A small government is a principle invoked by New Right conservatives and libertarians to describe an economic and political system where there is minimal government involvement in certain areas of public policy or the private sector matters considered to be private or personal. It is an important topic in classical liberalism and some schools of conservatism and libertarianism, but it is challenged by supporters of big government. Originating from classical liberal thought during the Enlightenment, it has been a popular concept in conservative parties of countries such as Australia, Hong Kong, New Zealand, the United Kingdom and the United States. However, what specific policies should be adopted to advance the objective of small government and how they are to be applied is subject to considerable debate. In Australian politics, the Labor Party has traditionally been perceived as the party of big government while the Liberal Party as the party of small government. Of the 34 advanced economies, Australia's revenue is the ninth-lowest and spending the seventh-lowest.
In 1993, former Prime Minister of Denmark Anders Fogh Rasmussen wrote the book From Social State to Minimal State in which he advocated an extensive reform of the Danish welfare system along classical liberal lines. In particular, he favors lower taxes and less government interference in corporate and individual matters. However, Rasmussen has since repudiated many of the views expressed in the book, moving towards the centre-right and adopting environmentalism. Hong Kong has followed small government, laissez-faire policies for decades, limiting government intervention in business. Milton Friedman described Hong Kong as a laissez-faire state and credits that policy for the rapid move from poverty to prosperity in fifty years. However, some argue that since Hong Kong was a British colony and Britain was not a free market, Hong Kong's success was not due to laissez-faire policies. A 1994 World Bank Group report stated that Hong Kong's GDP per capita grew in real terms at an annual rate of 6.5% from 1965 to 1989, a consistent growth percentage over a span of twenty-five years.
By 1990, Hong Kong's per capita income surpassed that of the ruling United Kingdom. Since 1995, Hong Kong has been ranked as having the world's most liberal capital markets by The Heritage Foundation and The Wall Street Journal; the Fraser Institute concurred in 2007. After financial reforms beginning in 1984—first Rogernomics and Ruthanasia—successive governments transformed New Zealand from a regulated economy to a liberalized free market economy; the New Zealand Government sold its telecommunications company, railway network, a number of radio stations and two financial institutions. These reforms were implemented by the Labour Party which has since reverted to its social democratic and interventionist outlook whereas the centre-right New Zealand National Party has taken up the cause of small government and continues to promote private enterprise, low taxation, reduced spending on social welfare and overall limited state interference; as a result, small government is associated with conservatism in contemporary New Zealand politics.
The idea of small government was promoted in the United Kingdom by the Conservative government under the premiership of Margaret Thatcher. There are differing views on the extent, it allowed the stock markets and industries to compete more with each other and made British goods more valued in world trade. An important part of the Margaret Thatcher government's policy was privatisation, intended to reduce the role of the state in the economy and allow industries to act without government interference. Supporters blamed excessive government intervention for much of Britain's economic woes during the late 1960s and 1970s. Opponents argue; this argument is heard in connection with the railways and the National Health Service. Small government supporters, such as the British author and journalist James Bartholomew, point out that although record amounts of funding have gone into social security, public education, council housing and the NHS, it has been detrimental to the people it was intended to help and does not represent value for investment.
In the 20th century, small government was associated with the Conservative Party and big government with the Labour Party. In addition to opposing government intervention in the economy, advocates of small government oppose government intervention in people's personal lives; the Labour government during the premiership of Tony Blair was criticized on this score, e.g. by giving unwanted advice about eating and smoking. This has been dubbed as the nanny state. At the time the nation was founded, there was disagreement between the Federalists who supported a strong federal government. In The Federalist Papers, Alexander Hamilton, James Madison and John Jay explained why a strong federal government was necessary. Hamilton wrote: Not to confer in each case a degree of power commensurate to the end would be to violate the most obvious rules of prudence and propriety, improvidently to trust the great interests of the nation to hands which are disabled from managing them with vigor and success. President Thomas Jefferson said: wise and frugal Government, which shall restrain men from injuring one another, shall leave them otherwise free to regulate their own pursuits of industry and improvement, shall not take from the mouth of labor the bread it has earned.
