Battle of France
The Battle of France, known as the Fall of France, was the German invasion of France and the Low Countries in 1940 during the Second World War. Italy entered the war on 10 June 1940 and attempted an invasion of France, the German plan for the invasion of France consisted of two main operations. After the withdrawal of the BEF, the German forces began Fall Rot on 5 June, the sixty remaining French divisions made a determined resistance but were unable to overcome the German air superiority and armoured mobility. German tanks outflanked the Maginot Line and pushed deep into France, German forces occupied Paris unopposed on 14 June after a chaotic period of flight of the French government that led to a collapse of the French army. German commanders met with French officials on 18 June with the goal of forcing the new French government to accept an armistice that amounted to surrender and this led to the end of the French Third Republic. France was not liberated until the summer of 1944, in 1939, Britain and France offered military support to Poland in the likely case of a German invasion.
In the dawn of 1 September 1939, the German Invasion of Poland began and the United Kingdom declared war on 3 September, after an ultimatum for German forces to immediately withdraw their forces from Poland was met without reply. Following this, New Zealand, South Africa and Canada, on 7 September, in accordance with their alliance with Poland, France began the Saar Offensive with an advance from the Maginot Line 5 km into the Saar. France had mobilised 98 divisions and 2,500 tanks against a German force consisting of 43 divisions, the French advanced until they met the thin and undermanned Siegfried Line. On 17 September, the French supreme commander, Maurice Gamelin gave the order to withdraw French troops to their starting positions, following the Saar Offensive, a period of inaction called the Phoney War set in between the belligerents. Adolf Hitler had hoped that France and Britain would acquiesce in the conquest of Poland, on 6 October, he made a peace offer to both Western powers. On 9 October, Hitler issued a new Führer-Directive Number 6, the plan was based on the seemingly more realistic assumption that German military strength would have to be built up for several years.
For the moment only limited objectives could be envisaged and were aimed at improving Germanys ability to survive a long war in the west. Hitler ordered a conquest of the Low Countries to be executed at the shortest possible notice to forestall the French and it would provide the basis for a long-term air and sea campaign against Britain. On 10 October 1939, Britain refused Hitlers offer of peace and on 12 October, colonel-General Franz Halder, presented the first plan for Fall Gelb on 19 October. This was the codename of plans for a campaign in the Low Countries. Halders plan has been compared to the Schlieffen Plan, the given to the German strategy of 1914 in the First World War. It was similar in both plans entailed an advance through the middle of Belgium
A signaller or signaleer in the armed forces is a specialist soldier, seaman or airman responsible for military communications. Messages are transmitted and received via a communications infrastructure comprising fixed, in the past, signalling skills have included the use of, Aldis lamp, semaphore flags, Don R and even carrier pigeons. Modern signallers are responsible for the voice and data communication and information technology infrastructure. All types of wire and ionospheric radio communication are employed and these include common radio systems such as HF/VHF radio and UHF/SHF radio. Cellular radio and telephone systems such as TETRA are becoming common, station Organisation, Managing Radio Nets and Maintaining Net Discipline for example, map marking, log keeping etc. Electronic Warfare, Communications Security - including the encryption and deciphering of coded messages using paper/voice, the origins of this nickname are unclear. Signallers in Canada are responsible for the majority of radio, telephone, trained signallers of the rank of private in Canada are referred to as Sig as a replacement for private.
The rank is equivalent to that of Private
52nd (Lowland) Infantry Division
The 52nd Infantry Division was an infantry division of the British Army that was originally formed as the Lowland Division, in 1908 as part of the Territorial Force. It became the 52nd Division in 1915, the 52nd Division fought in the First World War before being disbanded, with the rest of the Territorial Force, in 1920. After the war, the division was merged with the 51st Infantry Division in 1948, the history of the division was carried on by the 52nd Lowland Brigade, and the 52nd Lowland Regiment. The famous territorial regiments that were incorporated in the division were all drawn from the Scottish Lowlands and it consisted of three infantry brigades, the 155th Brigade, 156th Brigade, and 157th Brigades. Initially assigned to the defence of the Scottish coast, the moved to Gallipoli. While moving from Scotland the division suffered the loss of 210 officers and men killed, and another 224 injured in the Quintinshill rail crash, near Gretna, that involved the 1/7th Royal Scots. During the First World War, the fought at Gallipoli, in the Middle East.
