The Coţofeni culture was an Early Bronze Age archaeological culture that existed between 3500 and 2500 BC in the mid-Danube area of south-eastern Central Europe. The first report of a Coţofeni find. Schuster in 1865 from the Râpa Roşie site in Sebeş. Since this culture has been studied by a number of people to varying degrees; some of the more prominent contributors to the study of this culture include C. Gooss, K. Benkő, B. Orbán, G. Téglas, K. Herepey, S. Fenichel, Julius Teutsch, Cezar Bolliac, V. Christescu, Teohari Antonescu, Cristian Popa; the Coţofeni culture area can be seen from two perspectives, as a fluctuation zone, or in its maximum area of extent. This covers present day Maramureş, some areas in Sătmar, the mountainous and hilly areas of Crişana, Banat, Oltenia and across the Danube in present-day eastern Serbia and northwestern Bulgaria. Bronze Age in Romania Unfortunately, most of the Coţofeni culture chronology is based on just three samples collected at three different Coţofeni sites.
Based on these radiocarbon dates, this culture can be placed between 3500 and 2500 BC. Cultural synchronisms have been established based on mutual trade relations as well as stratigraphic observations. There is an evident synchronicity between: Coţofeni I - Cernavoda III - Baden A - Spherical Amphorae. During the evolution of the Coţofeni culture, there were relationships with other neighbouring cultures; the influence between the Coţofeni and their neighbours the Baden, Kostolac, Vučedol, Globular Amphora culture as well as the Ochre Burial populations was reciprocal. The areas bordering these cultures show cultural traits that have mixed aspects, for example Coţofeni-Baden and Coţofeni-Kostolac finds; these finds of mixed aspects suggest a cohabitation between related populations. It supports the idea of well established trade between cultures. Bronze Age in Romania Basarabi culture Otomani culture Pecica culture Wietenberg culture Prehistory of Transylvania Prehistoric Romania J. P. Mallory, "Usatavo Culture", Encyclopedia of Indo-European Culture, Fitzroy Dearborn, 1997
The Neolithic, the final division of the Stone Age, began about 12,000 years ago when the first development of farming appeared in the Epipalaeolithic Near East, in other parts of the world. The division lasted until the transitional period of the Chalcolithic from about 6,500 years ago, marked by the development of metallurgy, leading up to the Bronze Age and Iron Age. In Northern Europe, the Neolithic lasted until about 1700 BC, while in China it extended until 1200 BC. Other parts of the world remained broadly in the Neolithic stage of development, although this term may not be used, until European contact; the Neolithic comprises a progression of behavioral and cultural characteristics and changes, including the use of wild and domestic crops and of domesticated animals. The term Neolithic derives from the Greek νέος néos, "new" and λίθος líthos, "stone" meaning "New Stone Age"; the term was coined by Sir John Lubbock in 1865 as a refinement of the three-age system. Following the ASPRO chronology, the Neolithic started in around 10,200 BC in the Levant, arising from the Natufian culture, when pioneering use of wild cereals evolved into early farming.
The Natufian period or "proto-Neolithic" lasted from 12,500 to 9,500 BC, is taken to overlap with the Pre-Pottery Neolithic of 10,200–8800 BC. As the Natufians had become dependent on wild cereals in their diet, a sedentary way of life had begun among them, the climatic changes associated with the Younger Dryas are thought to have forced people to develop farming. By 10,200–8800 BC farming communities had arisen in the Levant and spread to Asia Minor, North Africa and North Mesopotamia. Mesopotamia is the site of the earliest developments of the Neolithic Revolution from around 10,000 BC. Early Neolithic farming was limited to a narrow range of plants, both wild and domesticated, which included einkorn wheat and spelt, the keeping of dogs and goats. By about 6900–6400 BC, it included domesticated cattle and pigs, the establishment of permanently or seasonally inhabited settlements, the use of pottery. Not all of these cultural elements characteristic of the Neolithic appeared everywhere in the same order: the earliest farming societies in the Near East did not use pottery.
