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74 Aquarii

74 Aquarii is a triple star system in the constellation of Aquarius. 74 Aquarii is its Flamsteed designation and it bears the variable star designation HI Aquarii. The combined apparent visual magnitude is 5.8 and it is located at a distance of 700 light-years from Earth. The inner pair of stars form a double-lined spectroscopic binary, where the presence of both components is revealed from the Doppler shift of their spectral lines; the spectroscopic binary was discovered and the orbit calculated by Richard J. Wolff of the University of Hawaii in 1974. A refined orbit was calculated in 2004 by Italian astronomers Giovanni Catanzaro and Paolo Leto in 2004; the orbital period is 3.4 days. A third component is orbiting the inner pair with a 9.5-year period at a typical angular separation of 0.046 arcseconds. In 2010, this component was at an angular separation of 0.069 arcseconds along a position angle of 285.9°. This is equivalent to a projected separation of 13.9 ± 2.4 AU. Image 74 Aquarii

Manganese(II) phosphate

Manganese phosphate is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula Mn32. It has industrial importance as a constituent of manganese based phosphate conversion coatings Manganese phosphates combine with iron phosphates through paragenesis. In the process of paragenesis, each mineral affects the manner; the minerals combine in isomorphic series, meaning that they crystallize in similar forms, producing a sequence of solids. Some examples of “isomorphic series” formed by Mn and Fe include heterosite PO4, purpurite PO4, triplite PO4.. The immersion method is used for the processing of manganese phosphate coatings; the steps of immersion include degreasing/cleaning, water rinses, pickling in mineral acid, manganese phosphating, an optional final drying, lubrication using oils or emulsion. The first step of this method is to degrease and clean with strong alkaline cleaners. Pickling in mineral acid is a useful process described by the removal of oxide, resulting in a clean surface; the water pre-rinse activation allows the cleaning and pickling to take place while avoiding the formation of coarse-crystalline phosphate.

Manganese phosphating is performed in a bath of dilute phosphoric acid, at 95 °C for about 5–20 minutes. The elements that were coated are allowed to dry in an oven; the final step of manganese phosphate coating is to lubricate the materials with oil by immersing them in the oil bath and letting them drain. This results in different thicknesses of oil when different concentrations and types of oil are used. Manganese phosphate can be used for coatings; these coatings are useful for protection against corrosion and wear over time, due to their toughness. Manganese phosphate coating can be found in the oil and gas industry and ordnance, aerospace and bearings, in marine equipment, they are common in engines, screws and bolts, washers

Robert Markley

Robert Markley is an American academic and author, noted for his contributions to eighteenth-century studies, science studies, science fiction. He is the W. D. and Sara E. Trowbridge Professor of English at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, where he is affiliated with Writing Studies and the Center for East Asian and Pacific Studies, he is an editor of the journal The Eighteenth Century and President of the Society for Literature and the Arts. The author of more than eighty articles in eighteenth-century studies, science studies, new media, his recent books include Fallen Languages: Crises of Representation in Newtonian England, Virtual Realities and Their Discontents, Dying Planet: Mars in Science and the Imagination, The Far East and the English Imagination, 1600-1730, he has held fellowships from the National Endowment for the Humanities, the Huntington and Beinecke Libraries, most at the National Center for Supercomputing Applications. His study of the contemporary science-fiction novelist, Kim Stanley Robinson, is forthcoming from the University of Illinois Press next year.

Robert Markley is the University of Pennsylvania. Prior to his work at the University of Illinois, Markley taught at several universities, including Tulane, the University of Washington, West Virginia University, where he held the Jackson Distinguished Chair of British Literature; the Far East and the English Imagination 1600-1730. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2006. Dying Planet: Mars in Science and the Imagination. Durham: Duke University Press, 2005. Fallen Languages: Crises of Representation in Newtonian England, 1660-1740. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1993. Two-Edg'd Weapons: Style and Ideology in the Comedies of Etherege, andCongreve. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1988