Pyotr Kirillovich Koshevoy was a Soviet military commander and a Marshal of the Soviet Union. Koshevoy was born to a Ukrainian peasant family and joined the Red Army in 1920, fighting in the Russian Civil War. During the interwar period, he served as a junior commander in cavalry units and held staff positions from the late 1930s. By the beginning of Operation Barbarossa, the German invasion of the Soviet Union, Koshevoy commanded the 65th Rifle Division, which he led during the Siege of Leningrad. In mid-1942 he transferred to command the 24th Guards Rifle Division, fighting in the Battle of Stalingrad and the North Caucasus. Koshevoy commanded the 63rd Rifle Corps during the Crimean Offensive transferred to command the 71st Rifle Corps before leading the 36th Guards Rifle Corps from early 1945, commanding it in the East Prussian Offensive, he was awarded the title of Hero of the Soviet Union twice – in 1944, for the taking of Mount Sapun during the Crimean Offensive and in 1945, for his part in the capture of Königsberg.
Following the war, Koshevoy commanded the 6th Guards, the 5th, the 11th Guards Armies, the Siberian and Kiev Military Districts. He became commander-in-chief of the Group of Soviet Forces in Germany in 1965. Koshevoy was promoted to Marshal of the Soviet Union in 1968, but was dismissed from command of the Group of Soviet Forces in Germany in late 1969. Koshevoy was born on 21 December 1904 in Oleksandriia, Kherson Governorate to a Ukrainian peasant family. After graduating from primary school in 1919, he worked with his father, a miller, for a year and a half, he joined the Red Army during the Russian Civil War on 13 February 1920 and was sent to the 2nd Red Cossack Regiment of the 8th Red Cossack Cavalry Division, with which he fought on the Southwestern Front against Polish and Ukrainian People's Army troops in the area of Chornyi Ostriv, Proskurov and Rohatyn against the Revolutionary Insurrectionary Army of Ukraine. After the end of the war, in August 1922, Koshevoy was sent to study at the Crimean Cavalry Courses, upon graduation in October 1923 was appointed a squadron starshina in the 3rd Red Cossack Cavalry Regiment of the 1st Red Cossack Cavalry Division, stationed in the Ukrainian Military District.
Becoming a kursant at the Ukrainian Cavalry School in August 1924, after graduation in September 1927 he served as a platoon commander with the 61st Cavalry Regiment of the Special Cavalry Brigade in the Moscow Military District. Temporarily transferred to the department of higher education institutions at the district headquarters to serve as officer for assignments of the 2nd category in November 1931, Koshevoy served at the VTsIK Combined Military School as an assistant machine gun squadron commander. After attending the Armored Commanders' Advanced Training Courses in Leningrad between March and May 1932, he returned to the school to become a platoon commander in the mechanized battalion. From September of that year, Koshevoy served as head of the regimental school of the 61st Regiment, part of the Special Cavalry Division, he became assistant chief of the 1st section of the staff of the regiment in May 1935, from October of that year was regimental chief of staff. Koshevoy entered the Frunze Military Academy in May 1936 and upon graduation in January 1939 was appointed chief of staff of the 15th Cavalry Division, stationed in the Transbaikal Military District.
He was transferred to command the 65th Rifle Division of the district in February 1940. Koshevoy was assigned the rank of colonel on 29 February when the Red Army adopted personal military ranks. After Operation Barbarossa, the German invasion of the Soviet Union, began in June 1941, Koshevoy remained with the division in the Transbaikal Military District. Under his command, the 65th was relocated to the Volkhov Front during November, as part of the 4th Army fought in the Tikhvin Defensive Operation. For its "successful actions" in the latter, the 65th was awarded the Order of the Red Banner. Transferred to command the 24th Guards Rifle Division in the reserve on 2 July 1942, Koshevoy led the division as part of the 8th Army from 7 August, fighting in the Sinyavino Offensive, he was promoted to major general on 1 October. The division was relocated to Rasskazovo on 25 October 1942, where it joined the 2nd Guards Army of the Reserve of the Supreme High Command, receiving replacements and new equipment.
