2019 CE is Nanakshahi 551. Is Based on Gurbani – Month Names are taken from Guru Granth Sahib Contains 5 Months of 31 days followed by 7 Months of 30 days Leap year every 4 Years in which the last month has an extra day Approved by Akal Takht in 2003 In 2010, the Shiromani Gurdwara Prabhandak Committee modified the calendar so that the dates for the start of the months are movable so that they coincide with the Bikrami calendar and changed the dates for various Sikh festivals so they are based upon the lunar phase; this has created controversy with some bodies adopting the original 2003 version called the "Mool Nanakshahi Calendar" and others, the 2010 version. By 2014, the SGPC had scrapped the original Nanakshahi calendar from 2003 and reverted to the Bikrami calendar however it was still published under the name of Nanakshahi.
The Sikh bodies termed it a step taken under pressure from the Shiromani Akali Dal. There is some controversy about the acceptance of the calendar altogether among certain sectors of the Sikh world. SGPC president, Gobind Singh Longowal, on 13 March 2018 urged all Sikhs to follow the current Nanakshahi calendar; the previous SGPC President before Longowal, Prof. Kirpal Singh Badungar, tried to appeal the Akal Takht to celebrate the birthday of Guru Gobind Singh on 23 Poh as per the original Nanakshahi calendar, but the appeal was denied; the PSGPC and a majority of the other gurdwara managements across the world are opposing the modified version of the calendar citing that the SGPC reverted to the Bikrami calendar. They argue that in the Bikrami calendar, dates of many gurpurbs coincide, thereby creating confusion among the Sikh Panth. According to Ahaluwalia, the Nanakshahi calendar goes against the use of lunar Bikrami dates by the Gurus themselves and is contradictory, it begins with the year of birth of
The 7th century is the period from 601 to 700 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Common Era. The Muslim conquests began with the unification of Arabia by Muhammad starting in 622. After Muhammad's death in 632, Islam expanded beyond the Arabian Peninsula under the Rashidun Caliphate and the Umayyad Caliphate; the Islamic conquest of Persia in the 7th century led to the downfall of the Sassanid Empire. Conquered during the 7th century were Syria, Armenia and North Africa; the Byzantine Empire continued suffering setbacks during the rapid expansion of the Muslim Empire. In the Iberian Peninsula, the 7th century was the Siglo de Concilios, that is, century of councils, referring to the Councils of Toledo. In China, the Sui dynasty was replaced by the Tang dynasty, which set up its military bases from Korea to Central Asia, was next to the Umayyad's later. China began to reach its height. Silla allied itself with the Tang Dynasty, subjugating Baekje and defeating Goguryeo to unite the Korean Peninsula under one ruler.
The Asuka period persisted in Japan throughout the 7th century. Harsha united Northern India, which had reverted to small republics and states after the fall of the Gupta Empire in the 6th century. Islam begins in Arabia; the first known Croatian archon Porga establishes the Duchy of Croatia. The world's population shrinks to about 208 million people; the Anglo-Saxon Heptarchy emerges at the last in England. Sutton Hoo ship burial, East Anglia. Xuanzang traveled from China to India, before returning to Chang'an in China to translate Buddhist scriptures. Timgad, Algeria, is destroyed by Berbers. End of sporadic Buddhist rule in the Sindh. Croats enter their present territory early in the 7th century, settling in six distinct tribal delimitations. Teotihuacan is sacked; the political and religious buildings are burned. The religion of Shugendo evolves from Buddhism, Taoism and other influences in the mountains of Japan; the Bulgars arrive in the Balkans. Arab traders penetrate the area of Lake Chad. Earliest attested English poetry.
Side panels, Basilica of Sant'Apollinare in Classe, are made. Main compound, Horyu-ji, Nara Prefecture, is built. Asuka period. 7th and 9th century – Mosaics above apse, Basilica of Sant'Apollinare in Classe, are made. 600: Smallpox spreads from India into Europe. 602: The Third Chinese domination of Vietnam starts following the collapse of the Early Lý dynasty. 603: Last mention of the Roman Senate in Gregorian Register. It mentions that the senate empress Leontia. 606: Boniface elected papal successor on the death of Pope Sabinian. He sought and obtained a decree from Byzantine Emperor Phocas which stated that "the See of Blessed Peter the Apostle should be the head of all the Churches"; this ensured that the title of "Universal Bishop" belonged to the Bishop of Rome. 607: Hōryū-ji temple believed to have been completed by 607 in Ikaruga, Japan. 610: Heraclius arrives by ship from Africa at Constantinople, overthrows East Roman Emperor Phocas and becomes Emperor. His first major act is to change the official language of the East Roman Empire from Latin to Greek.
