Bila Tserkva is a city in central Ukraine, the largest city in Kiev Oblast. Bila Tserkva is located on the Ros River 80 km south of Kiev; the area is 34 km2. Its population is 207,745 . Administratively, Bila Tserkva is incorporated as a town of oblast significance, it serves as the administrative center of Bila Tserkva Raion, though administratively it does not belong to the raion. The town was founded in 1032 as Yuriev by Yaroslav the Wise; the present name of the city translated, is "White Church" and may refer to the white-painted cathedral of medieval Yuriev. Since 1363 it belonged to the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, since 1569 to the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth; the city was granted Magdeburg Rights in 1620 by Sigismund III Vasa. The Treaty of Bila Tserkva between the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and Ukrainian Cossack rebels under Bohdan Khmelnytsky was signed here in 1651. Beginning in the second half of the 18th century, Bila Tserkva the seat of the sub-prefecture, was the property of the Branicki family.
Franciszek Ksawery Branicki, Poland's Grand Hetman, built there his urban residence – the Winter Palace complex and a country residence with the park "Alexandria". He founded a Catholic church of John the Baptist and started construction of the Orthodox church, completed by his successor – count Władysław Grzegorz Branicki; the latter one built the gymnasium-school complex in Bila Tserkva. Aleksander Branicki, the grandson of the hetman and finished the Mazepa's Orthodox church. Under the rule of count Władysław Michał Branicki, Bila Tserkva developed into a regional commercial and manufacturing centre. Bila Tserkva was annexed into Russian Empire as a result of the Second Partition of Poland in 1793. After 1861, the Tzarist authorities converted the Roman Catholic church into an Orthodox Church. During the Soviet times Bila Tserkva became a large industrial hub. During World War II, Bila Tserkva was occupied by the German Army from 16 July 1941 to 4 January 1944. In August 1941 it was the site of the 1941 Bila Tserkva massacre.
During the Cold War, the town was host to the 72nd Guards Krasnograd Motor Rifle Division and the 251st Instructor Heavy Bomber Aviation Regiment of Long Range Aviation. Bila Tserkva is 178 metres above sea level. Notable buildings include the complex of post buildings. There are Palladian wooden buildings of the Branickis' "Winter Palace" and the district nobility assembly; the church of St. Nicholas was started in 1706 but was not completed until 1852; the Orthodox cathedral of the Saviour's Transfiguration was constructed in 1833–1839, while the Catholic Church of John the Baptist dates to 1812. The building of a mid-19th century synagogue is preserved. Today it is a college. A historical landscape park "Alexandria" of 2 km2 is situated in Bila Tserkva, it was founded in 1793 by the wife of the Polish hetman Franciszek Ksawery Branicki. The city is home to football team FC Ros' Bila Tserkva. Ros is a team in the lower levels of the Ukrainian Football League. Industry in the city includes Railway Brake product manufacturers "Tribo Rail", "Bilotserkivsky Zavod Tribo Ltd" and the major automobile tire manufacturer "Rosava".
The city is home to hockey club Bilyi Bars, that plays on Bilyi Bars Ice Arena, built by Kostyantyn Efymenko Charitable Foundation. Lyudmila Pavlichenko – World War II Soviet sniper. Credited with 309 kills, she is regarded as one of the top military snipers of all time and the most successful female sniper in history. David Bronstein – leading chess grandmaster and writer Volodymyr Dyudya – Ukrainian cyclist David Goodman, father of Benny Goodman – an American jazz and swing musician and bandleader. Yossele Rosenblatt – renowned American cantor Shaye Shkarovsky - Yiddish author Anna Ulitko – Danish natural scientist Lyudmila Usherovitz.
95th Air Assault Brigade (Ukraine)
The 95th Air Assault Brigade is a unit of Ukrainian Air Assault Forces, Ukraine’s rapid reaction force. The brigade is located in Zhytomyr, it is considered one of the most capable units in the Ukrainian military. The brigade is one of the Ukrainian Partnership for Peace units; the brigade received a lot of publicity for its raid behind the separatist lines inflicting heavy losses on Russian forces during the war in Donbass. The 95th Training Center of the Ukrainian Air Assault Forces was created in the early 1990s in Zhytomyr from the 242nd Training Tank Regiment; the 242nd Tank Training Regiment had been part of the 117th Guards Tank Training Division. A second base, was used for the training center. In 1995, the training center was reorganized into the 95th Separate Airborne Brigade. All of the units except the staff and reconnaissance company moved to Bohunia; the first jumps in the Brigade occurred in 1994. The brigade was one of the first airmobile units to receive its Battle Flag, on 5 October 1994.