Departing with the army in mid-December for the Stalingrad Front, it fought in the repulse of Operation Winter Storm, a German counterattack attempting to relieve surrounded troops in Stalingrad. As part of the Southern Front, the division fought in the Rostov Offensive, part of the North Caucasus Strategic Offensive in early 1943, it was in reserve in Voroshilovgrad Oblast for rebuilding from March. During the summer, as part of the 2nd Guards Army of the Southern Front, Koshevoy led the division in the Mius and Donbass Offensives. During the Donbass Offensive, Koshevoy was appointed commander of the 63rd Rifle Corps of the 51st Army on 28 August, he went on to lead the corps as part of the 44th and 51st Armies of the 4th Ukrainian Front in the Melitopol and Crimean Offensives, during which it captured Kakhovka and Sevastopol. For his "skillful leadership" of the corps in the Crimean Offensive, including in the crossing of the Sivash and the taking of Mount Sapun, Koshevoy was made a Hero of the Soviet Union and awarded the Order of Lenin on 16 May 1944, being promoted to lieutenant general a day later.
Transferred to command the 71st Rifle Corps on 27 May, he led the latter as part of the 31st Army of the 3rd Belorussian Front in Operation Bagration and the Baltic Offen
The Workers' and Peasants' Red Army shortened to Red Army was the army and the air force of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, after 1922, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. The army was established after the 1917 October Revolution; the Bolsheviks raised an army to oppose the military confederations of their adversaries during the Russian Civil War. Beginning in February 1946, the Red Army, along with the Soviet Navy, embodied the main component of the Soviet Armed Forces; the Red Army provided the largest land force in the Allied victory in the European theatre of World War II, its invasion of Manchuria assisted the unconditional surrender of Imperial Japan. During operations on the Eastern Front, it accounted for 75–80% of casualties the Wehrmacht and Waffen-SS suffered during the war and captured the Nazi German capital, Berlin. In September 1917, Vladimir Lenin wrote: "There is only one way to prevent the restoration of the police, and, to create a people's militia and to fuse it with the army."
At the time, the Imperial Russian Army had started to collapse. 23% of the male population of the Russian Empire were mobilized. The Tsarist general Nikolay Dukhonin estimated that there had been 2 million deserters, 1.8 million dead, 5 million wounded and 2 million prisoners. He estimated the remaining troops as numbering 10 million. While the Imperial Russian Army was being taken apart, "it became apparent that the rag-tag Red Guard units and elements of the imperial army who had gone over the side of the Bolsheviks were quite inadequate to the task of defending the new government against external foes." Therefore, the Council of People's Commissars decided to form the Red Army on 28 January 1918. They envisioned a body "formed from the class-conscious and best elements of the working classes." All citizens of the Russian republic aged 18 or older were eligible. Its role being the defense "of the Soviet authority, the creation of a basis for the transformation of the standing army into a force deriving its strength from a nation in arms, furthermore, the creation of a basis for the support of the coming Socialist Revolution in Europe."
Enlistment was conditional upon "guarantees being given by a military or civil committee functioning within the territory of the Soviet Power, or by party or trade union committees or, in extreme cases, by two persons belonging to one of the above organizations." In the event of an entire unit wanting to join the Red Army, a "collective guarantee and the affirmative vote of all its members would be necessary." Because the Red Army was composed of peasants, the families of those who served were guaranteed rations and assistance with farm work. Some peasants who remained at home yearned to join the Army. If they were turned away they would prepare care-packages. In some cases the money they earned would go towards tanks for the Army; the Council of People's Commissars appointed itself the supreme head of the Red Army, delegating command and administration of the army to the Commissariat for Military Affairs and the Special All-Russian College within this commissariat. Nikolai Krylenko was the supreme commander-in-chief, with Aleksandr Myasnikyan as deputy.
