8th century BC
The 8th century BC started the first day of 800 BC and ended the last day of 701 BC. The 8th century BC is a period of great change for several significant civilizations. In Egypt, the 23rd and 24th dynasties lead to rule from Nubia in the 25th Dynasty; the Neo-Assyrian Empire reaches the peak of its power, conquering the Kingdom of Israel as well as nearby countries. Greece colonizes other regions of the Mediterranean Black Sea. Rome is founded in 753 BC, the Etruscan civilization expands in Italy; the 8th century BC is conventionally taken as the beginning of Classical Antiquity, with the first Olympiad set at 776 BC, the epics of Homer dated to between 750 and 650 BC. Iron Age India enters the Vedic period. Vedic ritual is annotated in many priestly schools in Brahmana commentaries, the earliest Upanishads mark the beginning of Vedanta philosophy. Late 8th century BC: Earrings and rosettes, from the tomb of Queen Yabay in Kalhu are made, they are now at Baghdad. Discovered in 1988. Second half of the 8th century BC: In the Kingdom of Judah, Jerusalem begins an expansion in population and size, going from a small town into a major city.
797 BC: Thespieus, King of Athens, dies after a reign of 27 years and is succeeded by his son Agamestor. 783 BC: Shalmaneser IV succeeds his father Adad-nirari III as king of Assyria. 782 BC: Founding of Erebuni by the orders of King Argishtis I at the site of current-day Yerevan. 782 BC: Death of King Xuan of Zhou, King of the Zhou Dynasty of China. 781 BC: King You of Zhou becomes King of the Zhou Dynasty of China. 780 BC: The first historic solar eclipse is recorded in China. 778 BC: Agamestor, King of Athens, dies after a reign of 17 years and is succeeded by his son Aeschylus. 776 BC: retrospectively set as the first Olympiad. The history of the Olympic Games is believed to reach as far back as the 13th century BC. 774 BC: End of the reign of king Pygmalion of Tyre. 773 BC: Death of Shoshenq III, king of Egypt. 773 BC: Ashur-Dan III succeeds his brother Shalmaneser IV as king of Assyria. 771 BC: End of the Western Zhou Dynasty in China as "western" barbarian tribes sack the capital Hao. King You of Zhou is killed.
Crown Prince Ji Yijiu will reign as King Ping of Zhou. 770 BC: Beginning of the Eastern Zhou Dynasty in China as King Ping of Zhou becomes the first King of the Zhou to rule from the new capital of Chengzhou. June 15, 763 BC: A solar eclipse at this date is used to fix the chronology of the Ancient Near East. Mid-8th century BC: Model of temple, found in the Sanctuary of Hera, Argos, is made, it is now at Athens. 756 BC: Founding of Cyzicus. 755 BC: Ashur-nirari V succeeds Ashur-Dan III as king of Assyria. 755 BC: Aeschylus, King of Athens, dies after a reign of 23 years and is succeeded by Alcmaeon. 753 BC: Alcmaeon, King of Athens, dies after a reign of 2 years. He is replaced by Harops, elected Archon for a ten-year term. April 21, 753 BC: Rome founded by Romulus. Beginning of the Roman'Ab urbe condita' calendar. February 26, 747 BC: Nabonassar becomes king of Babylon. 747 BC: Meles becomes king of Lydia. 747 BC: The Lusatian culture city at Biskupin is founded. 745 BC: The Crown of Assyria is seized by Pul, who takes the name Tiglath-Pileser III.
743 BC: Duke Zhuang of the Chinese state of Zheng comes to power. 740 BC: Tiglath-Pileser III conquers the city of Arpad in Syria after two years of siege. 740 BC: Start of Ahaz's reign of Judah. 739 BC: Hiram II becomes king of Tyre. 738 BC: King Tiglath-Pileser III of Assyria invades Israel, forcing it to pay tribute. 734 BC: Syracuse was founded as a colony by Corinth. 734 BC: Naxus in Sicily founded as a colony of Chalcis in Euboea. 732 BC: Hoshea becomes the last king of Israel. 730 BC: Osorkon IV succeeds Sheshonq IV as king of the Twenty-second dynasty of Egypt. 730 BC: Piye succeeds his father Kashta as king of the Nubian kingdom of Napata. 730 BC: Mattan II succeeds Hiram II as king of Tyre. 728 BC: Piye invades Egypt, conquering Memphis, receives the submission of the rulers of the Nile Delta. He founds the Twenty-fifth dynasty of Egypt. 727 BC: Babylonia makes itself independent of Assyria. 724 BC: The Assyrians start a four-year siege of Tyre. 724 BC: The diaulos footrace introduced at the Olympics.