615: The Sassanid Empire under Shah Khosrau II sacks Jerusalem, taking away the relic of the True cross. 615: Pacal the Great becomes king of the Mayan city-state of Palenque 616: Shah Chosroes II invades Egypt. 616: Aethelfrith of Northumbria defeats the Welsh in a battle at Chester in England. 618: Tang Dynasty of China do initiated by Li Yuan. 618: The Chenla kingdom absorbed Funan. Guangzhou, becomes a major international seaport, hosting maritime travelers from Egypt, East Africa, Persia, Sri Lanka, South East Asia, including Muslims, Jews and Nestorian Christians. 622: Year one of the Islamic calendar begins, during which the Hijra occurs—Muhammad and his followers emigrate from Mecca to Medina in September. 623: The Frankish merchant Samo, supporting the Slavs fighting their Avar rulers, becomes the ruler of the first known Slav state in Central Europe. 626: The Avars and the Persians jointly besiege but fail to capture Constantinople. 627: Emperor Heraclius defeats the Persians, ending the Roman-Persian Wars.
629: The Byzantine-Arab Wars begin. Much of the Roman Empire is conquered by Muslim Arabs led by Khalid ibn al-Walid. 629–630: Emperor Taizong's campaign against Eastern Tujue, Chinese Tang Dynasty forces under commanders Li Jing and Li Shiji destroy the Göktürk Khanate. 632: The Muslim conquests begin. 635-649: Alopen, a Persian Christian priest introduces Nestorian Christianity into China. 636: Around this time the Battle of al-Qādisiyyah resulted in a decisive victory for Muslims in the Islamic conquest of Persia, the Persian Empire is conquered by Muslim Arabs led by Sad Ibn Abi Waqqas. 638: Emperor Taizong issues an edict of universal toleration of religions. 639: Muslim conquest of Egypt and Armenia. 639: Unsuccessful revolt of Ashina Jiesheshuai of the Turkic people against Tang China. 641: The Coptic period, in its more specific definition, ends when Islam is introduced into Egypt. 649-683: Chinese Emperor Gaozong permits establishment of Christian monasteries in each of 358 prefectures.
650: The Khazar-Arab Wars begin. Mid-7th century – Durga Mahishasura-mardini, rock-cut relief, Tamil Nadu, India, is made. Pallava period, it is now kept at University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. Mid-7th century - Portrait of Lord Pacal, from his tomb, Temple of the Inscripti
The traditional China calendar, or Former Calendar, Traditional Calendar or Lunar Calendar, is a lunisolar calendar which reckons years and days according to astronomical phenomena. It is defined by GB/T 33661-2017, "Calculation and promulgation of the Chinese calendar", issued by the Standardisation Administration of China on 12 May 2017. Although modern day China uses the Gregorian calendar, the traditional Chinese calendar governs holidays in China and in overseas Chinese communities, it lists the dates of traditional Chinese holidays and guides people in selecting auspicious days for weddings, moving, or starting a business. Like Chinese characters, variants of this calendar are used in different parts of the Chinese cultural sphere. Korea and the Ryukyu Islands adopted the calendar, it evolved into Korean and Ryukyuan calendars; the main difference from the traditional Chinese calendar is the use of different meridians, which leads to some astronomical events—and calendar events based on them—falling on different dates.
The traditional Japanese calendar derived from the Chinese calendar, but its official use in Japan was abolished in 1873 as part of reforms after the Meiji Restoration. Calendars in Mongolia and Tibet have absorbed elements of the traditional Chinese calendar, but are not direct descendants of it. Days begin and end at midnight, months begin on the day of the new moon. Years begin on the second new moon after the winter solstice. Solar terms govern the end of each month. Written versions in ancient China included stems and branches of the year and the names of each month, including leap months as needed. Characters indicated whether a month was short; the traditional Chinese calendar was developed between 771 and 476 BC, during the Spring and Autumn period of the Eastern Zhou dynasty. Before the Zhou dynasty, solar calendars were used. One version of the solar calendar is the five-elements calendar. A 365-day year was divided into five phases of 73 days, with each phase corresponding to a Day 1 Wu Xing element.