Nikolai Podvoisky became the commissar for Pavel Dybenko, commissar for the fleet. Proshyan, Steinberg were specified as people's commissars as well as Vladimir Bonch-Bruyevich from the Bureau of Commissars. At a joint meeting of Bolsheviks and Left Socialist-Revolutionaries, held on 22 February 1918, Krylenko remarked: "We have no army; the demoralized soldiers are fleeing, panic-stricken, as soon as they see a German helmet appear on the horizon, abandoning their artillery and all war material to the triumphantly advancing enemy. The Red Guard units are brushed aside like flies. We have no power to stay the enemy; the Russian Civil War occurred in three periods: October 1917 – November 1918: From the Bolshevik Revolution to the First World War Armistice, developed from the Bolshevik government's nationalization of traditional Cossack lands in November 1917. This provoked the insurrection of General Alexey Maximovich Kaledin's Volunteer Army in the River Don region; the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk aggravated Russian internal politics.
The situation encouraged direct Allied intervention in the Russian Civil War, in which twelve foreign countries supported anti-Bolshevik militias. A series of engagements resulted, amongst others, the Czechoslovak Legion, the Polish 5th Rifle Division, the pro-Bolshevik Red Latvian Riflemen. January 1919 – November 1919: Initially the White armies advanced: from the south, under General Anton Denikin; the Whites defeated the Red Army on each front. Leon Trotsky reformed and counterattacked: the Red Army repelled Admiral Kolchak's army in June, the armies of General Denikin and General Yudenich in October. By mid-Nove
Ivan Tikhonovich Grishin was a Soviet Army Colonel general and Hero of the Soviet Union. Grishin enlisted in the Red Army during the Russian Civil War and fought against the Tambov Rebellion, he became an officer and graduated from the Frunze Military Academy in 1936. In October 1940, he became the commander of the 137th Rifle Division, which he led through the World War II battles of Smolensk and Moscow. Grishin became 50th Army chief of staff and in April 1943 transferred to the same position in the 11th Guards Army. Soon after, he became 49th Army commander and led the army through the Smolensk Operation, Operation Bagration, the East Prussian Offensive and the Berlin Offensive at the end of the war. Postwar, Grishin commanded the 6th Guards Army. In 1946, he became the head of combat training for the Ground Forces. Grishin died in 1951 in Moscow. Ivan Grishin was born on 16 December 1901 in the village of Vnukovichi to a peasant family, he graduated from fourth grade at the rural school. After his father was drafted, Grishin worked in the household.
In July 1920, he was drafted into the Red Army. Grishin became a private in the 16th Rifle Regiment held in reserve at Dorogobuzh. From 1920 to 1922, he studied at the 18th Infantry Command Courses in Kaluga. While a cadet, Grishin fought in the crushing of the Tambov Rebellion. In April 1922, he became a platoon commander in the 163rd Rifle Regiment, he transferred to become a platoon commander in the 1st Border Regiment, 12th Separate Border Battalion and 18th Border Battalion of the OGPU Border Troops. Grishin became machine gun platoon commander of the 27th Rifle Division's 81st Rifle Regiment in April 1924. In 1925, he requested to be sent to the 3rd Western Infantry School, from which he graduated a year later. Grishin was sent to the Ivanovo-Voznesensky "Frunze" Infantry School in Oryol, from which he graduated in two years. At the same time, as an external student he passed the examination for a seven-year school. In 1927, he joined the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. Grishin became a platoon commander in the 44th Rifle Division's 132nd Rifle Regiment.
He became a company commander. Grishin soon became the division's assistant chief of staff. In April 1933, Grishin was sent to the Frunze Military Academy, he graduated with honors in 1936. In October, he became chief of the department of the Central Training School of the Chiefs of Staff. In September 1937, he became chief of staff of the 17th Rifle Division in the Moscow Military District. In December 1938, Grishin became head of the 2nd staff section at district headquarters. In October 1940, Grishin became commander of the 137th Rifle Division at Gorky; the division participated in the district's demonstration exercises and Grishin was awarded the Order of the Red Star for his leadership. When Operation Barbarossa began on 22 June 1941, the 137th Rifle Division was stationed at their summer camp of Gorokhovetsky; the division was sent to the front and fought in the Battle of Smolensk in early July, part of the 13th Army. Near Shkloŭ, the division defended the Dnieper crossing and delayed advancing German troops for seven days.
