6th meridian west
The meridian 6° west of Greenwich is a line of longitude that extends from the North Pole across the Arctic Ocean, the Atlantic Ocean, Europe, Africa, the Southern Ocean, and Antarctica to the South Pole.
The meridian 6° west of Greenwich is a line of longitude that extends from the North Pole across the Arctic Ocean, the Atlantic Ocean, Europe, Africa, the Southern Ocean, and Antarctica to the South Pole.
|Co-ordinates||Country, territory or sea||Notes|
|Atlantic Ocean||Passing just east of the island of Fugloy, Faroe Islands (at )|
Passing just east of the island of Svínoy, Faroe Islands (at )
Passing just west of the island of North Rona, Scotland, United Kingdom (at )
Passing just east of the island of Sula Sgeir, Scotland, United Kingdom (at )
|The Minch||Passing just east of the isle of Lewis, Scotland, United Kingdom (at )|
|United Kingdom||Scotland — islands of South Rona, Raasay, Scalpay, Skye|
|Atlantic Ocean||Sea of the Hebrides|
|United Kingdom||Scotland — peninsulas of Ardnamurchan and Morvern, and the Isle of Mull|
|Atlantic Ocean||Firth of Lorn|
|United Kingdom||Scotland — island of Jura|
|Atlantic Ocean||Sound of Jura — passing just east of the island of Islay, Scotland, United Kingdom (at )|
North Channel — passing just east of Rathlin Island, Northern Ireland, United Kingdom (at )
|United Kingdom||Northern Ireland — passing just west of Belfast (at )|
|Irish Sea||Passing just east of Lambay Island, Ireland (at )|
Passing just east of Howth Head, Ireland (at near Dublin)
Passing just east of Wicklow Head, Ireland (at )
|Atlantic Ocean||Celtic Sea — passing just west of Land's End, England, United Kingdom (at )|
— passing just east of the Isles of Scilly, England, United Kingdom (at )
through an unnamed part of the ocean — from
and into the Bay of Biscay — from
|Spain||Passing just west of Seville (at )|
|Atlantic Ocean||Passing just west of the island of Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha (at )|
|Antarctica||Queen Maud Land, claimed by Norway|
Lewis is the northern part of Lewis and Harris, the largest island of the Western Isles or Outer Hebrides archipelago in Scotland. It is known as the Isle of Lewis, as the two parts are referred to as if they were separate islands; the total area of Lewis is 683 square miles. Lewis is, in general, the lower-lying part of the island: the other part, Harris, is more mountainous. Due to its flatter, more fertile land, Lewis contains three-quarters of the population of the Western Isles, the largest settlement, Stornoway; the island's diverse habitats are home to an assortment of flora and fauna, such as the golden eagle, red deer and seal, are recognised in a number of conservation areas. Lewis has a rich history, it was once part of the Norse Kingdom of Mann and the Isles. Today, life is different from elsewhere in Scotland, with Sabbath observance, the Scottish Gaelic language and peat cutting retaining more importance than elsewhere. Lewis has a rich cultural heritage as can be seen from its myths and legends as well as the local literary and musical traditions.
The Scottish Gaelic name Leòdhas may be derived from Norse Ljoðahús, although other origins have been suggested – most notably the Scottish Gaelic leogach. It is the place referred to as Limnu by Ptolemy, which means "marshy", it is known as the "Isle of Lewis". Another name used in a cultural or poetic context is Eilean an Fhraoich. Although this refers to the whole of the island of Lewis and Harris; the earliest evidence of human habitation on Lewis is found in peat samples which indicate that about 8,000 years ago much of the native woodland was torched to make way for grassland to allow deer to graze. The earliest archaeological remains date from about 5,000 years ago. At that time, people began to settle in permanent farms rather than following their herds; the small houses of these people have been found throughout the Western Isles. The more striking great monuments of this period are the temples and communal burial cairns at places like Calanais. About 500 BC, island society moved into the Iron Age.