722 BC: Spring and Autumn period of China's history begins as King Ping of Zhou of the Zhou Dynasty reigns in name only. 722 BC: Israel is conquered by Assyrian king Sargon II. 720 BC: End of the Assyrian siege of Tyre. 719 BC: King Huan of Zhou of the Zhou Dynasty becomes ruler of China. 718 BC: Gyges becomes the ruler of Lydia. 717 BC: Assyrian king Sargon conquers the Hittite stronghold of Carchemish. 717 BC: Sargon II founds a new capital for Assyria at Dur-Sharrukin. 716 BC: Roman legend marks this as the date that Romulus ended his rule. 715 BC: Start of the reign of Roman King Numa Pompilius. 713 BC: Numa Pompilius reforms the Roman calendar. 712 BC: Numa Pompilius creates the office of Pontifex Maximus. 706 BC: Spartan immigrants found Taras colony in southern Italy. 705 BC: Sennacherib succeeds Sargon II as king of Assyria. 704 BC: Sennacherib moves the capital of Assyria to Nineveh. 701 BC: King Hezekiah of Judah, backed by Egypt, revolts against king Sennacherib of Assyria. Sennacherib fails in his attempt to take Jerusalem.
700 BC: The Scythians start settling in Cimmerian areas replacing the previous inhabitants. 700 BC: End of the Villanovan culture in northern Italy and rise of the Etruscan civilization. 700 BC: The Upanishads, a sacred text of Hinduism, are written around this time. Greeks colonize Black Seas. Thraco-Cimmerian influence in Central Eu
Tenea is a municipal unit within the municipality of Corinth, Peloponnese, Greece. The municipal unit has an area of 167.575 km2. Until 2011, it was a municipality; the modern city is named after ancient Tenea, established 15 km SE of Corinth and 20 km NE of Mycenae shortly after the Trojan War. According to Pausanias, Tenea's founders were Trojan prisoners of war whom Agamemnon had allowed to build their own town; the name Tenea is styled upon Tenedos, the founders' home town, whose mythological eponym was the hero Tenes. Tenea and Rome, according to Virgil's Aeneid, had in the years following the Trojan War produced citizens of Trojan ancestry. Under the leadership of Archias in 734 or 733 BC, Teneans and Corinthians established the joint colony of Syracuse in Sicily, the homeland of Archimedes. Strabo mentions Tenea: as does Pausanias: Tenea was the most important place in ancient Corinthia after the city of Corinth and her port towns. Stephanus of Byzantium describes Tenea as lying between Mycenae.
Pausanias says that the Teneatae claimed descent from the inhabitants of Tenedos, who were brought over from Troy as prisoners, settled by Agamemnon in this part of Corinthia. Strabo mentions here the temple of Apollo Teneates, says that Tenea and Tenedos had a common origin in Tennes, the son of Cycnus, it was at Tenea. It was from this place that Archias took the greater number of the colonists with whom he founded Syracuse. After the destruction of Corinth by Lucius Mummius Achaicus, Tenea had the good fortune to continue undisturbed, because it is said to have assisted the Romans against Corinth. We cannot, suppose that an insignificant place like Tenea could have acted in opposition to Corinth and the Achaean League. Ruins of ancient Tenea are one kilometre south of Chiliomodi; some archaeological finds are housed in the Archaeological Museum of Ancient Corinth. The most famous find, it is a great example of 6th century BC Greek sculpture and of the so-called Aeginetean or archaic smile. In 1984, archaeologists discovered a sarcophagus of the Greek early archaic period containing the skeletal remains of what had been a high-society woman along with offerings.