The division began landing at the Helles front, on the Gallipoli peninsula, the 156th Brigade was landed in time to take part in the Battle of Gully Ravine, where it was mauled, under the notorious Lieutenant-General Aylmer Hunter-Weston. Advancing along Fir Tree Spur, to the right of the ravine, the brigade suffered 1,400 casualties, or about half its strength, of which 800 were killed. When the remaining brigades were landed, they attacked towards Krithia, along Achi Baba Nullah and they succeeded in capturing the Ottoman trenches, but were left unsupported and vulnerable to counter-attack. For a modest gain in ground, they suffered 30 per cent casualties and were in no fit state to exploit their position, the division moved to Egypt as part of the Egyptian Expeditionary Force, where it manned the east-facing defensive fortifications during the Battle of Romani. With insufficient water, the conditions proved too much for the infantry ordered to advance the following day and were not heavily involved in the fighting thereafter.
Following the battle, they advanced across the Sinai occupying Bir el Abd, El Mazar and El Arish, the division fought in the First and Second Battle of Gaza in March and April 1917. As a division of XXI Corps, it played an important part in the overthrow of the Ottomans at the Third Battle of Gaza. The division participated in the Battle of Jerusalem and it involved considerable preparation, the details of which were thought out with care and precision. The sodden state of the ground, and, on the night of the crossing, the fact that the enemy were taken by surprise, that all resistance was overcome with the bayonet without a shot being fired, bears testimony to the discipline of this division. In March 1918 the division moved to France where it fought in the Second Battle of the Somme, the Second Battle of Arras, after the war the division was disbanded along with the rest of the Territorial Force. However it was re-established in 1920 as part of the Territorial Army and was mobilised again in 1939 as part of the British Expeditionary Force in France
Operation Barbarossa was the code name for Nazi Germanys invasion of the Soviet Union during World War II, which was launched on Sunday 22 June 1941. In the two leading up to the invasion, the two countries signed political and economic pacts for strategic purposes. Nevertheless, the German High Command began planning an invasion of the Soviet Union in July 1940, over the course of the operation, about four million Axis personnel invaded the western Soviet Union along a 2, 900-kilometer front, the largest invasion force in the history of warfare. In addition to troops, the Wehrmacht employed some 600,000 motor vehicles, the offensive marked an escalation of the war, both geographically and in the formation of the Allied coalition. Despite their successes, the German offensive stalled in the Battle of Moscow and was pushed back by the Soviet winter counteroffensive. The Red Army repelled the Wehrmachts strongest blows and forced the unprepared Germans into a war of attrition, the Wehrmacht would never again mount a simultaneous offensive along the entire strategic Soviet–Axis front.
The failure of the operation drove Hitler to demand further operations of limited scope inside the Soviet Union, such as Case Blue. The failure of Operation Barbarossa proved a point in the fortunes of the Third Reich. Most importantly, the operation opened up the Eastern Front, in more forces were committed than in any other theater of war in world history. The German armies captured 5,000,000 Soviet prisoners of war who were not granted protections stipulated in the Geneva Conventions, a majority of them never returned alive. The Nazis deliberately starved 3.1 million of the prisoners to death as part of a Hunger Plan that aimed to reduce the population of Eastern Europe, over a million Soviet Jews were murdered by Einsatzgruppen death squads and gassing as part of the Holocaust. On 10 February 1939, Hitler told his commanders that the next war would be purely a war of Weltanschauungen. Totally a peoples war, a racial war, on 23 November, once World War II had already started, Hitler declared that racial war has broken out and this war shall determine who shall govern Europe, and with it, the world.