In other parts of the world, such as Africa, South Asia and Southeast Asia, independent domestication events led to their own regionally distinctive Neolithic cultures, which arose independently of those in Europe and Southwest Asia. Early Japanese societies and other East Asian cultures used pottery before developing agriculture. In the Middle East, cultures identified as Neolithic began appearing in the 10th millennium BC. Early development occurred from there spread eastwards and westwards. Neolithic cultures are attested in southeastern Anatolia and northern Mesopotamia by around 8000 BC; the prehistoric Beifudi site near Yixian in Hebei Province, contains relics of a culture contemporaneous with the Cishan and Xinglongwa cultures of about 6000–5000 BC, neolithic cultures east of the Taihang Mountains, filling in an archaeological gap between the two Northern Chinese cultures. The total excavated area is more than 1,200 square yards, the collection of neolithic findings at the site encompasses two phases.
The Neolithic 1 period began around 10,000 BC in the Levant. A temple area in southeastern Turkey at Göbekli Tepe, dated to around 9500 BC, may be regarded as the beginning of the period; this site was developed by nomadic hunter-gatherer tribes, as evidenced by the lack of permanent housing in the vicinity, may be the oldest known human-made place of worship. At least seven stone circles, covering 25 acres, contain limestone pillars carved with animals and birds. Stone tools were used by as many as hundreds of people to create the pillars, which might have supported roofs. Other early PPNA sites dating to around 9500–9000 BC have been found in Jericho, West Bank, Gilgal in the Jordan Valley, Byblos, Lebanon; the start of Neolithic 1 overlaps the Heavy Neolithic periods to some degree. The major advance of Neolithic 1 was true farming. In the proto-Neolithic Natufian cultures, wild cereals were harvested, early seed selection and re-seeding occurred; the grain was ground into flour. Emmer wheat was domesticated, animals were herded and domesticated.
In 2006, remains of figs were discovered in a house in Jericho dated to 9400 BC. The figs are of a mutant variety that cannot be pollinated by insects, therefore the trees can only reproduce from cuttings; this evidence suggests that figs were the first cultivated crop and mark the invention of the technology of farming. This occurred centuries before the first cultivation of grains. Settlements became more permanent, with circular houses, much like those of the Natufians, with single rooms. However, these houses were for the first time made of mudbrick; the settlement had a surrounding stone wall and a stone tower. The wall served as protection from nearby groups, as protection from floods, or to keep animals penned; some of the enclosures suggest grain and meat storage. The Neolithic 2 began around 8800 BC according to the ASPRO chronology in the Levant; as with the PPNA dates, there are two versions from the same laboratories noted above. This system of terminology, however, is not convenient for southeast Anatolia and settlements of the middle Anatolia basin.
A settlement of 3,000 inhabitants was found in th
3rd millennium BC
The 3rd millennium BC spanned the years 3000 through 2001 BC. This period of time corresponds to the Early to Middle Bronze Age, characterized by the early empires in the Ancient Near East. In Ancient Egypt, the Early Dynastic Period is followed by the Old Kingdom. In Mesopotamia, the Early Dynastic Period is followed by the Akkadian Empire. World population growth relaxes after the burst due to the Neolithic Revolution. World population is stable, at 60 million, with a slow overall growth rate at 0.03% p.a. The Bronze Age occurred between 3000 BC and 2500 BC; the previous millennium had seen the emergence of advanced, urbanized civilizations, new bronze metallurgy extending the productivity of agricultural work, developed ways of communication in the form of writing. In the 3rd millennium BC, the growth of these riches, both intellectually and physically, became a source of contention on a political stage, rulers sought the accumulation of more wealth and more power. Along with this came the first appearances of mega architecture, organized absolutism and internal revolution.