No. 79 Squadron is a Royal Australian Air Force flight training unit, formed on four occasions since 1943. The squadron was established in May 1943 as a fighter unit equipped with Supermarine Spitfires, subsequently saw combat in the South West Pacific theatre of World War II. Between June 1943 and the end of the war in August 1945 it flew air defence patrols to protect Allied bases and ships, escorted Australian and United States aircraft, attacked Japanese positions; the squadron was disbanded in November 1945, but was re-formed between 1962 and 1968 to operate CAC Sabres from Ubon Air Base in Thailand. In this role it contributed to the defence of Thailand against a feared attack from its neighbouring states and exercised with United States Air Force units. No. 79 Squadron was active again at RAAF Base Butterworth in Malaysia between 1986 and 1988 where it operated Mirage III fighters and a single DHC-4 Caribou transport during the period in which the RAAF's fighter squadrons were transitioning to new aircraft.
The squadron was re-formed in its present incarnation during 1998 and is stationed at RAAF Base Pearce, where it has operated Hawk 127 jet training aircraft since 2000. The unit's main role is to provide introductory jet aircraft training to RAAF pilots as well as refresher training on the Hawk for experienced pilots. No. 79 Squadron supports Australian Army and Royal Australian Navy training exercises in Western Australia and the Northern Territory. No. 79 Squadron was formed at RAAF Station Laverton in Victoria on 26 April 1943 under the command of flying ace Squadron Leader Alan Rawlinson. The squadron's intended role was to use Spitfire Vc fighters to provide'high cover' escort for the RAAF's P-40 Kittyhawk-equipped units which were engaging Japanese forces in the New Guinea Campaign; this requirement was considered urgent, the Chief of the Air Staff, Air Vice Marshal George Jones, directed that No. 79 Squadron receive priority for the RAAF's limited stock of Spitfires. The squadron moved to Wooloomanata Aerodrome several days after it was formed, received its first Spitfires on 3 May.
While at Wooloomanata No. 79 Squadron undertook training exercises to prepare for combat. The allocation of 24 Spitfires to the squadron led to No. 1 Wing RAAF, stationed near Darwin and responsible for protecting the town against air attack, to suffer a shortage of these aircraft during June and July. No. 79 Squadron began moving to Goodenough Island in the war zone off the north coast of Papua in mid-May 1943. Its advance party departed Wooloomanata on 17 May, followed by the pilots on 4 June; the main body of ground crew sailed from Sydney on 7 June. The squadron suffered its first fatality on 13 June, when Flight Lieutenant Virgil Brennan—an experienced fighter pilot who had shot down 10 Axis aircraft over Malta—died from wounds incurred when his Spitfire collided with another while they were landing at Cairns. During the unit's transit to Goodenough Island, No. 79 Squadron Spitfires were scrambled from Gurney Airfield at Milne Bay on several occasions between 19 and 25 June to intercept Japanese reconnaissance aircraft, but did not damage these intruders.
The squadron completed its movement to Goodenough Island on 26 June and began flying air defence sorties from there as part of No. 73 Wing. It did not intercept any Japanese aircraft while operating from this base, however; the squadron moved to Kirwina Airfield on Kiriwina between 9 and 18 August, from where it operated alongside the P-40 Kittyhawk-equipped No. 76 Squadron. This was the closest Allied airfield to the major Japanese base at Rabaul and was expected to be attacked. No Japanese raids were made on the airfield during the first weeks of the squadron's deployment there and its pilots were disappointed to not see combat while conducting patrols in support of United States Army Air Forces raids on Rabaul; the Imperial Japanese Army Air Force began a series of attacks on Goodenough Island and Kiriwina in early October and the squadron claimed its first victory in 31 October when one of its Spitfires shot down a Kawasaki Ki-61 fighter 2 miles north of Kiriwina. After a period of training, No. 79 Squadron flew its first sweep over Japanese-held territory on 27 November when eight Spitfires were dispatched to Gasmata on New Britain.