In 2013, archaeologists surveyed a site in the area and, encouraged by pottery and other small finds, began excavating. They said that “The concentration of ceramics and architectural remains... were the reasons that led us to the excavation of the site,” In 2017, they found a trove of riches while digging up what had been a dual-chambered burial ground at the Tenea site. In 2018, they found “proof of the existence of the ancient city” of Tenea. An image of the excavation site depicts stone walls, the remains of what were houses from the settlement; the municipal unit Tenea is subdivided into the following communities: Agionori Agios Vasileios Chiliomodi Klenia Koutalas Stefani Gallery and description of monuments in and around Tenea. List of traditional Greek place names This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Smith, William, ed.. "Tenea". Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography. London: John Murray. Kouros of Tenea Apollo of Tenea Municipality of Tenea Strabo, Book 8
The Medes were an ancient Iranian people who spoke the Median language and who inhabited an area known as Media between western and northern Iran. Under the Neo-Assyrian Empire, late 9th to early 7th centuries BC, the region of Media was bounded by the Zagros Mountains to its west, to its south by the Garrin Mountain in Lorestan Province, to its northwest by the Qaflankuh Mountains in Zanjan Province, to its east by the Dasht-e Kavir desert, its neighbors were the kingdoms of Gizilbunda and Mannea in the northwest, Ellipi and Elam in the south. In the 7th century BC, Media's tribes came together to form the Median Kingdom, which remained a Neo-Assyrian vassal. Between 616 and 609 BC, King Cyaxares, allied with King Nabopolassar of the Neo-Babylonian Empire against the Neo-Assyrian Empire, after which the Median Empire stretched across the Iranian Plateau as far as Anatolia, its precise geographical extent remains unknown. A few archaeological sites and textual sources provide a brief documentation of the history and culture of the Median state.
Apart from a few personal names, the language of the Medes is unknown. The Medes had an ancient Iranian religion with a priesthood named as "Magi". During the reigns of the last Median kings, the reforms of Zoroaster spread into western Iran. According to the Histories of Herodotus, there were six Median tribes: The six Median tribes resided in Media proper, the triangular area between Rhagae and Ecbatana. In present-day Iran, the area between Tehran and Hamadan, respectively. Of the Median tribes, the Magi resided in Rhaga, modern Tehran, they were of a sacred caste. The Paretaceni tribe resided in and around Aspadana, modern Isfahan, the Arizanti lived in and around Kashan, the Busae tribe lived in and around the future Median capital of Ecbatana, near modern Hamadan; the Struchates and the Budii lived in villages in the Median triangle. The original source for their name and homeland is a directly transmitted Old Iranian geographical name, attested as the Old Persian "Māda-"; the meaning of this word is not known.
However, the linguist W. Skalmowski proposes a relation with the proto-Indo European word "med-", meaning "central, suited in the middle", by referring to the Old Indic "madhya-" and Old Iranian "maidiia-" which both carry the same meaning; the Latin medium, Greek méso and German mittel are derived from it. Greek scholars during antiquity would base ethnological conclusions on Greek legends and the similarity of names. According to the Histories of Herodotus: In the Greek myth of Jason and the Argonauts, Medea is the daughter of King Aeëtes of Colchis and a paternal granddaughter of the sun-god Helios. Following her failed marriage to Jason while in Corinth, for one of several reasons depending on the version, she marries King Aegeus of Athens and bears a son Medus. After failing to make Aegeus kill his older son Theseus and her son fled to Aria, where the Medes take their name from her, according to several Greek and Roman accounts, including in Pausanias' Description of Greece. According to other versions, such as in Strabo's Geographica and Justin's Epitoma Historiarum Philippicarum, she returned home to conquer neighboring lands with her husband Jason, one of, named after her.
The discoveries of Median sites in Iran happened only after the 1960s. For 1960 the search for Median archeological sources has focused in an area known as the “Median triangle,” defined as the region bounded by Hamadān and Malāyer and Kangāvar. Three major sites from central western Iran in the Iron Age III period are: Tepe Nush-i Jan,The site is located 14 km west of Malāyer in Hamadan province; the excavations started in 1967 with D. Stronach as the director; the remains of four main buildings in the site are "the central temple, the western temple, the fort, the columned hall" which according to Stronach were to have been built in the order named and predate the latter occupation of the first half of the 6th century BC. According to Stronach, the central temple, with its stark design, "provides a notable, if mute, expression of religious belief and practice". A number of ceramics from the Median levels at Tepe Nush-i Jan have been found which are associated with a period of power consolidation in the Hamadān areas.