The civilizations of Sumer and Akkad in Mesopotamia became a collection of volatile city-states in which warfare was common. Uninterrupted conflicts drained all available resources and populations. In this millennium, larger empires succeeded the last, conquerors grew in stature until the great Sargon of Akkad pushed his empire to the whole of Mesopotamia and beyond, it would not be surpassed in size until Assyrian times 1,500 years later. In the Old Kingdom of Egypt, the Egyptian pyramids were constructed and would remain the tallest and largest human constructions for thousands of years. In Egypt, pharaohs began to posture themselves as living gods made of an essence different from that of other human beings. In Europe, still neolithic during the same period, the builders of megaliths were constructing giant monuments of their own. In the Near East and the Occident during the 3rd millennium BC, limits were being pushed by architects and rulers. Towards the close of the millennium, Egypt became the stage of the first popular revolution recorded in history.
After lengthy wars, the Sumerians recognized the benefits of unification into a stable form of national government and became a peaceful, well-organized, complex technocratic state called the 3rd dynasty of Ur. This dynasty was to become involved with a wave of nomadic invaders known as the Amorites, who were to play a major role in the region during the following centuries. Near East c. 2900–2350 BC: Early Dynastic Period c. 2334–2154 BC: Akkadian Empire 3100–2686 BC: Early Dynastic Period c. 2700 BC–1600 BC: Old Elamite period. 2686–2181 BC Old Kingdom of Egypt 2181–2055 BC First Intermediate Period of Egypt c. 3000 BC: Nubian A-Group Culture comes to an end. C. 2300 BC: Nubian C-Group culture. Europe c. 3200 BC: Cycladic culture in Aegean islands of Greece. C. 3200 BC–3100 BC: Helladic culture in mainland Greece. C. 3200 BC–2800 BC: Ozieri culture. Corded Ware culture. Late Maikop culture. Late Vinca culture. Globular Amphora culture. Early Beaker culture. Yamnaya culture, Catacomb culture loci of Indo-European Satemization.
The Sintashta-Petrovka-Arkaim culture emerges from the Catacomb culture from about 2200 BC locus of Proto-Indo-Iranian. Butmir culture. Late Funnelbeaker culture. Baden culture. Gaudo culture. South Asia2800 BC–2600 BC: Harappan 2. 2600 BC–1900 BC: Harappan 3. East and Southeast AsiaLongshan culture Baodun culture Shijiahe culture Liangzhu culture Majiayao culture Lower Xiajiadian culture c. 2500 BC: Austronesian peoples from Formosa colonize Luzon in northern Philippines. AmericasMesoamerican Archaic period Old Copper Complex Norte Chico civilization. Sub-Saharan AfricaSavanna Pastoral Neolithic Elmenteitan Certain 4th millennium BC events were precursors to the 3rd millennium BC: c. 3700 BC: Lothal: Indus Valley trade-port city in India. C. 3650 BC–3000 BC: Minoan culture appeared on Crete. C. 3200 BC/3100 BC: Helladic culture and Cycladic culture both emerge in Greece. The 3rd millennium BC included the following key events: c. 3000 BC: Unification of Upper and Lower Egypt. C. 3000 BC: First evidence of gold being used in the Middle East.
C. 3000 BC: Nubian A-Group, Ta-Seeti "kingdom" came to an end due to raids by Egypt. C. 3000 BC–2000 BC: Vessels from Denmark are made. C. 2890 BC: Second Dynasty of Egypt, reign of Hotepsekhemwy. Syria: Foundation of the city of Mari. Semitic tribes occupy Assyria in northern part of the plain of Akkad. Phoenicians settle with centers at Tyre and Sidon. Beginning of the period of the mythical Sage Kings in China known as the Three Sovereigns and Five Emperors. C. 2879 BC: Rise of the mythical Văn Lang Kingdom and the Hồng Bàng Dynasty in northern Viet Nam. C. 2800 BC–2700 BC: Harp Player, from Keros, was made. It is now at the Metropolitan Museum of New York. Iran: Creation of the Kingdom of Elam. Germination of the Bristlecone pine tree "Methuselah" about 2700 BC, one of the oldest known trees still living now. C. 2686 BC: Third Dynasty of Egypt, reign of Sanakhte. C. 2613 BC: Fourth Dynasty of Egypt, reign of Sneferu. C. 2600 BC: Founding of the Chalcolithic Iberian civilizations of Los Millares and Zambujal.