A phase began followed by six 12-day weeks. Each phase consisted of two three-week months. Years began followed by a bǐngzǐ day and a 72-day fire phase. Other days were tracked using the Yellow River Map. Another version is a four-quarters calendar. Weeks were ten days long, with one month consisting of three weeks. A year had 12 months, with a ten-day week intercalated in summer as needed to keep up with the tropical year; the 10 Heavenly Stems and 12 Earthly Branches were used to mark days. A third version is the balanced calendar. A year was 365.25 days, a month was 29.5 days. After every 16th month, a half-month was intercalated. According to oracle bone records, the Shang dynasty calendar was a balanced calendar with 12 to 14 months in a year; the first lunisolar calendar was the Zhou calendar, introduced under the Zhou dynasty. This calendar set the beginning of the year at the day of the new moon before the winter solstice, it set the shàngyuán as the winter solstice of a dīngsì year, making the year it was introduced around 2,758,130.
Several competing lunisolar calendars were introduced by states fighting Zhou control during the Warring States period. The state of Lu issued its own Lu calendar. Jin issued the Xia calendar in AD 102, with a year beginning on the day of the new moon nearest the March equinox. Qin issued the Zhuanxu calendar, with a year beginning on the day of the new moon nearest the winter solstice. Song's Yin calendar began its year on the day of the new moon after the winter solstice; these calendars are known as the six ancient calendars, or quarter-remainder calendars, since all calculate a year as 365 1⁄4 days long. Months begin on the day of the new moon, a year has 12 or 13 months. Intercalary months are added to the end of the year; the Qiang and Dai calendars are modern versions of the Zhuanxu calendar, used by mountain peoples. After Qin Shi Huang unified China under the Qin dynasty in 221 BC, the Qin calendar was introduced, it followed most of the rules governing the Zhuanxu calendar, but the month order was that of the Xia calendar.
The intercalary month, known as the second Jiǔyuè, was placed at the end of the year. The Qin calendar was used into the Han dynasty. Emperor Wu of Han r. 141 – 87 BC introduced reforms halfway through his reign. His Taichu Calendar defined a solar year as 365 385⁄1539 days, the lunar month was 29 43⁄81 days; this calendar introduced the 24 solar terms. Solar terms were paired, with the 12 combined periods known as climate terms; the first solar term of the period was known as a pre-climate, the second was a mid-climate. Months were named for the mid-climat
The Ethiopian calendar or Eritrean calendar is the principal calendar used in Ethiopia and serves as the liturgical year for Christians in Eritrea and Ethiopia belonging to the Eritrean Orthodox Tewahedo Church, Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church, Eastern Catholic Churches, the Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria, Ethiopian-Eritrean Evangelicalism. It is a solar calendar which in turn derives from the Egyptian calendar, but like the Julian calendar, it adds a leap day every four years without exception, begins the year on August 29 or August 30 in the Julian calendar. A gap of 7–8 years between the Ethiopian and Gregorian calendars results from an alternative calculation in determining the date of the Annunciation. Like the Coptic calendar, the Ethiopic calendar has 12 months of 30 days plus 5 or 6 epagomenal days, which comprise a thirteenth month; the Ethiopian months begin on the same days as those of the Coptic calendar, but their names are in Ge'ez. A 6th epagomenal day is added every 4 years, without exception, on August 29 of the Julian calendar, 6 months before the corresponding Julian leap day.
Thus the first day of the Ethiopian year, 1 Mäskäräm, for years between 1900 and 2099, is September 11. However, it falls on September 12 in years before the Gregorian leap year. Enkutatash is the word for the Ethiopian New Year in Amharic, the official language of Ethiopia, while it is called Ri'se Awde Amet in Ge'ez, the term preferred by the Ethiopian & Eritrean Orthodox Tewahedo Churchs, it occurs on September 11th in the Gregorian Calendar. The Ethiopian Calendar Year 1998 Amätä Məhrät began on the Gregorian Calendar Year on September 11th, 2005. However, the Ethiopian Years 1992 and 1996 began on the Gregorian Dates of'September 12th 1999' and'2003' respectively; this date correspondence applies for the Gregorian years 1900 to 2099. The Ethiopian leap year is every four without exception, while Gregorian centurial years are only leap years when divisible by 400; as the Gregorian year 2000 is a leap year, the current correspondence lasts two centuries instead. The start of the Ethiopian year falls on August 30th.