Until the spring of 1996 all of the jumps were done from Mi-8 helicopters. By the end of the northern hemisphere summer of 1996 soldiers began jumping from Il-76 transport aircraft. All the jumps were conducted in the region of Smokovka, in the Brigade's training range, located in the area of the Starokonstantinin road across the Teterev river; the brigade's drop zone is located near the Singury settlement, 10 kilometres from Zhytomyr. The brigade had four battalions, one of, disbanded. Soldiers from the brigade took part in peacekeeping missions in Lebanon, Sierra Leone, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, former Yugoslavia and between 2003 and 2005 in Iraq. In 2000 the brigade was reorganized into an Airmobile Brigade and was subordinated to the 8th Army Corps; the brigade includes the 13th Separate Airmobile Battalion, which consists of professional soldiers instead of conscripts. The brigade includes the 2nd Airmobile Battalion which consists of conscripts based in Korbutovka. Brigade headquarters and the conscript 1st Airmobile Battalion, specialized and logistics units are based in Bohunia.
In 2014 the 95th Brigade took part in the Siege of Sloviansk and the Kramatorsk standoff during the War in Donbass. On May 13, 2014, seven Paratroopers from the unit were killed during an ambush by separatists in Kramatorsk. In August 2014 the brigade conducted a raid behind the separatist lines; the 95th Airmobile Brigade, reinforced with armor assets and attachments, launched a surprise attack on separatist lines, broke through into their rear areas, fought for 450 kilometers, destroyed or captured numerous Russian tanks and artillery pieces before returning to Ukrainian lines. They operated not as a concentrated brigade but rather split into three company-sized elements on different axes of advance. According to Phillip Karber, it was one of the longest raids in the military history; the unit was deployed to Donetsk Airport on 21 November 2014 as part of a regular rotation of Ukrainian troops stationed in the area. As of 2017 the brigade's structure is as follows: 95th Air Assault Brigade, Zhytomyr Headquarters & Headquarters Company 1st Air Assault Battalion 2nd Air Assault Battalion 13rth Air Assault Battalion Brigade Artillery Group Headquarters & Target Acquisition Battery Self-propelled Artillery Battalion Howitzer Artillery Battalion Rocket Artillery Battalion Anti-Aircraft Missile Artillery Battalion Tank Company Reconnaissance Company Engineer Company Landing Support Compant Maintenance Company Logistic Company Signal Company CBRN-defense Company Medical Company Sniper Platoon Major general Vitaly Raevsky Colonel Kinzerskiy Colonel Chabanenko Colonel Hortuyk Lieutenant Colonel Oleksandr Shvets Lieutenant Colonel Oleh Huliak Colonel Stanislav Chumak Colonel Mykhaylo Zabrodsky Colonel Oleh Hut Feskov, V.
I.. I.. A.. A.. Вооруженные силы СССР после Второй Мировой войны: от Красной Армии к Советской. Tomsk: Scientific and Technical Literature Publishing. ISBN 9785895035306
51st Guards Mechanized Brigade (Ukraine)
The 51st Guards Mechanized Brigade was a formation of the Ukrainian Ground Forces, stationed at Volodymyr-Volynskyi in Volyn Oblast, on the border with Poland. The Brigade drew its history from the 51st Guards Rifle Division, formed from the 76th Rifle Division midway through the Second World War. In late 1942, the 76th Rifle Division decimated the German force holding and protecting Kletskaya, a key industrial city with numerous metal works factories. For it, the division was promoted to Guards status on November 23, 1942, became known as the 51st Guards Rifle Division. In November 1942, the newly renamed Division was sent back to Stalingrad where it helped encircle and trap the attacking German 6th and 4th Panzer Armies during Operation Uranus. For its participation in the battle of Stalingrad, the unit was decorated with the Order of Lenin. In the summer of 1943, it was sent to complement tanks and other armored vehicles during the Battle of Kursk in Ukraine, once again retaking the cities of Belgorod and Bogodouqovye.