The division retreated back to Chavusy. The division defended the Sozh River line and held south of Trubchevsk for two weeks. From 2–6 August, Grishin temporarily became commander of some elements of the 4th Airborne Corps. In September, the division was transferred to the Bryansk Front; the division fought around Tula and in the Battle of Moscow. On 7 November, Grishin was awarded the Order of the Red Banner. In December, the division participated in the Yelets Offensive and advanced 150 kilometres to the west. On 10 March 1942, Grishin became chief of staff of 50th Army; the army suffered heavy losses. Afterwards, it defended the line southwest of Moscow. On 30 January 1943, Grishin was awarded the Order of the Red Banner for his leadership of the 137th Rifle Division. On 27 April 1943, Grishin became chief of staff of the 11th Guards Army. In June, he became 49th Army commander. During August and September, Grishin led the army in the Smolensk Operation. During the offensive, the army crossed the Desna and Sozh.
The army captured Spas-Demensk, Krichev, Khislavichi and Bogdanovo, a German strongpoint on the Desna. The army received thanks from the supreme commander and received a twenty salvo artillery salute in Moscow for its capture of Roslval. Four rifle divisions were awarded the honorific "Roslavl". Grishin was promoted to Lieutenant general. During the offensive, 49th Army had captured Grishin's home village of Vnukovichi, where he learned that German troops had shot his father and other relatives. In April 1944, the 49th Army became part of the 2nd Belorussian Front; the army broke through the German lines. During the offensive, the army crossed the Pronya, Dnieper and Berezina Rivers, it captured Mogilev. During the advance towards Minsk, the army helped. From 9 July, all fighting to eliminate this pocket was supervised by Grishin. More than 35,000 German troops, including 12 generals, were captured by 49th Army. For his leadership in the offensive, Grishin was awarded the Order of Kutuzov 1st class.
In late July, the army transferred to positions southwest of Navahrudak. During the Bialystok Offensive, the army broke through strong German resistance on the Svislach River. On 24 July, it by 27 July was north and west of the city. By 15 September, it was on the Narew near Łomża. From 13 J
Riga Offensive (1944)
The Riga Offensive (known in was part of the larger Baltic Offensive on the Eastern Front during World War II. It took place late in 1944, drove German forces from the city of Riga. Soviet forces had advanced towards the Baltic coast in the beginning of their Tartu Offensive and at the end of the successful Belorussian Offensive, during July and August 1944, at one point had broken through to the Gulf of Riga; the victories in July were unexpected, at one point on July 31, the commander of the 8th mechanized brigade communicated with corps headquarters to notify them that it's tanks had reached the beach. In an unusual act, they were ordered to fill several bottles of sea water, have them signed, flown to The Kremlin as proof that Army Group North had been cut off from the Reich. During August, the German 18th Army had mounted a Operation Doppelkopf; the German Valga–Võrtsjärv line, supported by the local Estonian Omakaitse militia battalions, repelled the heavy pressure of the Soviet 3rd Baltic Front's Tartu Offensive.
The German Army Group North's commander, Ferdinand Schörner designed Operation Aster to pull his troops out of mainland Estonia. The parallel Riga Offensive would see Soviet forces apply further pressure on Army Group North, which still held much of Latvia and Estonia. Elements of: 1st Baltic Front 2nd Baltic Front 22nd Army 3rd Baltic Front Army Group North Sixteenth Army Eighteenth Army Elements of Army Group Centre temporarily reassigned to Army Group North Third Panzer Army Omakaitse The Soviet forces launched a ferocious attack on the Riga axis on September 14, 1944. Within 4 days, the German 16th Army had suffered serious damage, while in the 18th Army's sector, ten of the eighteen German divisions had been reduced to the Kampfgruppe level. In the northern segment placed along Lake Võrtsjärv, the Väike Emajõgi and Gauja rivers, the Soviet 3rd Baltic Front attacked the German XXVIII Army Corps backed by Omakaitse battalions. In fierce battles, the German and Estonian units held their positions.