The racial policy of Nazi Germany viewed the Soviet Union as populated by non-Aryan Untermenschen, Hitler claimed in Mein Kampf that Germanys destiny was to turn to the East as it did six hundred years ago. Accordingly, it was stated Nazi policy to kill, deport, or enslave the majority of Russian and other Slavic populations and repopulate the land with Germanic peoples, under the Generalplan Ost. Likening the Soviets to the forces of Genghis Khan, Hitler told Croatian military leader Slavko Kvaternik that the Mongolian race threatened Europe. Following the invasion, Wehrmacht officers told their soldiers to target people who were described as Jewish Bolshevik subhumans, the Mongol hordes, the Asiatic flood, German army commanders cast the Jews as the major cause behind the partisan struggle. The main guideline policy for German troops was Where theres a partisan, theres a Jew, many German troops viewed the war in Nazi terms and regarded their Soviet enemies as sub-human
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom or Britain, is a sovereign country in western Europe. Lying off the north-western coast of the European mainland, the United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state—the Republic of Ireland. The Irish Sea lies between Great Britain and Ireland, with an area of 242,500 square kilometres, the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world and the 11th-largest in Europe. It is the 21st-most populous country, with an estimated 65.1 million inhabitants, this makes it the fourth-most densely populated country in the European Union. The United Kingdom is a monarchy with a parliamentary system of governance. The monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who has reigned since 6 February 1952, other major urban areas in the United Kingdom include the regions of Birmingham, Glasgow and Manchester.
The United Kingdom consists of four countries—England, Wales, the last three have devolved administrations, each with varying powers, based in their capitals, Edinburgh and Belfast, respectively. The relationships among the countries of the UK have changed over time, Wales was annexed by the Kingdom of England under the Laws in Wales Acts 1535 and 1542. A treaty between England and Scotland resulted in 1707 in a unified Kingdom of Great Britain, which merged in 1801 with the Kingdom of Ireland to form the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the UK in 1922, leaving the present formulation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain, there are fourteen British Overseas Territories. These are the remnants of the British Empire which, at its height in the 1920s, British influence can be observed in the language and legal systems of many of its former colonies. The United Kingdom is a country and has the worlds fifth-largest economy by nominal GDP. The UK is considered to have an economy and is categorised as very high in the Human Development Index.
It was the worlds first industrialised country and the worlds foremost power during the 19th, the UK remains a great power with considerable economic, military and political influence internationally. It is a nuclear weapons state and its military expenditure ranks fourth or fifth in the world. The UK has been a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council since its first session in 1946 and it has been a leading member state of the EU and its predecessor, the European Economic Community, since 1973. However, on 23 June 2016, a referendum on the UKs membership of the EU resulted in a decision to leave. The Acts of Union 1800 united the Kingdom of Great Britain, Scotland and Northern Ireland have devolved self-government
Norwich is a city on the River Wensum in East Anglia and lies about 100 miles north-east of London. It is the administrative centre for East Anglia and county town of Norfolk. During the 11th century, Norwich was the largest city in England after London and it remained the capital of the most populous English county until the Industrial Revolution. The urban area of Norwich had a population of 213,166 according to the 2011 Census, the parliamentary seats cross over into adjacent local-government districts. A total of 132,512 people live in the City of Norwich, Norwich is the fourth most densely populated local-government district in the East of England, with 3,480 people per square kilometre. In May 2012, Norwich was designated Englands first UNESCO City of Literature, the capital of the Iceni tribe was a settlement located near to the village of Caistor St. Edmund on the River Tas approximately 8 kilometres to the south of modern-day Norwich. Following an uprising led by Boudica around AD60 the Caistor area became the Roman capital of East Anglia named Venta Icenorum, literally the market place of the Iceni.