From Kursk, the division was sent northward to push back North. Under the command of General Ivan Bagramyan, the 1st Baltic Front commander, it liberated the Belorussian cities of Vitebsk and Polotski. Continuing its advance to the west, the 51st Guards Division took part in pushing Army Group North out of the former Soviet republics the Soviet Union had annexed in 1940, Latvia and Lithuania, its sacrifice and courage in recapturing Vitebsk were recognized as it was bestowed with the honorary title of Vitebskyan in October 1944. One of the division's artillerymen Aramais Sarkisyan was killed in combat in Belorussia on June 25, 1944, was recognized as a Hero of the Soviet Union, the highest honorary title for individuals in the Soviet Union. In the Latvian province of the Courland Peninsula was the final bastion of Army Group Courland. Despite repeated attempts to take the region, the German units resisted and fended off Red Army offensives. In May 1945, the 51st Division was sent to Courland where it managed to isolate the forces remaining at the peninsula.
On May 8, 1945, the remainder the garrison surrendered. The 51st division passed through 7,000 kilometers of former Soviet territory and liberated over 600 towns and cities from the Axis occupying forces. Twenty-one men in the division were recognized as Heroes of the Soviet Union; the division's final wartime honorary title was'51 Guards Rifle Vitebsk Order of Lenin, Red Banner Division Armenian in the name of Voroshilov.' The 51st Guards MRD was formed after the Second World War from the 51st Guards Rifle Division but disbanded in the late 1950s in the Baltic Military District. Its honours and awards were taken over by the 29th Guards Rocket Division of the Strategic Rocket Forces. In late 1947 the 15th Guards Rifle Division was relocated from the Austrian city of Vladimir-Volyn and Lyuboml. In the postwar years the unit's soldiers helped civilians rebuild postwar economy, were involved in the construction of irrigation systems in the Kuban and the Crimea. In September 1965, in an Order of the Minister of Defense of the Soviet Union commemorating the 51st Guards Rifle Division, which staunchly took the first blows of the German-Soviet war, the 15th Guards Rifle Division was given the number "51" and the honorary title of "Perekopskaya", becoming the 51st Guards Motor Rifle Division.
It remained as part of the 13th Army in the Carpathian Military District since the late 1940s until the fall of the Soviet Union. In 1988 the division comprised the 170th Tank Regiment, 44th Guards Motor Rifle Regiment, 47th Guards Motor Rifle Regiment, 50th Guards Motor Rifle Regiment, 43rd Guards Artillery Regiment, 59th Anti-Aircraft Rocket Regiment, plus smaller units. On January 19, 1992, personnel of the division took the oath of allegiance to the Ukrainian people, after the dissolution of the Soviet Union and the 1991 Declaration of Independence of Ukraine. During the 1990s, the 13th Army was redesignated the 13th Army Corps. On September 17, 1999, in the framework of the 800th anniversary of the Volyn-Galician Principality and to mark the 60th anniversary of the establishment of the Division received from the President of Ukraine, Supreme Commander of the Armed Forces of Ukraine Leonid Kuchma Battle Flag and the honorary title of "Volyn"; some 400 reservists will be added to the brigade's personnel in time of war to bring troop numbers up to wartime strength.
The median age of the reserves, which in 2005 consisted of 440 officers and soldiers, is 25–30 years old. The brigade was involved in the army's attempt to stop separatism during the 2014 pro-Russian conflict in Ukraine, it suffered 18 deaths after being ambushed near Volnovakha on 22 May 2014. In late July 2014, 40 men from the brigade crossed into Russian territory. By the first week of August, they returned to Ukraine of their own free will; some of them were charged with desertion. During August 2014, the brigade made three unsuccessful attempts to retake Ilovaisk. On 25 August, brigade soldier Andrei Krupa was captured by Russian troops and released a month later. In October 2014, President Petro Poroshenko ordered the disbandment of the brigade. Elements of the brigade judged to have performed well in combat became the new 14th Mechanized Brigade. 50th Separate Armor Battalion 44th Mechanized Regiment 47th Mechanized Regiment 170th Mechanized Regiment 11th Engineer Battalion 21st Separate Reconnaissance Battalion 309th Combat Service Support Battalion 43rd Artillery Regiment 59th Anti-Aircraft Artillery Regiment 25th Signal Battalion 24th Field Training Site 1942 received the Order of Lenin???