From the south, the 43rd Army was threatening the approaches to Riga itself, where the German X Corps had been shattered. Schoerner began to move his divisions into the Courland Peninsula, intending to shorten the front and pull back from Riga. A counter-attack was carried out by the XXXIX Panzer Corps of 3rd Panzer Army, temporarily placed under Schörner's overall command, but the Soviet opposition was too strong. In the meantime, Stavka had been preparing a new axis of attack under the cover of a further push towards Riga, the new plan being put forward in a directive of September 24. On September 27, the 16th Army began to report Soviet traffic away from its front, to the south-west. In fact, several major Soviet force concentrations were being shifted southwards in preparation for a major thrust westwards towards Memel by the 1st Baltic Front. German intelligence detected the movement of several of the armies involved, but were unable to detect their destination; the resulting offensive, the Battle of Memel, was launched on October 5.
Schoerner's forces around Riga and in Courland were now cut off. On October 9, Schoerner signalled that he would attack towards Memel and try and re-establish the land connection if Riga could be evacuated. Soviet forces were again moving forwards outside Riga, brought the city within the range of artillery fire on October 10. Leaving a screening force of the 227th Infantry Division and the guns of the 6th Motorized Anti-Aircraft Division, the 18th Army retreated through Riga into Courland, destroying bridges on its route. Riga was taken by forces of the 3rd Baltic Front on October 13. Over the next few days Soviet units were reported in action to the west of Riga, stating that German forces had been cleared from the eastern bank of the Lielupe River by October 17. Army Group North had been driven into the Courland Pocket, where it remained isolated until the end of the war in Europe
90th Guards Rifle Division
The 90th Guards Rifle Vitebsk Division was an infantry division of the Red Army during World War II. Formed from the 325th Rifle Division in recognition of its actions during the winter of 1943, the division fought in the Battle of Kursk, the Belgorod-Khar'kov Offensive Operation, Operation Bagration, the Baltic Offensive, the Vistula–Oder Offensive, the East Prussian Offensive; the division was formed on April 18, 1943, by the re-designation of the first formation of the 325th Rifle Division, which had distinguished itself in the advance of 21st Army in Central Front in the late winter of that year. At about the same time, 21st Army became the 6th Guards Army; when formed, the order of battle of the 90th Guards was as follows: 268th Guards Rifle Regiment, from 1092nd Rifle Regiment 272nd Guards Rifle Regiment, from 1094th Rifle Regiment 274th Guards Rifle Regiment, from 1096th Rifle Regiment 193rd Guards Artillery Regiment, from 893rd Artillery RegimentIt was one of the first units assigned to the new 22nd Guards Rifle Corps, Maj. Gen. Nikolai Boleslavovich Ibianskii was moved from command of the division to command of the corps on the same day.
He was replaced in command of the division by Col. Viktor Georgievich Chernov; this officer would continue in command until September 12. As the Battle of Kursk began on July 5, 6th Guards Army was in Voronezh Front, defending the south side of the salient, 90th Guards was in the second echelon of its Army, dug in behind the swampy basin of the Pena River to defend the most German axis of attack towards Oboyan. After the first day's fighting, during which XXXXVIII Panzer Corps and part of II SS Panzer Corps had damaged and forced back the Army's first echelon, Gen. N. F. Vatutin, the Front commander, ordered the 1st Tank Army to support the second echelon. Overnight, 6th Tank Corps buttressed the left and center of the division, while 3rd Mechanized Corps moved up in support; these reinforcements were important, because the 90th Guards had started the battle understrength, having yielded a rifle battalion and part of its artillery to the first echelon. By nightfall on July 6, elements of the first echelon had been encircled and were forced to slip out through gaps in the German lines, at considerable cost.
The Germans attempted to continue their attack, but were frustrated by the stubborn resistance of the 90th Guards in the strongpoints of Zavidovka and Syrtsevo, all in the basin of the Pena, with the support of the two corps of the tank army. By the afternoon of the 9th it was becoming clear that the German forces were re-directing their offensive away from the road to Oboyan in favor of a more easterly route. 90th Guards and 10th Motorized Brigade at Lukhanino and Shepelevka were coming under more intense attacks as the Germans tried to outflank 6th Tank. By the end of July 11, XXXXVIII Panzer Corps, in intense fighting, forced the ad-hoc Group Getman out of the area of the Psel River bend and encircled it; as the eastern re-direction continued, the reinforced 6th Guards Army was ordered to make a frontal counterattack with its full strength on July 12. The division, along with the rest of 22nd Guards Corps, was to make the main attack from the Chapaev - Novenkoe - Kruglik line along the Syrtsevo - Yakovlevo axis.