According to a rhyme, the demise of Venta Icenorum led to the development of Norwich, Caistor was a city when Norwich was none. There are two suggested models of development for Norwich, the ancient city was a thriving centre for trade and commerce in East Anglia in 1004 AD when it was raided and burnt by Swein Forkbeard the Viking king of Denmark. Mercian coins and shards of pottery from the Rhineland dating from the 8th century suggest that trade was happening long before this. Between 924 and 939, Norwich became fully established as a town, the word Norvic appears on coins across Europe minted during this period, in the reign of King Athelstan. The Vikings were a cultural influence in Norwich for 40–50 years at the end of the 9th century. At the time of the Norman Conquest the city was one of the largest in England, the Domesday Book states that it had approximately 25 churches and a population of between 5, 000–10,000. It records the site of an Anglo-Saxon church in Tombland, the site of the Saxon market place and the Norman cathedral.
Norwich continued to be a centre for trade, the River Wensum being a convenient export route to the River Yare and Great Yarmouth. Quern stones and other artefacts from Scandinavia and the Rhineland have been found during excavations in Norwich city centre and these date from the 11th century onwards. Norwich Castle was founded soon after the Norman Conquest, the Domesday Book records that 98 Saxon homes were demolished to make way for the castle. In 1096, Herbert de Losinga, Bishop of Thetford, began construction of Norwich Cathedral, the chief building material for the Cathedral was limestone, imported from Caen in Normandy
48th (South Midland) Division
The 48th Division was an infantry division of the British Army, part of the Territorial Force, originally raised in 1908. Originally called the South Midland Division, it was redesignated as the 48th Division in 1915, during the First World War, the division saw service on the Western Front before being transferred to the Italian Front in November 1917 and remained there for the rest of the war. It was converted into a reserve division in late December 1942. The division was not reformed again, in both world wars the division raised a 2nd Line reserve division, 61st Division in the Great War, and 61st Division in the Second World War. This task fell to Secretary of State for War, Richard Haldane who implemented several policies known as the Haldane Reforms, as part of these reforms, the Territorial and Reserve Forces Act 1907 created a new Territorial Force by merging the existing Yeomanry and Volunteer Force in 1908. This resulted in the creation of 14 Territorial Divisions, including the South Midland Division, as part of the legislation, the territorials were only liable to serve within the United Kingdom.
In addition, Haldane saw the territorials as a source of reinforcements for the regular army, the 1910 edition of the Hazells Annual reported that in 1909, The South Midland Division. Had 13 units up to or over establishment, and the very little below it. The following year, the Territorial Force as a peaked at a strength of 276,000 men,26,000 men short of the peacetime establishment set by Haldanes reforms. However, between 1910 and 1914, the strength of the force had declined to 250,000,52,000 short of the peacetime establishment. In August 1914, the South Midland Division departed for its summer training camp. The 143rd Brigade, for example, departed for Rhyl in northern Wales, following the declaration of war, the division was mobilised and moved south to take up defensive positions along the southern coast. Due to German-invasion scares, the division-numbering 6,000 men-moved to Essex, while there was no invasion, the division remained in the area on defensive duties and to continue training.