These findings show four different wares known as “common ware” including jars in various size the largest of, a form of ribbed pithoi. Smaller and more elaborate vessels were in “grey ware”; the “cooking ware” and “crumbly ware” are recognized each in single handmade products. Godin Tepe,The site is located 13 km east of Kangāvar city on the left bank of the river Gamas Āb"; the excavations, started in 1965, were led by T. C. Young, Jr. which according to David Stronach, evidently shows an important Bronze Age construction th
This article concerns the period 729 BC – 720 BC. 728 BC—Piye invades Egypt, conquering Memphis, receives the submission of the rulers of the Nile Delta. He founds the Twenty-fifth dynasty of Egypt. 727 BC—Babylonia makes itself independent of Assyria, upon the death of Tiglath-Pileser III. 725 BC—Shalmaneser V starts a 3-year siege of Israel 725 BC—Sparta conquers the neighboring region of Messenia and takes over the land. 724 BC—The Assyrians start a four-year siege of Tyre. 724 BC—The diaulos footrace introduced at the Olympics. 722 BC—Northern Kingdom of Israel is conquered by Assyrian king Sargon II. In China Duke Yin accedes to the throne of Lu, the first event recorded in the Spring and Autumn Annals. 721 BC—The Assyrians conquer the tribes of northern Israel. 721 BC—Sargon II starts to rule. He builds a new capital at Dur Sharrukin. 720 BC—End of the Assyrian siege of Tyre. The "dolichos" footrace introduced at the Olympics. C. 720 BC—Guardian figure, from the entrance to the throne room at palace of Sargon II is made.
It is now kept in The Oriental Chicago. 729 BC—Tiglath-Pileser III crowned sovereign of Asia in Babylon. 729 BC—Hezekiah succeeds Ahaz as king of Judah. 729 BC—Luli succeeds Mattan II as king of Tyre. 728 BC—Death of Tiglath-Pileser III, king of Assyria. 727 BC—Shalmaneser V becomes king of Assyria. 727 BC—Tefnakhte founds the Twenty-fourth dynasty of Egypt. 726 BC—Hezekiah succeeds Ahaz as king of Judah. 725 BC—Bakenranef succeeds his father Tefnakhte as king of the Twenty-fourth dynasty of Egypt. 724 BC—Ahaz, king of Judah dies. 722 BC—Shalmaneser V, king of Assyria, dies. 722 BC—Sargon succeeds Shalmaneser V as king of Assyria. 721 BC—Shabaka succeeds his father Piye as king of the Twenty-fifth dynasty of Egypt. 720 BC—Shabaka kills Bakenranef, ending the Twenty-fourth Dynasty of Egypt 720 BC—Death of King Ping of the Zhou Dynasty of China. C. 720 BC—Birth of Guan Zhong, political adviser of Qi in eastern Ancient China
Egypt the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula. Egypt is a Mediterranean country bordered by the Gaza Strip and Israel to the northeast, the Gulf of Aqaba and the Red Sea to the east, Sudan to the south, Libya to the west. Across the Gulf of Aqaba lies Jordan, across the Red Sea lies Saudi Arabia, across the Mediterranean lie Greece and Cyprus, although none share a land border with Egypt. Egypt has one of the longest histories of any country, tracing its heritage back to the 6th–4th millennia BCE. Considered a cradle of civilisation, Ancient Egypt saw some of the earliest developments of writing, urbanisation, organised religion and central government. Iconic monuments such as the Giza Necropolis and its Great Sphinx, as well the ruins of Memphis, Thebes and the Valley of the Kings, reflect this legacy and remain a significant focus of scientific and popular interest. Egypt's long and rich cultural heritage is an integral part of its national identity, which has endured, assimilated, various foreign influences, including Greek, Roman, Ottoman Turkish, Nubian.