The buildings became larger and more prominent, culminating in the brochs – circular, dry-stone towers belonging to the local chieftains – testifying to the uncertain nature of life then. The best remaining example of a broch in Lewis is at Dùn Chàrlabhaigh; the Scots arrived during the first centuries AD. As Christianity began to spread through the islands in the 6th and centuries, following Columban missionaries, Lewis was inhabited by the Picts. In the 9th century AD, the Vikings began to settle on Lewis, after years of raiding from the sea; the Norse invaders abandoned their pagan beliefs. At that time, rectangular buildings began to supersede round ones, following the Scandinavian style. Lewis became part of an offshoot of Norway; the Lewis chessmen, found on the island in 1831, date from the time of Viking rule. The people were called the Norse Gaels or Gall-Ghàidheil, reflecting their mixed Scandinavian/Gaelic background, their bilingual speech; the Norse language persists in many island placenames and some personal names to this day, although the latter are evenly spread across the Gàidhealtachd.
Lewis became part of Scotland once more in 1266: under the Treaty of Perth it was ceded by the Kingdom of Norway. Under Scottish rule, the Lordship of the Isles emerged as the most important power in north-western Scotland by the 14th century; the Lords of the Isles controlled all of the Hebrides. They were descended from Somerled Mac Gillibride, a Gall-Ghàidheil lord who had held the Hebrides and West Coast two hundred years earlier. Control of Lewis itself was exercised by the Macleod clan, but after years of feuding and open warfare between and within local clans, the lands of Clan MacLeod were forfeited to the Scottish Crown in 1597 and were awarded by King James VI to a group of Lowland colonists known as the Fife adventurers in an attempt to anglicise the islands; however the adventurers were unsuccessful, possession passed to the Mackenzies of Kintail in 1609, when Coinneach, Lord MacKenzie, bought out the lowlanders. Following the 1745 rebellion, Prince Charles Edward Stewart's flight to France, the use of Scottish Gaelic was discouraged, rents were demanded in cash rather than kind, the wearing of folk dress was made illegal.
Emigration to the New World became an escape for those who could afford it during the latter half of the century. In 1844 Lewis was bought by Sir James Matheson, co-founder of Jardine Matheson, but subsequent famine and changing land use forced vast numbers off their lands, increased again the flood of emigrants. Paradoxically, those who remained became more congested and impoverished, as large tracts of arable land were set aside for sheep, deer-stalking or grouse shooting. Agitation for land resettlement became acute on Lewis during the economic slump of the 1880s, with several land raids. During the First World War, thousands of islanders served in the forces, many losing their lives, including 208 naval reservists from the island who were returning home after the war when the Admiralty yacht HMY Iolaire sank within sight of Stornoway harbour. Many servicemen from Lewis served in the Royal Navy and the Merchant Navy during the Second World War, again ma
The Minch called North Minch, is a strait in north-west Scotland, separating the north-west Highlands and the northern Inner Hebrides from Lewis and Harris in the Outer Hebrides. It was known as Skotlandsfjörð in Old Norse; the Lower Minch known as the Little Minch, is the Minch's southern extension, separating Skye from the lower Outer Hebrides: North Uist, South Uist, Barra etc. It opens into the Sea of the Hebrides; the Little Minch is the northern limit of the Sea of the Hebrides. The Minch and Lower Minch form part of the Inner Seas off the West Coast of Scotland, as defined by the International Hydrographic Organization; the Minch ranges from 14 to 45 miles wide and is 70 miles long. It is believed to be the site of the biggest meteorite to hit the British Isles; the Lower Minch is about 15 miles wide. In June 2010 Eilidh Macdonald became the first person to swim across it from Waternish Point on Skye to Rodel on Harris, in a time of 9.5 hours. A Traffic Separation Scheme operates in the Little Minch, with northbound traffic proceeding close to Skye, southbound close to Harris.