During the opening weeks of the war, as the Territorials were not required to be deployed overseas, by the end of August, over seventy battalions across the Territorial Force had volunteered with the number further raising as the year progressed. The members of the division who did not, or were not able to and these second line units were eventually formed into the 61st Division and, following the passing of the Military Service Act 1916, deployed to France in February 1916. In March 1915, with the threat of a German invasion having subsided, on the outbreak of war the division composed the Warwickshire Brigade, the Gloucester and Worcester Brigade and the South Midland Brigade. The division was redesignated the 48th Division, and its brigades became the 143rd Brigade, 144th Brigade, the division was sent to France in March 1915 and served on the Western Front. It took part in the Battle of the Somme in 1916, the Battle of Pozières, in November 1917, the division was sent to Italy, where it remained until the end of the War
Royal Norfolk Regiment
The Royal Norfolk Regiment was a line infantry regiment of the British Army until 1959. Its predecessor regiment was raised in 1685 as Henry Cornewalls Regiment of Foot, in 1751, it was numbered like most other British Army regiments and named the 9th Regiment of Foot. The Norfolk Regiment fought in the Great War on the Western Front, after the war, the regiment became the Royal Norfolk Regiment on 3 June 1935. Cornewall resigned his post following the Glorious Revolution and command went to Colonel Oliver Nicholas in November 1788, in December 1788 Nicholas was removed due to his personal Jacobite sympathies and command passed to John Cunningham. In April 1689 the regiment, under Cunningham’s command, embarked at Liverpool for Derry for service in the Williamite War in Ireland, Cunningham led a failed attempt to relieve the besieged city of Derry. The regiment briefly returned to England, but in May 1689 Cunningham was replaced by William Stewart, the regiment saw action at the Battle of the Boyne in July 1690, the Siege of Limerick in August 1690 and the Siege of Athlone in June 1691.
It went on to fight at the Battle of Aughrim in July 1691, the regiment embarked for Holland in June 1701 and took part in the sieges of Kaiserswerth and of Venlo in spring 1702 during the War of the Spanish Succession. In March 1704 the regiment embarked for Lisbon and took part in the Battle of Almansa in April 1707 before returning to England in summer 1708, the regiment was based in Minorca from summer 1718 to 1746. The regiment was renamed the 9th Regiment of Foot in 1751 when all British regiments were given numbers for identification instead of using their Colonels name. During the Seven Years War the Regiment won its first formal battle honour as part of the expedition that captured Belle Île from the French in 1761. It sailed for Cuba with George Keppel, 3rd Earl of Albemarle in March 1762 and took part in the siege and subsequent capture of Havana in summer 1762. Following the signing of the Treaty of Paris in 1763 and the end of the war the regiment moved to a posting at St. Augustine in Florida, where it remained until 1769.
It surrendered at the Battle of Saratoga in autumn 1777 and its men spent three years as prisoners of war as part of the Convention Army. On 31 August 1782 the regiment was linked with Norfolk as part of attempts to improve recruitment to the army as whole, in January 1788 the regiment embarked for the West Indies and took part in the capture of the island of Tobago and in the attack on Martinique. It went on to capture Saint Lucia and Guadeloupe before returning to England in autumn 1796, in 1799 the King approved the Regiments use of Britannia as its symbol. It took part in the Ferrol Expedition in August 1800 under Sir James Pulteney, in June 1808 the regiment sail for Portugal for service in the Peninsular War. It saw action at the Battle of Roliça and the Battle of Vimeiro in August 1808, following the retreat from Corunna the regiment buried Sir John Moore and left Spanish soil. The regiment took part in the disastrous Walcheren expedition to the Low Countries in summer 1809 and it saw action at the Siege of Ciudad Rodrigo in January 1812, the Siege of Badajoz in March 1812 and the Battle of Salamanca in July 1812
Operation Sea Lion
Operation Sea Lion was Nazi Germanys code name for the plan for an invasion of the United Kingdom during the Battle of Britain in the Second World War. A large number of barges were gathered together on the Channel coast, Adolf Hitler hoped for a negotiated peace with the UK, and made no preparations for amphibious assault on Britain until the Fall of France. At the time, the forces with experience of, or modern equipment for naval landings were the Japanese. In September 1939, the German invasion of Poland was a success, on 9 October, Hitlers Directive No. Reinicke spent five days on this study and set forth the following prerequisites, Eliminating or sealing off Royal Navy forces from the landing, destroying all Royal Navy units in the coastal zone. Preventing British submarine action against the landing fleet, the OKW considered the options and Hitlers 29 November Directive No. This directive remained in force in the first phase of the Battle of Britain, in December 1939, the German Army issued its own study paper and solicited opinions and input from both the Kriegsmarine and Luftwaffe.