Egypt was an early and important centre of Christianity, but was Islamised in the seventh century and remains a predominantly Muslim country, albeit with a significant Christian minority. From the 16th to the beginning of the 20th century, Egypt was ruled by foreign imperial powers: The Ottoman Empire and the British Empire. Modern Egypt dates back to 1922, when it gained nominal independence from the British Empire as a monarchy. However, British military occupation of Egypt continued, many Egyptians believed that the monarchy was an instrument of British colonialism. Following the 1952 revolution, Egypt expelled British soldiers and bureaucrats and ended British occupation, nationalized the British-held Suez Canal, exiled King Farouk and his family, declared itself a republic. In 1958 it merged with Syria to form the United Arab Republic, which dissolved in 1961. Throughout the second half of the 20th century, Egypt endured social and religious strife and political instability, fighting several armed conflicts with Israel in 1948, 1956, 1967 and 1973, occupying the Gaza Strip intermittently until 1967.
In 1978, Egypt signed the Camp David Accords withdrawing from the Gaza Strip and recognising Israel. The country continues to face challenges, from political unrest, including the recent 2011 revolution and its aftermath, to terrorism and economic underdevelopment. Egypt's current government is a presidential republic headed by President Abdel Fattah el-Sisi, described by a number of watchdogs as authoritarian. Islam is the official religion of Egypt and Arabic is its official language. With over 95 million inhabitants, Egypt is the most populous country in North Africa, the Middle East, the Arab world, the third-most populous in Africa, the fifteenth-most populous in the world; the great majority of its people live near the banks of the Nile River, an area of about 40,000 square kilometres, where the only arable land is found. The large regions of the Sahara desert, which constitute most of Egypt's territory, are sparsely inhabited. About half of Egypt's residents live in urban areas, with most spread across the densely populated centres of greater Cairo and other major cities in the Nile Delta.
The sovereign state of Egypt is a transcontinental country considered to be a regional power in North Africa, the Middle East and the Muslim world, a middle power worldwide. Egypt's economy is one of the largest and most diversified in the Middle East, is projected to become one of the largest in the world in the 21st century. In 2016, Egypt became Africa's second largest economy. Egypt is a founding member of the United Nations, Non-Aligned Movement, Arab League, African Union, Organisation of Islamic Cooperation. "Miṣr" is the Classical Quranic Arabic and modern official name of Egypt, while "Maṣr" is the local pronunciation in Egyptian Arabic. The name is of Semitic origin, directly cognate with other Semitic words for Egypt such as the Hebrew "מִצְרַיִם"; the oldest attestation of this name for Egypt is the Akkadian "mi-iṣ-ru" related to miṣru/miṣirru/miṣaru, meaning "border" or "frontier". There is evidence of rock carvings in desert oases. In the 10th millennium BCE, a culture of hunter-gatherers and fishers was replaced by a grain-grinding culture.
Climate changes or overgrazing around 8000 BCE began to desiccate the pastoral lands of Egypt, forming the Sahara. Early tribal peoples migrated to the Nile River where they developed a settled agricultural economy and more centralised society. By about 6000 BCE, a Neolithic culture rooted in the Nile Valley. During the Neolithic era, several predynastic cultures developed independently in Upper and Lower Egypt; the Badarian culture and the successor Naqada series are regarded as precursors to dynastic Egypt. The earliest known Lower Egyptian site, predates the Badarian by about seven hundred years. Contemporaneous Lower Egyptian communities coexisted with their southern counterparts for more than two thousand years, remaining culturally distinct, but maintaining frequent contact through trade; the earliest known evidence of Egyptian hieroglyphic inscriptions appeared during the predynastic period on Naqada III pottery vessels, dated to about 3200 BCE. A unified kingdom was founded c. 3150 BCE
Euboea or Evia. The narrow Euripus Strait separates it from Boeotia in mainland Greece. In general outline it is a narrow island, its geographic orientation is from northwest to southeast, it is traversed throughout its length by a mountain range, which forms part of the chain that bounds Thessaly on the east, is continued south of Euboea in the lofty islands of Andros and Mykonos. It forms most of the regional unit of Euboea, which includes Skyros and a small area of the Greek mainland. Like most of the Greek islands, Euboea was known under other names in Antiquity, such as Macris and Doliche from its elongated shape, or Ellopia and Abantis from the tribes inhabiting it, its ancient and current name, Εὔβοια, derives from the words εὖ "good", βοῦς "ox", meaning " the well oxen". In the Middle Ages, the island was referred to by Byzantine authors by the name of its capital, Chalcis or Euripos, although the ancient name Euboea remained in use by classicizing authors until the 15th century; the phrase στὸν Εὔριπον'to Evripos', rebracketed as στὸ Νεὔριπον'to Nevripos', became Negroponte in Italian by folk etymology, the ponte'bridge' being interpreted as the bridge of Chalcis.