Commercial ferry services across the Minch are operated by Caledonian MacBrayne. In the south, its entrance is marked by lighthouses at Barra Head and Hyskeir. On Skye, there are lights at Vaternish and An t-Iasgair; the Outer Hebrides are marked by Eilean Glas, Tiumpan Head and Butt of Lewis. To the east are Rubh Re, Stoer Head and Cape Wrath lighthouses. A buoy marks the nearby Sgeir Graidach; these hazards were marked by a red-painted beacon on Sgeir Graidach, the foundations of which can still be seen at low tide. The mythological Blue men of the Minch live in the area; the Minch Project is a collaboration of Comhairle nan Eilean Siar, the Highland Council and Scottish Natural Heritage that aims to reduce pollution, minimise erosion, minimise litter and promote tourism in the Minch wildlife tourism such as dolphin watching. Pollution is a particular concern. Mid-Minch Gaelic Western Isles local government Minch project Gazetteer for Scotland
The South Pole known as the Geographic South Pole or Terrestrial South Pole, is one of the two points where Earth's axis of rotation intersects its surface. It is the southernmost point on the surface of Earth and lies on the opposite side of Earth from the North Pole. Situated on the continent of Antarctica, it is the site of the United States Amundsen–Scott South Pole Station, established in 1956 and has been permanently staffed since that year; the Geographic South Pole is distinct from the South Magnetic Pole, the position of, defined based on Earth's magnetic field. The South Pole is at the center of the Southern Hemisphere. For most purposes, the Geographic South Pole is defined as the southern point of the two points where Earth's axis of rotation intersects its surface. However, Earth's axis of rotation is subject to small "wobbles", so this definition is not adequate for precise work; the geographic coordinates of the South Pole are given as 90°S, since its longitude is geometrically undefined and irrelevant.
When a longitude is desired, it may be given as 0°. At the South Pole, all directions face north. For this reason, directions at the Pole are given relative to "grid north", which points northwards along the prime meridian. Along tight latitude circles, clockwise is east, counterclockwise is west, opposite to the North Pole; the Geographic South Pole is located on the continent of Antarctica. It sits atop a featureless, barren and icy plateau at an altitude of 2,835 metres above sea level, is located about 1,300 km from the nearest open sea at Bay of Whales; the ice is estimated to be about 2,700 metres thick at the Pole, so the land surface under the ice sheet is near sea level. The polar ice sheet is moving at a rate of 10 metres per year in a direction between 37° and 40° west of grid north, down towards the Weddell Sea. Therefore, the position of the station and other artificial features relative to the geographic pole shift over time; the Geographic South Pole is marked by a stake in the ice alongside a small sign.
The sign records the respective dates that Roald Amundsen and Robert F. Scott reached the Pole, followed by a short quotation from each man, gives the elevation as "9,301 FT.". A new marker stake is fabricated each year by staff at the site; the Ceremonial South Pole is an area set aside for photo opportunities at the South Pole Station. It is located some meters from the Geographic South Pole, consists of a metallic sphere on a short bamboo pole, surrounded by the flags of the original Antarctic Treaty signatory states. Amundsen's Tent: The tent was erected by the Norwegian expedition led by Roald Amundsen on its arrival on 14 December 1911, it is buried beneath the snow and ice in the vicinity of the Pole. It has been designated a Historic Site or Monument, following a proposal by Norway to the Antarctic Treaty Consultative Meeting; the precise location of the tent is unknown, but based on calculations of the rate of movement of the ice and the accumulation of snow, it is believed, as of 2010, to lie between 1.8 and 2.5 km from the Pole at a depth of 17 m below the present surface.
Argentine Flagpole: A flagpole erected at the South Geographical Pole in December 1965 by the First Argentine Overland Polar Expedition has been designated a Historic Site or Monument following a proposal by Argentina to the Antarctic Treaty Consultative Meeting. In 1820, several expeditions claimed to have been the first to have sighted Antarctica, with the first being the Russian expedition led by Fabian Gottlieb von Bellingshausen and Mikhail Lazarev; the first landing was just over a year when American Captain John Davis, a sealer, set foot on the ice. The basic geography of the Antarctic coastline was not understood until the mid-to-late 19th century. American naval officer Charles Wilkes claimed that Antarctica was a new continent, basing the claim on his exploration in 1839–40, while James Clark Ross, in his expedition of 1839–43, hoped that he might be able to sail all the way to the South Pole. British explorer Robert Falcon Scott on the Discovery Expedition of 1901–04 was the first to attempt to find a route from the Antarctic coastline to the South Pole.