The next day one of its Spitfires shot down a Mitsubishi Ki-46 "Dinah" reconnaissance aircraft south of Kitava. As few Japanese attacks were made against Kirwina, No. 79 Squadron's pilots became restive. The offensive patrols over New Britain improved their morale, however. Another Ki-61 was intercepted and shot down by a Spitfire on 21 December, an A6M Mitsubishi A6M "Zero" fighter was destroyed on the ground at Gasmata seven days later. A Spitfire was lost during a patrol over New Britain on 31 December, however. During January and February 1944 the squadron conducted offensive sweeps over New Britain, strafed Japanese positions and escorted Allied bombers. On 17 January, eight No. 79 Squadron Spitfires took part in an attack against a Japanese camp near Lindenhafen which involved 73 Australian aircraft. Two Spitfires were lost during the operations in February. In early 1944 No. 73 Wing was selected to support the US Army's Admiralty Islands campaign. The 1st Cavalry Division began to land on the islands on 29 February, the wing moved to Momote Airstrip on Los Negros Island in March 1944.
No. 79 Squadron became operational there with 24 aircraft on the 29th of the month. From Momote, the squadron flew ground attack sorties in support of US troops until Japanese resistance ceased. No Japanese aircraft were encountered throughout this operation
David LeRoy Beck was the 21st Young Men General President of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints from 2009 to 2015. Beck was raised in Salt Lake City, Utah; when he was ten years old his father, Wayne Beck, was called as president of the LDS Church's Brazilian Mission and the entire family lived in Brazil for the next few years. Beck holds a bachelor's degree in electrical engineering and a master's degree in engineering administration, both from the University of Utah. Beck has been involved in the Boy Scouts of America and helped celebrate the 100th anniversary of the organization, he has served as a member of the National Executive Board of the Boy Scouts of America, the organization's governing body. In the early 1970s, Beck served as a missionary in the Brazil North Central Mission. Beck has served in other positions in the LDS Church, including bishop, stake president and president of the Brazil Rio de Janeiro North Mission. On April 4, 2009, at the LDS Church's 179th annual general conference, Beck was accepted by the membership as president of the Young Men organization.
Beck succeeded Charles W. Dahlquist and selected Larry M. Adrián Ochoa as his counselors. After Ochoa was called as a general authority and member of the Second Quorum of the Seventy in April 2013, Beck selected Randall L. Ridd as his second counselor. In 2012, Beck spoke at a Brigham Young University commencement exercise and implored graduates, "You must never sacrifice your family for career or other outside interest. Indeed, in time and eternity you will influence nations by being family focused." While president, Beck visited Durban, South Africa. At the LDS Church's April 2015 general conference, Beck was released and succeeded by Stephen W. Owen. Beck is married to Robyn Erickson and they are the parents of four children. David L. Beck Official profile
This is a list of Australia's representatives and their placements at the Big Four pageants, considered the most important in the world. The country has won seven victories: Two — Miss Universe crowns Two — Miss World crown Three — Miss International crowns The Australian franchise holders of the four major beauty pageants are the following: Troy Barbagallo — national director for Miss Universe Australia Deborah Miller — director license holder for Miss World Australia Karen Sabarre - national director for Miss International Australia www. MissInternationalAustralia.com.au Maria James — national director for Miss Earth Australiathe four major international beauty pageants for women. These are Miss Universe, Miss International and Miss Earth; the criteria for the Big Four inclusion is based on specific standards such as the pageants global prominence and prestige approved by worldwide media, the quality and quantity of crowned delegates recognized by international franchisees and pageant aficionados, the winner's post pageant activities.