2600 BC: Unified Indus Valley Civilisation. C. 2500 BC: The state of Assyria is established. C. 2500 BC: Excavation and development of the Hypogeum of Ħal-Saflieni at Paola, Malta, a subterranean temple complex subsequently used as a necropolis. C. 2500 BC–2200 BC: Incised panel "Frying pan", from Syros, Cyclades is made.
The Badarian culture provides the earliest direct evidence of agriculture in Upper Egypt during the Predynastic Era. It flourished between 4400 and 4000 BCE, might have emerged by 5000 BCE, it was first identified in Asyut Governorate. About forty settlements and six hundred graves have been located. Social stratification has been inferred from the burying of more prosperous members of the community in a different part of the cemetery; the Badarian economy was based on agriculture and animal husbandry. Tools included end-scrapers, axes, bifacial sickles and concave-base arrowheads. Remains of cattle and sheep were found in the cemeteries. Wheat, barley and tubers were consumed; the Badari culture is known from cemeteries in the low desert. The deceased were placed on mats and buried in pits with their heads laid to the south, looking west; this seems contiguous with the dynastic traditions regarding the west as the land of the dead. The pottery, buried with them is the most characteristic element of the Badarian culture.
It had been given a decorative rippled surface. Badari culture is so named because of its discovery at El-Badari, an area in the Asyut Governorate in Upper Egypt, it is located between Matmar and Qau 200 km northwest of present-day Luxor. El-Badari includes numerous Predynastic cemeteries, as well as at least one early Predynastic settlement at Hammamia; the area stretches for 30 km along the east bank of the Nile. It was first excavated by Guy Brunton and Gertrude Caton-Thompson between 1922 and 1931. Most of the local cemeteries have yielded distinctive pottery vessels, as well as terracotta and ivory anthropomorphic figures, slate palettes, stone vases and flint tools; the contents of Predynastic cemeteries at el-Badari have been subjected to a number of analyses attempting to clarify the chronology and social history of the Badarian period. Populations in the Badari culture planted wheat and barley, kept cattle and goats, they used boomerangs, hunted gazelle. Little is known of their buildings, although remains of wooden stumps have been found at one site and may have been associated with a hut or shelter of unknown construction.
Pits that have been found may have served as granaries. Some Badarian sites show evidence of predynastic use; the Badarians discovered. They wore jewelry made of ivory and quartz. Amulets in the shape of animals such as the antelope and hippopotamus have been found. Badarian grave goods were simple and the deceased wrapped in reed matting or animal skins and placed with personal items such as shells or stone beads. Green malachite ore used for personal decoration, has been detected on stone palettes, their dead were buried facing west, sometimes accompanied by female mortuary figures carved from ivory. Basalt vases found at Badari sites were most traded up the river from the Delta region or from the northwest. Shells came in quantities from the Red Sea. Turquoise came from Sinai. A Syrian connection is suggested for a four-handled pot of hard pink ware; the black pottery, with white incised designs, may have come directly from the West, or from the South. The porphyry slabs are like the ones in Nubia, but the material could have come from the Red Sea Mountains.
The glazed steatite beads were not made locally. These all suggest that the Badarians were not an isolated tribe, but were in contact with the cultures on all sides of them. Nor were they nomadic, having pots of such size and fragility that would have been unsuitable for use by wanderers; the Badarian culture seems to have had multiple sources, of which the Western Desert was the most influential. Badari culture was not to have been restricted to the Badari region since related finds have been made farther to the south at Mahgar Dendera, Armant and Nekhen, as well as to the east in the Wadi Hammamat. Dental trait analysis of Badarian fossils found that they were related to other Afroasiatic-speaking populations inhabiting Northeast Africa and the Maghreb. Among the ancient populations, the Badarians were nearest to other ancient Egyptians, C-Group and Pharaonic era skeletons excavated in Lower Nubia, followed by the A-Group culture bearers of Lower Nubia, the Kerma and Kush populations in Upper Nubia, the Meroitic, X-Group and Christian period inhabitants of Lower Nubia, the Kellis population in the Dakhla Oasis.