Szécsény is a town in Nógrád county, Hungary. The name comes from the Slavic sečь: cutting. 1219/1550 Scecen. The valley of the Ipoly and the area of that around Szécsény was inhabited in the prehistoric age. Findings attest. Teutons and Slavs appeared here in the first millennium BC. Hungarians settled down in the surrounding country in the decades following the Hungarian Conquest, which began in AD 895; the town itself must have originated from that era. The burial places found on the confines of the town render this pretension probable; the first genuine written document about Szécsény dates back to 1219. In 1334, Lord Chief Justice Thomas Szécsényi induced King Charles Robert to permit the status of town, so Szécsény became a market town in the same year; the Turkish occupied Szécsény in 1552 under the name "Seçen" and after that the town became the center of a sanjak for several decades. The first Turkish occupation ended in 1593, whereupon Zsigmond Forgách became the landed proprietor of the town and the captain of the fortress at the same time.
The second Turkish occupation lasted 20 years. Szécsény became deserted by the end of the nearly 150-year Turkish rule. One of the most glorious parts of the town history is linked with the war of independence in 1703, called into being against Habsburgs by Prince Ferenc Rákóczi II; the Prince convened the Diet into our town in September 1705, where he was elected the ruling Prince of Transylvania and commander-in chief of the Hungarian insurgent forces. Although the war of independence failed, the inhabitants of the town still treasure the Prince's memory. Many town institutions bear his name. 1737 is a remarkable date in the life of the town as the Forgách repurchased their property from Koháry family. The town began a slow development in the 18th century, a lot of private houses were built and the first pharmacy of the county was opened in 1741; the baroque style Forgách Castle -, a museum nowadays - was built in that century as well. The development of the town slowed down in the 19th century and fell behind other towns in Nógrád, such as Balassagyarmat, Salgótarján.
Szécsény lost its town status in 1886 owing to the decision of Parliament. In spite of the situation, a town hall was built in 1905 and the municipality organized a brilliant commemorative Rákóczi festival on the 200th anniversary of the 1705 Diet. After the Treaty of Trianon in 1920, following the First World War, Szécsény became a frontier town, which has hindered its development until the present day; the Second World War did not keep out of Szécsény's way either. During the fighting raging in December 1944, the inhabitants suffered greatly. After the conclusion of the war, the reorganization of life started immediately. Nationalization and collectivization brought fundamental changes in everyday life; until the end of the 1970s, Szécsény was an administrative center, being the chief town of the district. When the public administration system was reformed, the function of the seat of the district became extinct; as a result, several institutions and offices were closed down, e.g. the district court, the title registry, the central police station, the high school.
Two other settlements belong to Szécsény's current administration, though: Pösténypuszta, located beside the River Ipoly, Benczúrfalva, 4 kilometres away. The recession in the 1990s damaged the local economy, but significant improvements in infrastructure were carried out, including sewer and gas networks and connection to the national telephone network; the institutions of the town have changed. A second high school was founded in 1994, along with an ambulance nursing home; the agricultural vocational school and the art school, were transferred to the county seat. Szécsény lies in the northern part of Nógrád county on the Slovak border, at the edge of the Ipoly valley; the town is situated at a height of 155 metres above sea level in a small basin along the River Ipoly at the intersection of Northern and Eastern Cserhát hills. The major part of the town was built on a plateau extending along the southern edge of the basin; the north-south flow of the river turns into east-west nearby. Its geographical position is 48° 5" N, 19° 32" E.
The Szentlélek is a stream running through the town along the edge of the plateau and flowing into the Ipoly. On the confines of the settlement, there is a pond originating from ballast-digging. Szécsény has a continental climate of wetter type; the average number of sunny hours is 1,990 a year. The average annual mean is 9.1 °C, on the basis of the yearly average in the last 70 years. The annual rainfall is 360 to 610 mm - taking the yearly average of 50 years as a basis; the prevailing winds are northwestly. The plough-lands in the Ipoly valley are of good quality, they are suitable for agricultural production; the soil of hills surrounding the valley is of poorer quality but the plateau is under crop. The major part of the soil is medium or high acidic; the most frequent type is brown alluvial forest soil. Quite a large area is covered by'kovárvány' brown forest soil, chernozem-brown forest soil and brown earth. Meadow and meadow alluvial soils are typical along the Ipoly. Sporadically and sand can be found.