The goal of this attack was to hold the German forces in place and prevent them from massing more strength at Prokhorovka. In the event, the attack did significant damage to the German 332nd Infantry Division, caught regrouping, recaptured Chapaev, but realized few other positive results. Following the German offensive, the division required a short period of rebuilding before taking part in the Belgorod-Khar'kov Offensive Operation in August - September. On August 13 it took part in an attack on the 3rd SS Panzer Division, along with the 52nd Guards Rifle Division and 6th Tank Corps. 3rd SS had deployed all of its forces north of the Merchyk River, leaving only its reconnaissance battalion to screen south of it. The combined Soviet force pushed through the German light armor, recaptured Vysokopolye and linked up with 49th Tank Brigade, isolated in this area the previous day. However, a renewed attack by 3rd and 2nd SS on the following days damaged the tank corps and retook the village, although the Germans believed they had done more damage than was, in fact, the case.
That month 90th Guards was moved to the Reserve of the Supreme High Command. On September 13, Col. Vasilii Efimovich Vlasov took command of the division, a post he held into the postwar. In October, 90th Guards was moved north with 6th Guards Army to the 2nd Baltic Front, entering positions northwest of Nevel. Less than a month the division was reassigned to 4th Shock Army in the 1st Baltic Front. On November 10 the division was in the first echelon of 22nd Guards Rifle Corps as it launched an attack to try to cut off the German salient northeast of Nevel in conjunction with 3rd Shock Army; the forward progress was painfully slow. This effort was soon shut down. At the start of Operation Bagration, the division was back in 22nd Guards Rifle Corps in 6th Guards Army; that army had been moved in secrecy into the line north of the German-held Vitebsk salient over three nights previous to the attack. On the second day of the offensive the 90th Guards, along with its corps, advanc
64th Guards Rifle Division
The 64th Guards Rifle Division was created on January 19, 1943 from the 327th Rifle Division, in recognition of that division's distinguished combat record in the Second Siniavino Offensive and Operation Iskra. It was one of a small number of formations raised to Guards status in the northern sector of the Soviet-German Front; as such, it was employed as an assault division in the subsequent fighting in the final defeat of the German forces before Leningrad, the final offensive against Finland. The division ended the war in Lithuania, helping to contain the enemy forces trapped in the Courland Pocket, went on to serve well into the postwar era, still in the Leningrad/St. Petersburg area; when the 64th Guards was formed, its basic order of battle was as follows: 191st Guards Rifle Regiment from 1098th Rifle Regiment 194th Guards Rifle Regiment from 1100th Rifle Regiment 197th Guards Rifle Regiment from 1102nd Rifle Regiment 134th Guards Artillery Regiment from 894th Artillery RegimentThe division was considered a "sister" to the 63rd Guards Rifle Division, forming in the same area at the same time.
The two divisions served the entire remainder of the war in 30th Guards Rifle Corps. During Operation Polyarnaya Zvezda, in February and March, the 64th Guards was in 8th Army. On March 19 it was in the army's second echelon as it started its attack from south of Voronovo towards Mga. During the first three days of intense fighting the first echelon divisions penetrated 3 - 4 km along a 7 km front at the junction of the defending 1st and 223rd Infantry Divisions; the army commander, Lt. Gen. F. N. Starikov committed a small mobile group, the 191st Guards Rifle Regiment and a battalion of the 122nd Tank Brigade, with orders to cut the rail line between Mga and Kirishi, wheel northwest towards Mga Station. Despite heavy rain which prevented any air support, the group reached the rail line east of Turyshkino Station before being halted by hastily assembled German reinforcements. A further effort was made by the full division, backed by 14th Rifle Division and 1st Separate Rifle Brigade from reserve, on April 1 against the German defenses around Karbusel, just east of the Mga-Kirishi line.