Among the recent groups, the Badari makers were morphologically closest to the Shawia and Kabyle Berber populations of Algeria as well as Bedouin groups in Morocco and Tunisia, followed by other Afroasiatic-speaking populations in the Horn of Africa. The Badarian skeletons and these ancient and recent fossils were phenotypically distinct from those belonging to some other populations in Sub-Saharan Africa. Merimde culture Tasian culture Badarian Art Badarian figurines in the British Museum Badarian Government and Religious Evolution The Journal of African History
The Subboreal is a climatic period before the present one, of the Holocene. It lasted from 3710 to 450 BCE; the composite scientific term Subboreal, meaning "below the Boreal," is derived from the Latin sub and the Greek Βορέας, from Boreas, the god of the North Wind. The word was first introduced in 1889 by Rutger Sernander to distinguish it from Axel Blytt's Boreal, established in 1876; the Subboreal was followed by the Subatlantic. The Subboreal is equivalent to W. H. Zagwijn's pollen zones IVa and IVb and T. Litt's pollen zone VIII. In the pollen scheme of Fritz Theodor Overbeck, it occupies pollen zone X. In paleoclimatology, it is divided into a Younger Subboreal; the Subboreal is equivalent to most of the Neolithic and the entire Bronze Age, which started 4200 to 3800 years ago. The Subboreal is defined as 3710 to 5660 years BP; the lower limit is flexible, as some authors prefer to use 4400 BCE, or 6350 BP in northwestern Poland 4830 BC, or 6780 BP, And others use 5000 calendar years, or 3050 BCE.
The upper limit of the Subboreal and, therefore the beginning of the Subatlantic, is flexible and can be attributed to 1170 to 830 BCE, but it is fixed at 450 BCE. In varve years, the Subboreal corrsponds to 5660 to 2750 years BP; the boundary between the older and the younger Subboreal is considered to be 1350 BCE. The climate was dryer and cooler than in the preceding Atlantic but still warmer than today; the temperatures were 0.7 °C higher than during the following Subatlantic. In Scandinavia the lower limit of glaciers was 100 to 200 m higher than during the Subatlantic. On the whole, the oscillating temperatures receded in the course of the Subboreal by about 0.3 °C. In the Aegean, the beginning of the Subboreal was marked by a pronounced drought, centered around 5600 years BP. Of far greater importance as the coming to an end of the African Humid Period, reflected in the lakes of subtropical Africa experiencing a rapid fall in their water levels. During the interval 6200 to 5000 years BP, drier conditions were in southern Mesopotamia, causing great demographic changes and instigating the end of Uruk.
In Germany, a drastic climatic cooling can be observed around 5000 varve years BP in the maars of the Eifel. In the preceding interval lasting from 8200 till 5000 varve years, the July temperatures were on average still 1 °C higher. At the same time, the January temperatures were rising and the yearly precipitation increased. In Northern Africa and in the Near East, the interval from 4700 to 4100 years BP had renewed and lasting dry conditions, as is indicated by lake level minima. Between 4500 and 4100 years BP, monsoonal precipitations weakened, a possible cause for the upheavals that led to the end of the Old Kingdom of Egypt; the Levant shows a similar climatic evolution. The dry conditions prevailing in Mesopotamia around 4200 years BP resulted in the downfall of the Akkadian Empire. Levels of carbon dioxide had reached beginning of the Subboreal its Holocene minimal value of 260 ppm. During the Subboreal, it reached 293 ppm at the end of the period; as a comparison, today's value is over 400 ppm.
In Scandinavia, the Atlantic/Subboreal boundary shows a distinct vegetational change. Tat is less pronounced in Western Europe, but its typical mixed oak forest shows quite a fast decline in elm and linden; the decline in linden is not understood. The decline in elm is most due to elm disease, caused by the ascomycete Ceratocystis ulmi, but climatic changes and anthropogenic pressure on the forests must be considered as well; the decline in elm, with a recession from 20 to 4%, as observed in Eifel maar pollen, has been dated in Central and Northern Europe as 4000 years BC, but it more was diachronous over the interval 4350 to 3780 BC. Another important event was the immigration of European beech and hornbeam from their retreats on the Balkan and south of the Apennines; this happened diachronously: beech pollen are found for the first time in the interval 4340 to 3540 BC, hornbeam pollen somewhat between 3400 and 2900 BC. With the start of the Younger Subboreal is the massive spreading of beech.