Scott, accompanied by Ernest Shackleton and Edward Wilson, set out with the aim of travelling as far south as possible, on 31 December 1902, reached 82°16′ S. Shackleton returned to Antarctica as leader of the British Antarctic Expedition in a bid to reach the Pole. On 9 January 1909, with three companions, he reached 88°23' S – 112 miles from the Pole – before being forced to turn back; the first men to reach the Geographic South Pole were the Norwegian Roald Amundsen and his party on December 14, 1911. Amundsen named his camp Polheim and the entire plateau surrounding the Pole King Haakon VII Vidde in honour of King Haakon VII of Norway. Robert Falcon Scott returned to Antarctica with his second expedition, the Terra Nova Expedition unaware of Amundsen's secretive expedition. Scott and four other men reached the South Pole on January 17, 1912, thirty-four days after Amundsen. On the return trip and his four companions all died of starvation and extreme cold. In 1914 Ernest Shackleton's Imperial Trans-Antarctic Expedition set out with the goal of crossing Antarctica via the South Pole, but his ship, the Endurance, was frozen in pack ice and sank 1
Rathlin Island is an island and civil parish off the coast of County Antrim in Northern Ireland. It is Northern Ireland's northernmost point. Rathlin is the only inhabited offshore island of Northern Ireland, with a growing population of 150 people, is the most northerly inhabited island off the coast of the island of Ireland; the reverse L-shaped Rathlin Island is 4 miles from east to west, 2.5 miles from north to south. The highest point on the island is 134 metres above sea level. Rathlin is 15.5 miles from the Mull of the southern tip of Scotland's Kintyre peninsula. It is part of the Causeway Coast and Glens council area, is represented by the Rathlin Development & Community Association. Rathlin is part of the traditional barony Cary, of current district Moyle; the island constitutes a civil parish and is subdivided into 22 townlands: A ferry operated by Rathlin Island Ferry Ltd connects the main port of the island, Church Bay, with the mainland at Ballycastle, 6 miles away. Two ferries operate on the route – the fast foot-passenger-only catamaran ferry Rathlin Express and a purpose built larger ferry, commissioned in May 2017, Spirit of Rathlin, which carries both foot passengers and a small number of vehicles, weather permitting.
Rathlin Island Ferry Ltd won a six-year contract for the service in 2008 providing it as a subsidised "lifeline" service. There is an ongoing investigation on how the transfer was handled between the Environment Minister and the new owners. Rathlin is of prehistoric volcanic origin, having been created as part of the British Tertiary Volcanic Province. Rathlin is one of 43 Special Areas of Conservation in Northern Ireland, it is home to tens of thousands of seabirds, including common guillemots, kittiwakes and razorbills – about thirty bird families in total. It is visited by birdwatchers, with a Royal Society for the Protection of Birds nature reserve that has views of Rathlin’s bird colony; the RSPB has successfully managed natural habitat to facilitate the return of the red-billed chough. Northern Ireland's only breeding pair of choughs can be seen during the summer months; the cliffs on this bare island are impressive, standing 70 metres tall. Bruce's Cave is named after Robert the Bruce known as Robert I of Scotland: it was here that he was said to have seen the legendary spider, described as inspiring Bruce to continue his fight for Scottish independence.