This attack was repelled with heavy losses to the attackers. This marked the end of Polarnaya Zvezda, the Soviets went over to the defense the following day. At the start of the Fifth Siniavino Offensive on July 22, 64th Guards was in the newly formed 30th Guards Rifle Corps, commanded by Lt. Gen. Nikolai Simoniak, in 67th Army; the corps' objective was to capture Arbuzovo and advance on Mga from the north, supported by the 30th Guards and 220th Tank Brigades and the 31st and 29th Guards Tank Regiments. At the start of the operation the division was in the corps' second echelon. On the second day 63rd Guards Rifles occupied the first line of enemy trenches in the Arbuzovo region, the second line the next morning, but by August 4 the attack had bogged down in the face of German reinforcements, becoming little more than an exchange of artillery and mortar fire.30th Guards Corps was pulled back for rest and refitting east of Leningrad that month. On September 13 the corps headquarters got orders to prepare to take the leading role in the Sixth Siniavino Offensive.
Once again, 64th Guards was to be in second echelon. On September 15, following a reorganized and improved artillery fire plan, with significant air support, the three Guards divisions stormed the Siniavino Heights and seized them in only 30 minutes; this brought an end to the struggle, waged for this position for nearly two years at the cost of hundreds of thousands of casualties. Having achieved this objective, the offensive wound down; as of January 1, 1944, the 64th Guards was in 30th Guards Corps, now under 42nd Army in Leningrad Front. In the plan for the Leningrad–Novgorod Offensive, the three rifle corps of that army were to penetrate German defenses in the 17 km sector from Ligovo Station to Bolshoe Kuzmino southwest of Leningrad and liberate Krasnoye Selo; the assault began at 1100 hours on January 15, following an artillery preparation of 220,000 shells fired from 2,300 guns over one hour and 40 minutes. The three divisions of 30th Guards Corps attacked from Pulkovo Heights and by the end of the day had advanced 4.5 km through dense defenses, although the corps on each flank encountered greater resistance.
An advance of another 3 - 4 km was achieved the next day, but at greater cost. By the 17th the enemy forces north of Ropsha and Krasnoye Selo were under threat of encirclement, 123rd Rifle Corps was committed on the right flank of 30th Guards Corps. On January 19 the encirclement was completed while the two rifle corps stormed Krasnoye Selo, 64th Guards Rifle Division was granted that name as an honorific:"KRASNOYE SELO" - 64th Guards Rifle Division... The troops who participated in the breakthrough of enemy defenses and the liberation of Krasnoye Selo and Ropsha, by the order of the Supreme High Command of January 19, 1944, a commendation in Moscow, are given a salute of 20 artillery salvoes from 224 guns, it shared two divisions of the 123rd Corps. For the remainder of January, 42nd Army pursued the defeated German forces in the direction of Kingisepp, liberated on February 1. In the course of this fighting, 2nd Shock Army forced two crossings of the Narva River and south of the fortress city of Narva.
As a reward for this achievement, Leningrad Front transferred 30th Guards Corps to the latter army from the former on February 3. 2nd Shock launched a new attack on February 11, in which the 30th Guards Corps scored the only real success, advancing from the south to cut the road and railroad runn
Riga is the capital and largest city of Latvia. With 637,827 inhabitants, it is the largest city in the three Baltic states, home to one third of Latvia's population and one tenth of the three Baltic states' combined population; the city lies at the mouth of the Daugava river. Riga's territory lies 1 -- 10 m above sea level, on a flat and sandy plain. Riga is a former Hanseatic League member. Riga's historical centre is a UNESCO World Heritage Site, noted for its Art Nouveau/Jugendstil architecture and 19th century wooden architecture. Riga was the European Capital of Culture along with Umeå in Sweden. Riga hosted the 2006 NATO Summit, the Eurovision Song Contest 2003, the 2006 IIHF Men's World Ice Hockey Championships and the 2013 World Women's Curling Championship, it is home to the European Union's office of European Regulators for Electronic Communications. In 2016, Riga received over 1.4 million visitors. It is served by the largest and busiest airport in the Baltic states. Riga is a member of Eurocities, the Union of the Baltic Cities and Union of Capitals of the European Union.