The paper outlined an assault on Englands eastern coast between The Wash and the River Thames by troops crossing the North Sea from ports in the Low Countries. The Kriegsmarine response was focused on pointing out the difficulties to be surmounted if invading England was to be a viable option. It could not envisage taking on the Royal Navy Home Fleet, Reichsmarschall Hermann Göring, head of the Luftwaffe, responded with a single-page letter in which he stated, combined operation having the objective of landing in England must be rejected. It could only be the act of an already victorious war against Britain as otherwise the preconditions for success of a combined operation would not be met. Germanys swift and successful occupation of France and the Low Countries gained control of the Channel coast, on 21 May 1940 Raeder met Hitler and raised the topic of invasion, but warned of the risks and expressed a preference for blockade by air and surface raiders. British parliamentarians still arguing for peace negotiations were defeated in the May 1940 War Cabinet Crisis, in a report presented on 30 June, the OKW Chief of Staff Alfred Jodl reviewed options to increase pressure on Britain to agree to a negotiated peace.
The first priority was to eliminate the Royal Air Force and gain air supremacy, Intensified air attacks against shipping and the economy could affect food supplies and civilian morale in the long term. Reprisal attacks of terror bombing had the potential to cause quicker capitulation, at a meeting that day, OKW Chief of Staff General Franz Halder heard from Secretary of State Ernst von Weizsäcker that Hitler had turned his attention to Russia. On 1 July Halder met Admiral Otto Schniewind, and they shared views without understanding each others position, both thought that air superiority was needed first, and could make the invasion unnecessary. They agreed that minefields and U-boats could limit the threat posed by the Royal Navy, a Luftwaffe report presented to the OKW at a meeting on 11 July said that it would take 14 to 28 days to achieve air superiority. The meeting heard that England was discussing an agreement with Russia, Hitler agreed with him that invasion would be a last resort
Operation Fortitude was the code name for a World War II military deception employed by the Allied nations as part of an overall deception strategy during the build-up to the 1944 Normandy landings. Fortitude was divided into two sub-plans and South, with the aim of misleading the German high command as to the location of the imminent invasion, both Fortitude plans involved the creation of phantom field armies which threatened Norway and Pas de Calais. Fortitude was one of the elements of Operation Bodyguard, the overall Allied deception stratagem for the Normandy landings. Bodyguards principal objective was to ensure the Germans would not increase troop presence in Normandy by promoting the appearance that the Allied forces would attack in other locations, after the invasion the plan was to delay movement of German reserves to the Normandy beachhead and prevent a potentially disastrous counter-attack. Fortitudes objectives were to promote alternative targets of Norway and Calais, the planning of Operation Fortitude came under the auspices of the London Controlling Section, a secret body set up to manage Allied deception strategy during the war.
However, the execution of each fell to the various theatre commanders. A special section, was established at SHAEF to handle the operation, the LCS retained responsibility for what was called Special Means, the use of diplomatic channels and double-agents. Fortitude was split into two parts and South, both with similar aims, Fortitude North was intended to convince the German high command that the Allies, staging out of Scotland, would attempt an invasion of occupied Norway. Fortitude South employed the tactic, with the apparent objective being Pas de Calais. Fortitude planning was ostensibly the responsibility of Noel Wild and his Ops staff, however, in practice the work was shared between Wild and the heads of the LCS and B1a. Work began in December 1943, at first under the codename Mespot, prime Minister Winston Churchill judged this unsuitable and so the Fortitude name was adopted on February 18. Wilds first version of the Fortitude South plan was produced in early January 1943, the Fortitude South plan would be implemented, at an operational level, by the invasion force—the 21st Army Group under the command of General Bernard Montgomery.