This name was most relevant. That name entered common use in the West in the 13th century, with other variants being Egripons and Negropont. Under Ottoman rule, the island and its capital were known as Eğriboz or Ağriboz, again after the Euripos strait. Euboea was believed to have formed part of the mainland, to have been separated from it by an earthquake; this is probable, because it lies in the neighbourhood of a fault line, both Thucydides and Strabo write that the northern part of the island had been shaken at different periods. In the neighbourhood of Chalcis, both to the north and the south, the bays are so confined as to make plausible the story of Agamemnon's fleet having been detained there by contrary winds. At Chalcis itself, where the strait is narrowest at only 40 m, it is called the Euripus Strait; the extraordinary changes of tide that take place in this passage have been a subject of note since classical times. At one moment the current runs like a river in one direction, shortly afterwards with equal velocity in the other.
A bridge was first constructed here in the twenty-first year of the Peloponnesian War. Geography and nature divide the island itself into three distinct parts: the fertile and forested north, the mountainous centre, with agriculture limited to the coastal valleys, the barren south; the main mountains include Pyxaria in the northeast and Ochi. The neighboring gulfs are the Pagasetic Gulf in the north, Malian Gulf, North Euboean Gulf in the west, the Euboic Sea and the Petalion Gulf. At the 2001 census the island had a population of 198,130, a total land area of 3,684 square kilometres; the history of the island of Euboea is that of its two principal cities and Eretria, both mentioned in the Catalogue of Ships. Both cities were settled by Ionian Greeks from Attica, would settle numerous colonies in Magna Graecia and Sicily, such as Cumae and Rhegium, on the coast of Macedonia; this opened new trade routes to the Greeks, extended the reach of Western Civilization. The commercial influence of these city-states is evident in the fact that the Euboic scale of weights and measures was used among the Ionic cities and in Athens until the end of the 7th century BC, during the time of Solon.
The classicist Barry B. Powell has proposed that Euboea may have been where the Greek alphabet was first employed, c. 775-750 BC, that Homer may have spent part of his life on the island. Chalcis and Eretria were rival cities, appear to have been powerful for a while. One of the earliest major military conflicts in Greek history took place between them, known as the Lelantine War, in which many other Greek city-states took part. Following the infamous battles of Thermopylae and Artemisium, Persian forces captured and sacked Athens, took Euboea and Attica, allowing them to overrun all of Greece. In 490 BC, Eretria was utterly ruined and its inhabitants were transported to Persia. Though it was restored nearby its original site after the Battle of Marathon, the city never regained its former eminence. Both cities lost influence to Athens, which saw Euboea as a strategic territory. Euboea was an important source of grain and cattle, controlling the island meant Athens could prevent invasion and better protect its trade routes from piracy.
Athens settled 4,000 Attic Greeks on their lands. After this conflict, the whole of the island was reduced to an Athenian dependency. Another struggle between Euboea and Athens broke out in 446. Led by Pericles, the Athenians subdued the revolt, captured Histiaea in the north of the island for their own settlement. By 410 BC, the island succeeded in regaining its independence. Euboea participated in Greek affairs until falling under the control of Philip II of Macedon after the Battle of Chaeronea in 338 BC, being incorporated into the Roman Republic in the second century BC. Aristotle died on the island in 322 BC
Corinth is an ancient city and former municipality in Corinthia, located in south-central Greece. Since the 2011 local government reform it is part of the municipality of Corinth, of which it is the seat and a municipal unit, it is the capital of Corinthia. It was founded as Nea Korinthos or New Corinth in 1858 after an earthquake destroyed the existing settlement of Corinth, which had developed in and around the site of ancient Corinth. Located about 78 kilometres west of Athens, Corinth is surrounded by the coastal townlets of Lechaio, Isthmia and the inland townlets of Examilia and the archaeological site and village of ancient Corinth. Natural features around the city include the narrow coastal plain of Vocha, the Corinthian Gulf, the Isthmus of Corinth cut by its canal, the Saronic Gulf, the Oneia Mountains, the monolithic rock of Acrocorinth, where the medieval acropolis was built. Corinth derives its name from a city-state of antiquity; the site was occupied from before 3000 BC. But historical sources about the city concerns the early 8th century BC, when Corinth began to develop as a commercial center.