Australia has been represented in the Big Four international beauty pageants, the four major international beauty pageants for women. These are Miss Universe, Miss International and Miss Earth. Color Key × Did not compete↑ No pageant held Miss Universe country participation lists. Miss World country participation lists. Miss International country participation lists. Miss Earth country participation lists. Miss Australia Miss Universe Australia Miss World Australia Miss International Australia Miss Earth Australia Miss Universe Australia official website Miss World Australia official website The Australian International Pageant official website Miss Earth Australia official website
Quebec Run Wild Area is a 7,441-acre section of Forbes State Forest located in Fayette County, Pennsylvania just north of the Mason–Dixon line and the Pennsylvania border with West Virginia. Situated on the eastern slope of Chestnut Ridge, one of the westernmost ridges in the Appalachian Mountain Range, Quebec Run is forested and contains several miles of maintained, interconnected trail; as is the case with all Pennsylvania state forest wild areas, no development of a permanent nature is permitted “in order to retain the undeveloped character of the area.” Quebec Run is the largest wild area without a road in southwestern Pennsylvania and serves as a destination for various outdoor activities including hiking, mountain biking, cross-country skiing. Quebec Run Wild Area is one of two wild areas most added to the Pennsylvania state forest system in 2004. While surveying the Mason–Dixon line in 1767, the English astronomer George Mason and a team of colonial surveyors ascended Chestnut Ridge and passed within three miles of the southern tip of Quebec Run.
Mason described the area in his journal as "a wild of wildes: the laurel overgrown, the rocks gaping to swallow up, over whose deep mouths you may step. The whole is a deep melancholy appearance out of nature.” At this time Quebec Run was blanketed by old-growth forest dominated by American chestnut, eastern hemlock and maple. Quebec Run Wild Area has since seen extensive logging activity; the area was most harvested between 1938 and 1940 by the Summit Lumber Co. of Uniontown. Evidence of this activity lingers to the present day, as seen by the remnants of old logging roads and the presence of brown sawdust piles; the vestiges of a building foundation situated along Mill Run marks the site of a saw mill, built in the late 1930s or early 1940s. A local legend exists about a group of Confederate soldiers who buried a large cache of gold stolen from nearby Union banks during the Civil War, just north of the stream known as Quebec Run. While no evidence has been found to support this story, several excavation sites believed to be attempts to recover the gold still exist and are accessible from Hess Trail.
Quebec Run Wild Area has been managed as a wild area since 1972 but was not designated a Pennsylvania state forest wild area until 2004. Today Quebec Run Wild Area is a healthy third-growth forest in the Appalachian mixed mesophytic ecoregion; the woods are composed of chestnut oak, red oak, red maple, black cherry, eastern hemlock, pine. Mountain laurel and northern maidenhair fern are common along the higher slopes and ridges, while wood nettle and rhododendron thickets line the banks of many streams. Wildlife includes white-tailed deer, skunk, wild turkey, red fox, timber rattlesnake and American black bear. Several fast moving, rocky streams flow through the area, including Hess Run, Tebolt Run, Quebec Run; these streams intersect many of the area's trails, all are tributaries of Big Sandy Creek. The limestone solutional cave known locally as Barton’s Cave lies within the upper reaches of the Quebec Run watershed; the cave is used by bats for hybernation and is visited by cavers. The Pennsylvania Department of Conservation and Natural Resources states that "a wild area is an extensive area, which the general public will be permitted to see and enjoy for such activities as hiking and fishing."
Hiking is therefore permitted on all trails in Quebec Run Wild Area, while cross-country skiing, mountain biking, horseback riding are permitted on designated trails. A permit is required for camping; as a state-designated wild area and rest areas are not available at Quebec Run. Patrons are advised to carry an adequate supply of drinking water; the Quebec Run trail system consists of at least 11 interconnected trails with a combined length of more than 26 miles. The trails are maintained by volunteers; the trails are short, blazed in blue, can be combined with what remains of the old logging roads, allowing for custom loops to fit a variety of experience levels. The longest trails are Tebolt Trail at 4.1 mi and 3.9 mi, respectively. List of Pennsylvania state forest wild areas List of Pennsylvania state forests