This date corresponds to the Old-Style Julian Calendar. This deviation between the Julian and the Gregorian Calendar will increase with the passing of the time. You can observe the real start date in the future centuries in a Gregorian to Ethiopian Date Converter. To indicate the year and followers of the Eritrean churches today use the Incarnation Era, which dates from the Annunciation or Incarnation of Jesus on March 25, AD 9, as calculated by Annianus of Alexandria c. 400. Meanwhile, Europeans adopted the calculations made by Dionysius Exiguus in AD 525 instead, which placed the Annunciation 8 years earlier than had Annianus; this causes the Ethiopian year number to be 8 years less than the Gregorian year number from January 1 until September 10 or 11 7 years less for the remainder of the Gregorian year. In the past, a number of other eras for numbering years were widely used in Ethiopia and the Kingdom of Aksum; the most important era – once used by the Eastern Christianity, still used by the Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria – was the Era of Martyrs known as the Diocletian Era, or the era of Diocletian and the Martyrs, whose first year began on August 29, 284.
Respective to the Gregorian and Julian New Year's Days, 31⁄2 to 4 months the difference between the Era of Martyrs and the Anni Domini is 285 years. This is because in AD 525, Dionysius Exiguus decided to add 15 Metonic cycles to the existing 13 Metonic cycles of the Diocletian Era to obtain an entire 532 year medieval Easter cycle, whose first cycle ended with the year Era of Martyrs 247 equal to year DXXXI, it is because 532 is the product of the Metonic cycle of 19 years and the solar cycle of 28 years. Around AD 400, an Alexandrine monk called Panodoros fixed the Alexandrian Era, the date of creation, on 29 August 5493 BC. After the 6th century AD, the era was used by Ethiopian chronologists; the twelfth 532 year-cycle of this era began on 29 August AD 360, so 4×19 years after the Era of Martyrs. Bishop Anianos preferred the Annunciation style as 25 March, thus he shifted the Panodoros era by about six months, to begin on 25 March 5492 BC. In the Ethiopian calendar this was equivalent to 15 Magabit 5501 B.
C.. The Anno Mundi era remained in usage until the late 19th century; the 4 year leap-year cycle is associated with the four Evangelists: the first year after an Ethiopian leap year is named the John-year, followed by the Matthew-year, the Mark-year. The year with the 6th epagomenal day is traditionally designated as the Luke-year. There are no exceptions to the 4 year leap-year cycle, like the Julian calendar but unlike the Gregorian calendar; these dates are valid only from March 1900 to February 2100. This is because 1900 and 2100 are not leap years in the Gregorian calendar, while they are still leap year
The 8th century is the period from 701 to 800 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Common Era. The coast of North Africa and the Iberian Peninsula come under Islamic Arab domination; the westward expansion of the Umayyad Empire was famously halted at the Siege of Constantinople by the Byzantine Empire and the Battle of Tours by the Franks. The tide of Arab conquest came to an end in the middle of the 8th century. In Europe, late in the century, the Vikings, seafaring peoples from Scandinavia, begin raiding the coasts of Europe and the Mediterranean, go on to found several important kingdoms. In Asia, the Pala Empire is founded in Bengal; the Tang dynasty reaches its pinnacle under Chinese Emperor Xuanzong. The Nara period begins in Japan. Estimated century in which the poem Beowulf is composed. Classical Maya civilization begins to decline; the first Serbian state is formed at the beginning of the century. Borobodur, the famous Indonesian Buddhist structure, begins construction as a non-Buddhist shrine.
Buddhist Jataka stories are translated into Arabic as Kalilag and Damnag. An account of Buddha's life is translated into Greek by Saint John of Damascus, circulated to Christians as the story of Barlaam and Josaphat. Height of the Classic period in pre-Columbian Maya civilization history. Śāntideva, a Buddhist monk at Nalanda Monastery in India, composes the famous Bodhicharyāvatāra, or Guide to the Bodhisattva's Way of Life. The height of the Giant Wild Goose Pagoda in Xian, China is extended by 5 stories. 701: The Taihō Code is enacted in late Asuka period Japan. 705: Overthrow of Empress Wu Zetian, the reign of China's first and only sole-ruling empress ends. 705: Justinian II is forced to give the title Caesar of Byzantium to the Bulgarian Emperor Tervel. The Byzantine Empire begins to pay annual tributes to Bulgaria. 708 – 711: The Bulgarians defeat Justinian II at the battle of Anchiallus. Arab armies occupied Sindh. 710: Empress Genmei moves the capital to Heijō-kyū, initiating the Nara period of Japan.