The average gold crown value of the cropland is 24.97 per hectare, below the national average. InfrastructureAfter the transformation of regime the town assigned a substantial sum for extension the public utility services to 100%; every prope
General Staff of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation
The General Staff of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation is the military staff of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation. It is the central organ of the Armed Forces Administration and oversees operational management of the armed forces under the Russian Ministry of Defence; as of 2017 the Chief of the General Staff is General of the Army Valery Gerasimov and the First Deputy Chief of the General Staff is Colonel General Nikolai Bogdanovsky. General Staff is located in Moscow on Znamenka Street in the Arbat District. Together with the Ministry of Defence building and several Staff directorate office buildings nearby, it forms the so-called "Arbat military district" as it is referred to among the military personnel to outline the highest supreme command of the Russian Armed Forces. In the Soviet Armed Forces, the General Staff of the Armed Forces of the USSR acted as the main commanding and supervising body of the military. A Red Army Staff first formed in 1921 but, historian John Erickson says, until 1924 developed into an unwieldy grouping dealing with combat training, routine Red Army affairs, defence policy, all without real definition.
Erickson dates the development of the Staff as the Soviet "military brain" from Mikhail Frunze's appointment to the post of Chief of Staff by Order No.78 of 1 April 1924.'From this date.. The history of the Soviet General Staff – as it was to become – begins'. On 22 September 1935, the authorities renamed the RKKA Staff as the General Staff, which reincarnated the General Staff of the Russian Empire. Many of the former RKKA Staff officers had served as General Staff officers in the Russian Empire and became General Staff officers in the USSR. General Staff officers had extensive combat experience and solid academic training. William Odom wrote:'during World War II became Stalin's main organ for operational direction of all military forces. After the war it became the most powerful centre for all aspects of military planning and determination of resource requirements; the minister of defence had only a limited staff for his own support, leaving him dependent on the General Staff. … Within the Ministry of Defence, all the resource allocation issues were resolved by the chief of the General Staff before going to the minister, after consultation with GOSPLAN, to the Politburo.'
During the Cold War, the Soviet General Staff maintained Soviet plans for the invasion of Western Europe, whose massive scale was made known secretly to the West by spies such as Ryszard Kukliński and published by German researchers working with the National People's Army files, the Parallel History Project and the associated Polish exercise documents, Seven Days to the River Rhine. Since the dissolution of the Soviet Union and since 2004 the General Staff and the Russian Ministry of Defence have attempted to divide direction of the armed forces between them in intense bouts of bureaucratic disagreement, it has been reported that the General Staff's main role now is that of the Russian Ministry of Defence's department of strategic planning, the Minister of Defence himself is now gaining executive authority over the troops. However some Russian commentators dispute this. Main Directorate of Communications Main Operational Directorate Main Intelligence Directorate Main Organizational Mobilization Directorate Directorate of the Chief of Radioelectronic Combat Troops Military Topographical Directorate Main Command – Ground Troops Main Command – Navy Main Command – Air Forces Aerospace Defense Command Strategic Missile Troops Command Airborne Troops Command Special Operations Forces Command Operational Training Directorate 8th Directorate 12th Main Directorate Troop service and safety of military service Directorate Directorate of the Chief of the Radiation and Biological Defense Troops Directorate of the Chief of Engineering Troops Main Directorate for Deep Sea Research Central Command Post Hydrometeorological Service Захаров М.В.
Генеральный штаб в предвоенные годы. — М.: Воениздат, 1989 Zakharov, M. V. General Staff in the pre-war years, Voenizdat. 1989 Dr S. J. Main, The "Brain" of the Russian Army: The Centre for Military-Strategic Research, General Staff, 1985–2000, Conflict Studies Research Centre, UK MOD
Kharkiv known as Kharkov, is the second-largest city in Ukraine. In the northeast of the country, it is the largest city of the Slobozhanshchyna historical region. Kharkiv is the administrative centre of Kharkiv Oblast and of the surrounding Kharkiv Raion, though administratively it is incorporated as a city of oblast significance and does not belong to the raion. Population: 1,439,036 The city was founded in 1654 and after a humble beginning as a small fortress grew to be a major centre of Ukrainian industry and culture in the Russian Empire. Kharkiv was the first capital of the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic, from December 1919 to January 1934, after which the capital relocated to Kiev. Presently, Kharkiv is a major cultural, educational and industrial centre of Ukraine, with 6 museums, 7 theatres and 80 libraries, its industry specializes in machinery and in electronics. There are hundreds of industrial companies in the city, including the Morozov Design Bureau and the Malyshev Tank Factory.