The establishment of beech and hornbeam was accompanied by indicator plants for human settlements and agriculture like cereals and plantain, hazel was receding. The relatively-dry climate during the subboreal furthered the spreading of heath plants. Like in the Atlantic, the global sea level kept on rising during the Subboreal but at a much slower rate; the increase amounted to about 1 m. At the end of the Subboreal, the sea level was about 1 m below the current value. In the Baltic the Litorina Sea had established itself before the onset of the Subboreal. During the Older Subboreal the second Litorina transgression raised the sea level to 1 m below the actual value. After an intermediate Post-litorine Regression the third Litorina transgression reached 60 cm below present and during the beginning Subatlantic, it reached today's value. In the North Sea region, the Flandrian transgression of the Atlantic was followed by a slight regression or standstill at the beginning of the Subboreal
The Yarmukian culture was a Neolithic culture of the ancient Levant. It was the first culture in prehistoric Israel and one of the oldest in the Levant to make use of pottery; the Yarmukian derives its name from the Yarmouk River, which flows near its type site at Sha'ar HaGolan, a kibbutz at the foot of the Golan Heights. The first Yarmukian settlement was unearthed at Megiddo during the 1930s, but was not identified as a distinct Neolithic culture at the time. At Sha'ar HaGolan, in 1949, professor Moshe Stekelis first identified the Yarmukian culture, a Pottery Neolithic culture that inhabited parts of Israel and Jordan; the site, dated to ca. 6400 -- 6000 BC, is located on the northern bank of the Yarmouk River. Its size is around 20 hectares. Although other Yarmukian sites have been identified since, Sha'ar HaGolan is the largest indicating its role as the Yarmukian center; the site was excavated by two teams from the Hebrew University of Jerusalem: one led by Stekelis, the other by Yosef Garfinkel.
While during the earlier excavations no architecture was found, the second expedition uncovered large courtyard houses, ranging between 250 and 700 m² in area. The courtyard house makes its first appearance at Sha'ar HaGolan, giving the site a special significance in architectural history; this is an architectural concept still found among traditional Mediterranean societies. Monumental construction on this scale is unknown elsewhere during this period; the houses consist of a central courtyard surrounded by several small rooms. The houses were separated by streets; the dig uncovered a central street about 3 m wide, paved with pebbles set in mud, a narrow winding alley 1 m wide. These are the earliest streets discovered among the earliest streets built by man. A 4.15 m well dug to the local water table. Exotic objects discovered during the excavations include sea shells from the Mediterranean, polished stone vessels made of alabaster, blades made from obsidian from Turkey; the presence of obsidian points to trade connections extending over 700 km.
The greatest technological innovation of the Sha'ar HaGolan Neolithic was the manufacture of pottery. This industry, which appears here for the first time in Israel, gives this cultural stage its name of Pottery Neolithic; the pottery vessels were put to various domestic uses. At the site of'Ain Ghazal, located along the banks of the Zarqa River near Amman, the early Pottery Neolithic period is dated from 6,400 to 5,000 BC. About 300 art objects were found at Sha'ar HaGolan, making it the main center of prehistoric art in Israel and one of the most important in the world. One of the houses yielded 70 figurines made of stone or fired clay. No other single building of the Neolithic period has yielded that many prehistoric figurines. Among the outstanding art objects from Sha'ar HaGolan are figurines in human form made of fired clay or carved on pebbles; the overwhelming majority are female images, interpreted as representing a goddess. The clay figurines are extravagant in their detail, giving them a surrealistic appearance, while the pebble figurines are minimalist and abstract in form.