The island is the northernmost point of the Antrim Coast and Glens Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty. In 2008-09, the Maritime and Coastguard Agency of the United Kingdom and the Marine Institute Ireland undertook bathymetric survey work north of Antrim, updating Admiralty charts. In doing so a number of interesting submarine geological features were identified around Rathlin Island, including a submerged crater or lake on a plateau with clear evidence of water courses feeding it; this suggests the events leading to inundation - subsidence of land or rising water levels - were quick. Marine investigations in the area have identified new species of sea anemone, rediscovered the fan mussel and a number of shipwreck sites, including HMS Drake, torpedoed and sank just off the island in 1917. Rathlin was known to the Romans, Pliny referring to "Reginia" and Ptolemy to "Rhicina" or "Eggarikenna". In the 7th century Adomnán mentions "Rechru" and "Rechrea insula", which may have been early names for Rathlin.
The 11th-century Irish version of the Historia Brittonum states that the Fir Bolg "took possession of Man and of other islands besides - Arran, Islay and'Racha'" – another possible early variant. Rathlin was the site of the first Viking raid on Ireland, according to the Annals of Ulster; the pillaging of the island's church and burning of its buildings took place in 795 In 1306, Robert the Bruce sought refuge upon Rathlin, owned by the Irish Bissett family. He stayed in Rathlin Castle belonging to their lordship the Glens of Antrim; the Bissetts were dispossessed of Rathlin by the English, who were in control of the Earldom of Ulster, for welcoming Bruce. In the 16th century, the island came into the possession of the MacDonnells of Antrim. Rathlin has been the site of a number of massacres. On an expedition in 1557, Sir Henry Sidney devastated the island. In July 1575, the Earl of Essex sent Francis Drake and John Norreys to confront Scottish refugees on the island, in the ensuing massacre, hundreds of men and children of Clan MacDonnell were killed.
In 1642, Covenanter Campbell soldiers of the Argyll's Foot were encouraged by their commanding officer Sir Duncan Campbell of Auchinbreck to kill the local Catholic MacDonalds, near relatives of their arch clan enemy in the Scottish Highlands Clan MacDonald. They threw scores of MacDonald women over cliffs to their deaths on rocks below; the number of victims of this massacre has been put as low as one hundred and as high as three thousand. In 1746, the island was purchased by the Reverend John Gage. In the 18th century, kelp production became important, with Rathlin becoming a major centre for production; the shoreline is still littered with kilns and storage places. This was a commercial enterprise sponsored by the landlords of the island and involved the whole community. A 19th-
The Southern Ocean known as the Antarctic Ocean or the Austral Ocean, comprises the southernmost waters of the World Ocean taken to be south of 60° S latitude and encircling Antarctica. As such, it is regarded as the fourth largest of the five principal oceanic divisions: smaller than the Pacific and Indian Oceans but larger than the Arctic Ocean; this ocean zone is where cold, northward flowing waters from the Antarctic mix with warmer subantarctic waters. By way of his voyages in the 1770s, Captain James Cook proved that waters encompassed the southern latitudes of the globe. Since geographers have disagreed on the Southern Ocean's northern boundary or existence, considering the waters as various parts of the Pacific and Indian Oceans, instead. However, according to Commodore John Leech of the International Hydrographic Organization, recent oceanographic research has discovered the importance of Southern Circulation, the term Southern Ocean has been used to define the body of water which lies south of the northern limit of that circulation.
This remains the current official policy of the IHO, since a 2000 revision of its definitions including the Southern Ocean as the waters south of the 60th parallel has not yet been adopted. Others regard the seasonally-fluctuating Antarctic Convergence as the natural boundary; the maximum depth of the Southern Ocean, using the definition that it lies south of 60th parallel, was surveyed by the Five Deeps Expedition in early February 2019. The expedition's multibeam sonar team identified the deepest point at 60° 28' 46"S, 025° 32' 32"W, with a depth of 7,434 meters; the expedition leader and chief submersible pilot Victor Vescovo, has proposed naming this deepest point in the Southern Ocean the "Factorian Deep," based on the name of the manned submersible DSV Limiting Factor, in which he visited the bottom for the first time on February 3, 2019. Borders and names for oceans and seas were internationally agreed when the International Hydrographic Bureau, the precursor to the IHO, convened the First International Conference on 24 July 1919.