One theory about the origin of the name Riga is that it is a corrupted borrowing from the Liv ringa meaning loop, referring to the ancient natural harbour formed by the tributary loop of the Daugava River. The other is that Riga owes its name to this already-established role in commerce between East and West, as a borrowing of the Latvian rija, for threshing barn, the "j" becoming a "g" in German — notably, Riga is called Rie by English geographer Richard Hakluyt, German historian Dionysius Fabricius confirms the origin of Riga from rija. Another theory could be that Riga was named after Riege, the German name for the River Rīdzene, a tributary of the Daugava. Another theory is that Riga's name is introduced by the bishop Albert, initiator of christening and conquest of Livonian and Baltic people, he introduced an explanation of city name as derived from Latin rigata that symbolizes an "irrigation of dry pagan souls by Christianity". The river Daugava has been a trade route since antiquity, part of the Vikings' Dvina-Dnieper navigation route to Byzantium.
A sheltered natural harbour 15 km upriver from the mouth of the Daugava — the site of today's Riga — has been recorded, as Duna Urbs, as early as the 2nd century. It was settled by an ancient Finnic tribe. Riga began to develop as a centre of Viking trade during the early Middle Ages. Riga's inhabitants occupied themselves with fishing, animal husbandry, trading developing crafts; the Livonian Chronicle of Henry testifies to Riga having long been a trading centre by the 12th century, referring to it as portus antiquus, describes dwellings and warehouses used to store flax, hides. German traders began visiting Riga, establishing a nearby outpost in 1158. Along with German traders the monk Meinhard of Segeberg arrived to convert the Livonian pagans to Christianity. Catholic and Orthodox Christianity had arrived in Latvia more than a century earlier, many Latvians baptised. Meinhard settled among the Livs, building a castle and church at Ikšķile, upstream from Riga, established his bishopric there.
The Livs, continued to practice paganism and Meinhard died in Ikšķile in 1196, having failed in his mission. In 1198, the Bishop Berthold arrived with a contingent of crusaders and commenced a campaign of forced Christianization. Berthold died soon afterwards and his forces defeated; the Church mobilised to avenge the issuance of a bull by Pope Innocent III declaring a crusade against the Livonians. Bishop Albert was proclaimed Bishop of Livonia by his uncle Hartwig of Uthlede, Prince-Archbishop of Bremen and Hamburg in 1199. Albert landed in Riga in 1200 with 500 Westphalian crusaders. In 1201, he transferred the seat of the Livonian bishopric from Ikšķile to Riga, extorting agreement to do this from the elders of Riga by force; the year 1201 marked the first arrival of German merchants in Novgorod, via the Dvina. To defend territory and trade, Albert established the Order of Livonian Brothers of the Sword in 1202, open to nobles and merchants; the Christianization of the Livs continued. In 1207, Albert started to fortify the town.
Emperor Philip invested Albert with Livonia as a principality of the Holy Roman Empire. To promote a permanent military presence, territorial ownership was divided between the Church and the Order, with the Church taking Riga and two-thirds of all lands conquered and granting the Order a third; until it had been customary for crusaders to serve for a year and return home. Albert had ensured Riga's commercial future by obtaining papal bulls which decreed that all German merchants had to carry on their Baltic trade through Riga. In 1211, Riga minted its first coinage, Albert laid the cornerstone for the Riga Dom. Riga was not yet secure. In 1212, Albert led a campaign to compel Polotsk to grant German merchants free river passage. Polotsk conceded Kukenois and Jersika to Albert ending the Livs' tribute to Polotsk. Riga's merchant citizenry sought greater autonomy from the Church. In 1221, they acquired the right to independently self-administer Riga and adopted a city constitution; that same year Albert was compelled to recognise Danish rule over lands they had conquered in Estonia and Livonia.
Albert had sought the aid of King Valdemar of Denmark to protect Riga and Livonian lands against Liv insurrection when reinforcements could not