Some sources offer that the city was named after Kharko. Among other names there are Charkow, Zakharpolis. Cultural artifacts date back to the Bronze Age, as well as those of Scythian and Sarmatian settlers. There is evidence that the Chernyakhov culture flourished in the area from the second to the sixth centuries; the city was founded by re-settlers who were running away from the war that engulfed Right-bank Ukraine in 1654. The years before the region was a sparsely populated part of the Cossack Hetmanate; the group of people came onto the banks of Lopan and Kharkiv rivers where an abandoned settlement stood. According to archive documents, the leader of the re-settlers was otaman Ivan Kryvoshlyk. At first the settlement was self-governed under the jurisdiction of a voivode from Chuhuiv, 40 kilometres to the east; the first appointed voivode from Moscow was Voyin Selifontov in 1656 who started to build a local ostrog. At that time the population of Kharkiv was just over 1000, half of whom were local cossacks, while Selifontov brought along a Moscow garrison of another 70 servicemen.
The first Kharkiv voivode was replaced in two years after complaining that locals refused to cooperate in building the fort. Kharkiv became the centre of the local Sloboda cossack regiment as the area surrounding the Belgorod fortress was being militarized. With the resettlement of the area by Ukrainians it came to be known as Sloboda Ukraine, most of, included under the jurisdiction of the Razryad Prikaz headed by a district official from Belgorod. By 1657 the Kharkiv settlement had a fortress with underground passageways. In 1658 Ivan Ofrosimov was appointed as the new voivode, who worked on forcing locals to kiss the cross to show loyalty to the Moscow tsar; the locals led by their otaman. However, with the election of the new otaman Tymish Lavrynov the community sent a request to the tsar to establish a local Assumption market, signed by deans of Kharkiv churches. Relationships with the neighboring Chuhuiv sometimes were non-friendly and their arguments were pacified by force. With the appointment of the third voivode Vasiliy Sukhotin was finished the construction of the city fort.
Meanwhile, Kharkiv had become the centre of Sloboda Ukraine. The Kharkiv Fortress was erected around the Assumption Cathedral and its castle was at University Hill, it was between today's streets: vulytsia Kvitky-Osnovianenko, Constitution Square, Rose Luxemburg Square, Proletarian Square, Cathedral Descent. The fortress had 10 towers: Chuhuivska Tower, Moskovska Tower, Vestovska Tower, Tainytska Tower, Lopanska Corner Tower, Kharkivska Corner Tower and others; the tallest was Vestovska, some 16 metres tall, while the shortest one was Tainytska which had a secret well 35 metres deep. The fortress had the Lopanski Gates. In 1689 the fortress was expanded and included the Saint-Pokrov Cathedral and Monastery, baptized and became the center of local eparchy. Coincidentally in the same year in the vicinity of Kharkiv in Kolomak, Ivan Mazepa was announced the Hetman of Ukraine. Next to the Saint-Pokrov Cathedral was located the Kharkiv Collegiate, transferred from Belgorod to Kharkiv in 1726. In the course of the administrative reform carried out in 1708 by Peter the Great, the area was included into Kiev Governorate.
Kharkiv is mentioned as one of the towns making a part of the governorate. In 1727, Belgorod Governorate was split off, Kharkiv moved to Belgorod Governorate, it was the center of Kharkiv Sloboda Cossack regiment. The regiment at some point was detached from Belgorod Governorate attached to it again, until in 1765, Sloboda Ukraine Governorate was established with the seat in Kharkiv. Kharkiv University was established in 1805 in the Palace of Governorate-General. Alexander Mikolajewicz Mickiewicz, brother of Adam Mickiewicz was a professor of law in the university, another celebrity Goethe searched for instructors for the school. In 1906 Ivan Franko received a doctorate in Russian linguistics here; the streets were first cobbled in the city centre in 1830. In 1844 the 90 m
Kiev or Kyiv is the capital and most populous city of Ukraine, located in the north-central part of the country on the Dnieper. The population in July 2015 was 2,887,974. Kiev is an important industrial, scientific and cultural center of Eastern Europe, it is home to many high-tech industries, higher education institutions, world-famous historical landmarks. The city has an extensive infrastructure and developed system of public transport, including the Kiev Metro; the city's name is said to derive from the name of one of its four legendary founders. During its history, one of the oldest cities in Eastern Europe, passed through several stages of great prominence and relative obscurity; the city existed as a commercial centre as early as the 5th century. A Slavic settlement on the great trade route between Scandinavia and Constantinople, Kiev was a tributary of the Khazars, until its capture by the Varangians in the mid-9th century. Under Varangian rule, the city became a capital of the first East Slavic state.