Between the 8th and 7th centuries, the Bacchiad family ruled Corinth. Cypselus overthrew the Bacchiad family, between 657 and 550 BC, he and his son Periander ruled Corinth as the Tyrants. In about 550 BC, an oligarchical government seized power; this government allied with Sparta within the Peloponnesian League, Corinth participated in the Persian Wars and Peloponnesian War as an ally of Sparta. After Sparta's victory in the Peloponnesian war, the two allies fell out with one another, Corinth pursued an independent policy in the various wars of the early 4th century BC. After the Macedonian conquest of Greece, the Acrocorinth was the seat of a Macedonian garrison until 243 BC, when the city was liberated and joined the Achaean League. Nearly a century in 146 BC, Corinth was captured and destroyed by Roman armies; as a Roman colony in 44 BC, Corinth flourished and became the administrative capital of the Roman province of Achaea. In 1858, the old city, now known as Ancient Corinth, located 3 kilometres south-west of the modern city, was destroyed by a magnitude 6.5 earthquake.
New Corinth was built to the north-east of it, on the coast of the Gulf of Corinth. In 1928 a magnitude 6.3 earthquake devastated the new city, rebuilt on the same site. In 1933 there was a great fire, the new city was rebuilt again; the Municipality of Corinth had a population of 58,192 according to the 2011 census, the second most populous municipality in the Peloponnese Region after Kalamata. The municipal unit of Corinth had 38,132 inhabitants, of which Corinth itself had 30,176 inhabitants, placing it in third place behind Kalamata and Tripoli among the cities of the Peloponnese Region; the municipal unit of Corinth includes apart from Corinth proper the town of Archaia Korinthos, the town of Examilia, the smaller settlements of Xylokeriza and Solomos. The municipal unit has an area of 102.187 km2. Corinth is a major industrial hub at a national level; the Corinth Refinery is one of the largest oil refining industrial complexes in Europe. Copper cables, petroleum products, medical equipment, gypsum, ceramic tiles, mineral water and beverages, meat products, gums are produced nearby.
As of 2005, a period of deindustrialization has commenced as a large pipework complex, a textile factory and a meat packing facility diminished their operations. Corinth is a major road hub; the A7 toll motorway for Tripoli and Kalamata, branches off the A8/European route E94 toll motorway from Athens at Corinth. Corinth is the main entry point to the Peloponnesian peninsula, the southernmost area of continental Greece. KTEL Korinthias provides intercity bus service in the peninsula and to Athens via the Isthmos station southeast of the city center. Local bus service is available; the city has been connected to the Proastiakos, the Athens suburban rail network, since 2005, when the new Corinth railway station was completed. The port of Corinth, located north of the city centre and close to the northwest entrance of the Corinth Canal, at 37 56.0’ N / 22 56.0’ E, serves the local needs of industry and agriculture. It is a cargo exporting facility, it is an artificial harbour (depth 9 metres, protected by a concrete mole.
A new pier finished in the late 1980s doubled the capacity of the port. The reinforced mole protects anchored vessels from strong northern winds. Within the port operates a customs office facility and a Hellenic Coast Guard post. Sea traffic is limited to trade in the export of local produce citrus fruits, marble and some domestic imports; the port operates as a contingency facility for general cargo ships, bulk carriers and ROROs, in case of strikes at Piraeus port. There was a ferry link to Catania and Genoa in Italy; the Corinth Canal, carrying ship traffic between the western Mediterranean Sea and the Aegean Sea, is about 4 kilometres east of the city, cutting through the Isthmus of Corinth that connects the Peloponnesian peninsula to the Greek mainland, thus making the former an island. The builders dug the canal through the Isthmus at sea level, it is 6.4 kilometres in length and only 21.3 metres (70