The IHO published these in its Limits of Oceans and Seas, the first edition being 1928. Since the first edition, the limits of the Southern Ocean have moved progressively southwards; the IHO included the ocean and its definition as the waters south of 60°S in its year 2000 revisions, but this has not been formally adopted, due to continuing impasses over other areas of the text, such as the naming dispute over the Sea of Japan. The 2000 IHO definition, was circulated in a draft edition in 2002 and is used by some within the IHO and by some other organizations such as the US Central Intelligence Agency and Merriam-Webster. Australian authorities regard the Southern Ocean as lying south of Australia; the National Geographic Society does not recognize the ocean, depicting it in a typeface different from the other world oceans. Map publishers using the term Southern Ocean on their maps include Hema GeoNova. "Southern Ocean" is an obsolete name for the Pacific Ocean or South Pacific, coined by Vasco Núñez de Balboa, the first European to discover it, who approached it from the north.
The "South Seas" is a less archaic synonym. A 1745 British Act of Parliament established a prize for discovering a Northwest Passage to "the Western and Southern Ocean of America". Authors using "Southern Ocean" to name the waters encircling the unknown southern polar regions used varying limits. James Cook's account of his second voyage implies. Peacock's 1795 Geographical Dictionary said it lay "to the southward of America and Africa"; the Family Magazine in 1835 divided the "Great Southern Ocean" into the "Southern Ocean" and the "Antarctick Ocean" along the Antarctic Circle, with the northern limit of the Southern Ocean being lines joining Cape Horn, the Cape of Good Hope, Van Diemen's Land and the south of New Zealand. The United Kingdom's South Australia Act 1834 described the waters forming the southern limit of the new colony of South Australia as "the Southern Ocean"; the Colony of Victoria's Legislative Council Act of 1881 delimited part of the division of Bairnsdale as "along the New South Wales boundary to the Southern ocean".
In the 1928 first edition of Limits of Oceans and Seas, the Southern Ocean was delineated by land-based limits: Antarctica to the south, South America, Africa and Broughton Island, New Zealand to the north. The detailed land-limits used were from Cape Horn in Chile eastwards to Cape Agulhas in Africa further eastwards to the southern coast of mainland Australia to Cape Leeuwin, Western Australia. From Cape Leeuwin, the limit followed eastwards along the coast of mainland Australia to Cape Otway, Victoria southwards across Bass Strait to Cape Wickham, King Island, along the west coast of King Island the remainder of the way south across Bass Strait to Cape Grim, Tasmania; the limit followed the west coast of Tasmania southwards to the South East Cape and went eastwards to Broughton Island, New Zealand, before returning to Cape Horn. The northern limits of the Southern Ocean were moved southwards in the IHO's 1937 second edition of the Limits of Oceans and Seas. From this edition, much of the ocean's northern limit ceased to abut land masses.
In the second edition, the Southern Ocean extended from Antarctica northwards to latitude 40°S between Cape Agulhas
Lambay, sometimes referred to as Lambay Island lies in the Irish Sea off the coast of north County Dublin in Ireland. It is four kilometres offshore from the headland at Portrane and is the easternmost point of the province of Leinster. Named places are Lamba in the Faroe Islands and Lamba in Shetland. Ptolemy's Geography described an island called Εδρου. PIE *sed- ‘to sit, settle’ had descendants in many languages, including Greek ἑδρα ‘sitting place’ whose many specific uses included ‘base for ships’. Lambay Island is the largest island off the east coast of Ireland and is about 2.5 square kilometres in size. Its highest point rises to 127 metres. There are steep cliffs on the northern and southern sides of the island, with a more low-lying western shore; the geology is dominated with shales and limestones. There streams. There is a private harbour on the western shore, there are a small number of buildings nearby including a bothy, coastguard cottages and a real tennis court. A small late 16th-century fort with battlemented gables incorporating a 15th-century blockhouse, on the island was transformed by Sir Edwin Lutyens into a romantic castle for the Hon. Cecil Baring, afterwards 3rd Lord Revelstoke.