The members of Kibbutz Sha'ar HaGolan have built a museum that exhibits the finds from the nearby site. Because of the unique artistic quality of the figurines from Sha'ar Hagolan, both the Metropolitan Museum of New York and the Louvre Museum in Paris have mounted ten-year exhibits of objects from the site. In Israel, figurines are exhibited at the Israel Museum in Jerusalem. Besides the site at Sha'ar HaGolan, 20 other Yarmukian sites have been identified in Israel and Lebanon; these include: Tel Megiddo Tel Kabri Ain Ghazal Munhata Tel Qashish Hamadia Ain Rahub Abu Tawwab Byblos Although the Yarmukian culture occupied limited regions of northern Israel and northern Jordan, Yarmukian pottery has been found elsewhere in the region, including the Habashan Street excavations in Tel-Aviv and as far north as Byblos, Lebanon. Stekelis M. 1972. The Yarmukian Culture. Jerusalem: Magnes Press. Garfinkel Y. 1993. The Yarmukian Culture in Israel. Paleorient, Vol 19, No. 1, pp. 115 – 134. Garfinkel Y. 1999.
The Yarmukians, Neolithic Art from Sha'ar Hagolan. Jerusalem: Bible Lands Museum. Garfinkel Y. and Miller M. 2002. Sha'ar Hagolan Vol 1. Neolithic Art in Context. Oxford: Oxbow. Garfinkel Y. 2004. The Goddess of Sha'ar Hagolan. Excavations at a Neolithic Site in Israel. Jerusalem: Israel Exploration Society. Garfinkel Y. and Ben Shlomo D. In press. Sha'ar Hagolan Vol. 2. Qedem. Jerusalem: Institute of Archaeology, Hebrew University. Garfinkel Y. Vered A. and Bar-Yosef O. 2006. The Domestication of Water: The Neolithic Well of Sha'ar Hagolan, Jordan Valley, Israel. Antiquity 80: 686–696. Obaidat Daifallah 1995. "Die neolithische Keramik aus Abu Thawwab/Jordanien". Berlin, ex Oriente
The Hamangia culture is a Late Neolithic archaeological culture of Dobruja between the Danube and the Black Sea and Muntenia in the south. It is named after the site of Baia-Hamangia, discovered in 1952 along Golovița Lake; the Hamangia culture began around 5250/5200 BC and lasted until around 4550/4500 BC. It was absorbed by the expanding Boian culture in its transition towards the Gumelniţa, its cultural links with Anatolia suggest that it was the result of a settlement by people from Anatolia, unlike the neighbouring cultures, which appear descended from earlier Neolithic settlement. The Hamangia culture attracted and attracts the attention of many art historians because of its exceptional clay figures. Painted vessels with complex geometrical patterns based on spiral-motifs are typical; the shapes include: cylindric glasses. They are decorated with dots, staight parallel lines and zig-zags, which make Hamangia pottery original. Pottery figurines are extremely stylized and show standing naked faceless women with emphasized breasts and buttocks.
Two figurines known as "The Thinker" and "The Sitting woman" are considered masterpieces of Neolithic art. Settlements consist of rectangular houses with one or two rooms, built of wattle and daub, sometimes with stone foundations, they are arranged on a rectangular grid and may form small tells. Settlements are located along the coast, at the coast of lakes, on the lower and middle river-terraces, sometimes in caves. Crouched or extended inhumation in cemeteries. Grave-goods tend to be without pottery in Hamangia I. Grave-goods include flint, worked shells, bone tools and shell-ornaments; the Durankulak lake settlement commenced on a small island 7000 BC and around 4700/4600 BC the stone architecture was in general use and became a characteristic phenomenon, unique in Europe. Cernavodă, the necropolis where the famous statues “The Thinker” and “The Sitting Woman” were discovered The eponymous site of Baia-Hamangia, discovered in 1953 along Lake Golovița, close to the Black Sea coast, in the Romanian province of Dobrogea.
Cycladic art Varna culture Vinča culture Cucuteni-Trypillia culture Old Europe History of Bulgaria Prehistoric Romania Prehistoric art List of Stone Age art Media related to Hamangia culture at Wikimedia Commons