Destroyed during the Mongol invasions in 1240, the city lost most of its influence for the centuries to come. It was a provincial capital of marginal importance in the outskirts of the territories controlled by its powerful neighbours; the city prospered again during the Russian Empire's Industrial Revolution in the late 19th century. In 1917, after the Ukrainian National Republic declared independence from the Russian Empire, Kiev became its capital. From 1921 onwards Kiev was a city of the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic, proclaimed by the Red Army, from 1934, Kiev was its capital. During World War II, the city again suffered significant damage, but recovered in the post-war years, remaining the third largest city of the Soviet Union. Following the collapse of the Soviet Union and Ukrainian independence in 1991, Kiev remained the capital of Ukraine and experienced a steady migration influx of ethnic Ukrainians from other regions of the country. During the country's transformation to a market economy and electoral democracy, Kiev has continued to be Ukraine's largest and richest city.
Kiev's armament-dependent industrial output fell after the Soviet collapse, adversely affecting science and technology. But new sectors of the economy such as services and finance facilitated Kiev's growth in salaries and investment, as well as providing continuous funding for the development of housing and urban infrastructure. Kiev emerged as the most pro-Western region of Ukraine where parties advocating tighter integration with the European Union dominate during elections. Kiev is the traditional and most used English name for the city; the Ukrainian government however uses Kyiv as the mandatory romanization where legislative and official acts are translated into English. As a prominent city with a long history, its English name was subject to gradual evolution; the early English spelling was derived from Old East Slavic form Kyjevŭ. The name is associated with that of the legendary eponymous founder of the city. Early English sources use various names, including Kiou, Kiew, Kiovia. On one of the oldest English maps of the region, Moscoviae et Tartariae published by Ortelius the name of the city is spelled Kiou.
On the 1650 map by Guillaume de Beauplan, the name of the city is Kiiow, the region was named Kÿowia. In the book Travels, by Joseph Marshall, the city is referred to as Kiovia; the form Kiev is based on Russian orthography and pronunciation, during a time when Kiev was in the Russian Empire. In English, Kiev was used in print as early as in 1804 in the John Cary's "New map of Europe, from the latest authorities" in "Cary's new universal atlas" published in London; the English travelogue titled New Russia: Journey from Riga to the Crimea by way of Kiev, by Mary Holderness was published in 1823. By 1883, the Oxford English Dictionary included Kiev in a quotation. Kyiv is the romanized version of the name of the city used in modern Ukrainian. Following independence in 1991, the Ukrainian government introduced the national rules for transliteration of geographic names from Ukrainian into English. According to the rules, the Ukrainian Київ transliterates into Kyiv; this has established the use of the spelling Kyiv in all official documents issued by the governmental authorities since October 1995.
The spelling is used by the United Nations, European Union, all English-speaking foreign diplomatic missions, several international organizations, Encarta encyclopedia, by some media in Ukraine. In October 2006, the United States Board on Geographic Names unanimously voted to change its standard transliteration to Kyiv, effective for the entire U. S. government, although'Kiev' remains the BGN conventional name for this city. The alternate romanizations Kyyiv and Kyjiv are in use in English-language atlases. Many major English-language news sources like the BBC, The New York Times continue to prefer Kiev, but others have adopted Kyiv in their style guides, including The Economist and The Guardian. Kiev, one of the oldest cities of Eastern Europe, played a pivotal role in the development of the medieval East Slavic civilization as well as in the modern Ukrainian nation. Scholars debate as to period of the foundation of the city: some date the founding to the late 9th century, other historians