Baring had been working in the USA. She married Baring, he bought the island for £5,250 in 1904 as a place to escape to with his beautiful young wife, Maude Louise Lorillard, the daughter of Pierre Lorillard, the first American to win The Derby. The story of their early life on the island inspired Julian Slade’s musical Free as Air. Lutyens made the old fort habitable and built a quadrangle of kitchens and extra bedrooms adjoining it, with roofs of grey Dutch pantiles sweeping down to the ground, he built a circular curtain wall or enceinte surrounding the castle and its garden, with an impressive bastioned gateway. Everything is of a silvery grey stone; the rooms in the castle have vaulted ceilings and stone fireplaces. According to the Revelstoke records on the island, Lambay Castle is the location where Michael Powell wrote his screenplay for Black Narcissus. Lutyens designed the approach from the harbour, with curved step-like terraces reminiscent of the now-vanished Ripetta in Rome and a series of ellipses, circles being a long-standing symbol of welcome and of wholeness.
Characteristically, having ascended those Baroque steps, one has to cross an open field to come to the curtain wall, the entrance gateway not being at first visible. Close to the harbour is the White House, a horse-shoe shaped house with high roofs and whitewashed walls, which Lutyens designed in the 1930s for Lord Revelstoke's daughters Daphne and Calypso and their families, while the castle and island were left to his only son Rupert Baring. On a small cliff-top near the White House is an old Catholic chapel, with a portico of tapering stone columns and a barrel vaulted ceiling. Inside are various religious symbols and artefacts made by members of the family, including the little stain-glass window; the island supports one of the largest and most important seabird colonies in Ireland, with over 50,000 common guillemots, 5,000 kittiwakes, 3,500 razorbills, 2,500 pairs of herring gulls, as well as smaller numbers of puffins, Manx shearwaters, greylag geese and many other species. Among the mammals of the island are Atlantic Great grey seals, which pup on the island itself.
There is a herd of farmed cattle on the island. Rockabill and Lambay islands are the best places in County Dublin to see harbour porpoises; the island is still owned by the Baring family trust. The medieval castle is the only Lutyens-designed home, together with the Liria Palace in Madrid, still in the occupation and ownership of the original family that commissioned it. Alex Baring is in occupation; the farm has accepted WWOOFers as volunteers in the past. The estate includes domestic extensions to the old Castle, a row of Coastguard cottages, the Bothy, the White House, a harbour and boathouse and a distinctive open-air real tennis court, the only one remaining in Ireland. There is the farm with cottages, the Chapel is located on an isolated promontory. All architecture was either renovated by Sir Edwin Lutyens. Due to its deep surrounding waters, the island attracts scuba divers and fishermen, as well as lobster-potters; the island is accessible by invitation only from Malahide Marina and Rogerstown Pier and Skerries Harbour all north of Dublin.
The island was important in the Neolithic period in Ireland as a ground stone axe quarrying and production site. Two outcrops of andesite, or Lambay porphyry as it is more known, were utilised; the quarry site is unusual in Ireland for being the only Neolithic stone axe quarry with evidence for all stages of production, from quarrying to
Ardnamurchan is a 50-square-mile peninsula in the ward management area of Lochaber, Scotland, noted for being unspoiled and undisturbed. Its remoteness is accentuated by the main access route being a single track road for much of its length; the most westerly point of mainland Great Britain, Corrachadh Mòr, is in Ardnamurchan. From 1930 to 1975 Ardnamurchan gave its name to a landward district of Argyll, which covered a much wider area, including the districts of Morvern and Ardgour. Speaking, Ardnamurchan covers only the peninsula beyond the villages of Salen and Acharacle, but nowadays the term is used more to include the neighbouring districts of Sunart, Ardgour and Moidart. Ardnamurchan Point, which has a 36-metre tall lighthouse built on it, is described as the most westerly point of the British mainland although Corrachadh Mòr, a kilometre to the south, is a few metres further west; the north western corner of Ardnamurchan consists of a lopolith, exposed at the surface. Evidence for such a structure can be identified from the phenocrysts in the rock exposures around the area of interest which show plagioclase crystals aligned towards the centre of the complex, an alignment caused by magmatic flow within a lopolith.