711: Palenque is conquered by Toniná. 711: Tariq ibn Ziyad crosses the Straits of Gibraltar. With the creation of Al-Andalus, most of the Iberian Peninsula is conquered by Arab and Berber Muslims, thus ending the Visigothic rule, beginning eight centuries of Muslim rule. 712: Liutprand, King of the Lombards begins his reign. C. 712: Metropolitan episcopal see is established by the Church of the East in Chinese capital of Chang'an. 712 – 756: Emperor Xuanzong reigned, the time was considered one of China's high points. 712 – 740: Caliphate campaigns in India 713: Death of Dajian Huineng and last Patriarch of Chán Buddhism. 717 – 718: Siege of Constantinople. The Bulgarians and the Byzantines decisively defeat the invading Arabs, thus halting the Arab advance toward Europe. 718: Sri Indravarman King of Srivijaya send a letter to the Caliph Umar bin Abdul Aziz of the Umayyad Caliphate in Damascus, signing early ancient Indonesian official contact with Islamic world in the Middle East. 726: Byzantine Emperor Leo III the Isaurian destroys the icon of Christ above the Chalke Gate in the capital city of Constantinople, beginning the first phase of the Byzantine Iconoclasm.
731: Bede completes his Historia ecclesiastica gentis Anglorum. 732: Battle of Tours. Near Poitiers, leader of the Franks Charles Martel and his men defeat a large army of Moors under the governor of Cordoba, Abdul Rahman Al Ghafiqi, killed during the battle; the Battle of Tours halts the advance of Islam into Western Europe and establishes a balance of power between Western Europe and the Byzantine Empire. 732: The Sanjaya dynasty is founded around this time according to the Canggal inscription. 738: Quiriguá declares independence from Copan 740: Battle of Akroinon. Byzantines win their first large-scale victory in a pitched battle against the Arabs. 742: For the municipal census of the Tang-dynasty Chinese capital city Chang'an and its metropolitan area of Jingzhou Fu, the New Book of Tang records that in this year there were 362,921 registered families with 1,960,188 persons. 748: The Chinese Buddhist monk Jian Zhen writes in his Yue Jue Shu of the international sea traffic coming to Guangzhou, ships from Borneo, Sri Lanka and others bringing tons of goods.
750: The last Umayyad Caliph Marwan II is overthrown and executed by the first Abbasid Caliph, Abu al-Abbas al-Saffah. The Caliphate is moved to Baghdad which would develop into a centre of trade and culture; the Ghana Empire begins in western Africa. Mid-8th century - Great Wild Goose Pagoda at Ci'en Temple, Xi'an, Shanxi, is rebuilt. C. mid-8th century - Camel Carrying a Group of Musicians, from a tomb near Xi'an, Shanxi, is made. Tang dynasty, it is now kept at Museum of Beijing. 751: Arabian armies defeat Chinese Tang dynasty troops in the Battle of Talas, in the high Pamirs near Samarkand, conquer Central Asia completely. 752: The Hindu Medang kingdom flourishes and declines. 755 – 763: The An Shi Rebellion devastates China during the mid Tang dynasty. 757: King Offa of Mercia becomes dominant ruler in England. 758: Arab and Persian pirates and travelers burn and loot the Chinese city of Guangzhou, while the Tang Dynasty authorities shut the port down for the next five decades. 760: The construction of Borobudur started.
768: Pepin dies. 770's – 780's: Java launched series of naval raids on ports of Dai Viet and Cambodia. The naval raids was launched by Sailendran-Srivijayan Maharaja
The Rabbit is the fourth of the 12-year cycle of animals which appear in the Chinese zodiac related to the Chinese calendar. The Year of the Rabbit is associated with the Earthly Branch symbol 卯. In the Vietnamese zodiac and the Gurung zodiac, the cat takes the place of the Rabbit. People born within these date ranges can be said to have been born in the "Year of the Rabbit", while bearing the following elemental sign: Rabbit