Small areas of lava that were ejected onto the surface are found in some parts of the peninsula, close in proximity to the inner edges of the area of interest. The sub-concentric rings of the geologic structure can be seen in satellite photographs and topographic maps, though they are less obvious on the ground. At least seven other similar complexes of the same tectonic episode exist along the west coast of Britain, these are popular sites for many university geological training courses. Adomnan of Iona records St Columba visiting the peninsula in the 6th century, gives the impression that it was settled by Irish Gaels at that time, he records three instances of signs performed by Columba on the peninsula. Adomnan records in one instance that Columba prophesied to his companions the death of Kings Báetán mac Muirchertaig and Eochaid mac Domnaill before news arrived the same day at a place called'paradise bay' to tell them the news. In the second instance, said to have occurred in an unnamed rocky spot in the interior, the parents of a boy brought their child to Columba to be baptized but no water could be found, Columba prayed to God and water miraculously came out of a nearby rock and he prophesied that the child would live a sinful life and be a saint.
In the third instance, which took place at a spot Adomnan called'Sharp bay', there was a wicked man named Ioan mac Conaill maic Domnaill, related to the Cenél nGabraín, this man attacked Columba's friend and plundered his goods. Columba met this wicked man and called on him to repent, but he didn't listen and instead boarded his boat with the stolen goods. Columba followed the boat, wading into the water up to his knees and prayed to God, he prophesied to his companions that this man and his boat were going to meet with disaster on the sea, according to Adomnan, the boat was sunk before reaching land with Ioan drowning at sea along with his stolen goods. Donaldson identifies "Buarblaig" with Muribulg, where the Annals of Tigernach record a battle between the Picts and the Dalriads in 731, it may be the'Muirbole Paradisi' mentioned by Adomnán. Although its stone foundations still remain, the village of Bourblaige no longer exists, as it was destroyed in the Highland Clearances in the early 19th century.
According to early twentieth-century tradition in Ardnamurchan, two battles were fought in the bays between Gortenfern and Sgeir a' Chaolais. Archaeological finds in the vicinity of Cul na Croise —a bay between Sgeir a Chaolais and Sgeir nam Meann—consist of spears, arrow-heads, a coin dating to the reign of Edward I, King of England; these artefacts could indicate that Cul na Croise was the site of conflict fought in the context of the strife between Edward I's representative, Alasdair Óg Mac Domhnaill, the Clann Ruaidhrí brothers, Lachlann Mac Ruaidhrí and Ruaidhrí Mac Ruaidhrí. According to tradition, one of the battles fought in the area concerned a certain "Red Rover", another fought nearby concerned an Irishman named "Duing" or "Dewing". Relics of a Viking ship burial in Cul na Croise have been given to the West Highland Museum at Fort William. In 2011, a Viking ship burial from the 10th century, was unearthed at Port an Eilean Mhòir on Ardnamurchan. Grave goods buried alongside a Viking warrior found in the boat suggest he was a high-ranking warrior.
The Ardnamurchan Viking was found buried with an axe, a sword with a decorated hilt, a spear, a shield boss and a bronze ring pin. Other finds in the 5 metres long grave in Ardnamurchan included a knife, what could be the tip of a bronze drinking horn, a whetstone from Norway, a ring pin from Ireland and Viking Age pottery; the population of the whole peninsula is around 2000. Part of the former county of Argyll, it is now part of the Lochaber ward management area of the Highland local authority. Villages in Ardnamurchan: Acharacle Achnaha Glenborrodale Kilchoan Kilmory Laga Ockle Portuairk Salen Sa