This presented a problem, in the form of Colonel David Strangeways, Strangeways had, in the opinion of Opss Christopher Harmer, the same arrogance as his commanding officer. More important, he held a low opinion of the London establishment of the old clubs of Ops. Dissatisfied with the Fortitude South outline he, in the words of Harmer, Strangeways criticisms highlighted that the plan aimed to cover the Allies real intentions, rather than create a realistic threat to Calais. This was not the issue, and Strangeways was not the only one to notice them. On January 25, Montgomerys Chief of Staff Francis de Guingand sent a letter to the deception planners asking them, amongst other things and it was almost certainly sent at the behest of Strangeways. With these criticisms in hand, Wild produced his final draft for Fortitude South, in this revised plan, issued on January 30 and approved by the Allied chiefs on 18 February, fifty divisions would be positioned in Southern England to attack Pas de Calais
A military exercise or war game is the employment of military resources in training for military operations, either exploring the effects of warfare or testing strategies without actual combat. This serves the purpose of ensuring the readiness of garrisoned or deployable forces prior to deployment from home base / home station. Exercises in the 20th and 21st centuries have often identified by a unique codename in the same manner as military contingency operations. The more typically thought of exercise is the exercise, or the full-scale rehearsal of military maneuvers as practice for warfare. In a field exercise or fleet exercise, the two sides in the battle are typically called red and blue, to avoid naming a particular adversary. This naming convention originates with the inventors of the table-top war-game, a Command Post Exercise typically focuses on the battle readiness of staffs such as a particular Unified Combatant Command or one of its components at any level. It may run in parallel with an FTX or its equivalent, other types of exercise include the TEWT, known as a sand table, map or cloth model exercise.
This type of exercise allows commanders to manipulate models through possible scenarios in military planning and this is called warfare simulation, or in some instances a virtual battlefield and in the past has been described as wargames. Said forces may be different branches of the forces from one country or may be armed forces from different countries. These latter events incorporating multiple nations have often referred to as NATO exercises, Coalition exercises, Bilateral exercises, Multilateral exercises. The modern use of military exercises grew out of the military need to study warfare, during the age of Kabinettskriege, Frederick the Great, King of Prussia from 1740 to 1786, put together his armies as a well-oiled clockwork mechanism whose components were robot-like warriors. No individual initiative was allowed to Fredericks soldiers, their role was to cooperate in the creation of walls of projectiles through synchronized firepower. This was in the pursuit of an effective army. Disciplined troops should respond predictably, allowing study to be confined to maneuvers and these first wargames were played with dice which represented friction, or the intrusion of less than ideal circumstances during a real war.
21st century militaries still use wargames to simulate future wars and model their reaction, according to Manuel de Landa, after World War II the Command and Communications was transferred from the military staff to the RAND Corporation, the first think tank. Von Neumann was employed by the RAND Corporation, and his theory was used in wargames to model nuclear dissuasion during the Cold War. Thus, the US nuclear strategy was defined using wargames, SAM representing the US, early game theory included only zero-sum games, which means that when one player won, the other automatically lost. Thus, betrayal was considered as the most rational thing to do and this modelization gave the basis for the massive retaliation nuclear doctrine
They are trained to serve as infantry personnel in defensive and offensive operations. A sappers duties are devoted to tasks involving facilitating movement and survival of allied forces, the term sapper is used in the British Army and Commonwealth nations, Polish Army and the U. S. military. The phrase sapper comes from the French saper, saps were excavated by brigades of trained sappers or instructed troops. When an army was defending a fortress with cannon, they had an obvious height, the attacking armys artillery had to be brought forward, under fire, so as to facilitate effective counter-battery fire. This was achieved by digging what the French termed a sappe, using techniques developed and perfected by Vauban, the sappers began the trench at such an angle so as to avoid enemy fire enfilading the sappe. As they pressed forward, a position was prepared from which cannon could suppress the defenders on the bastions, the sappers would change the course of their trench, zig-zagging toward the fortress wall.
Each leg brought the attackers artillery closer until the cannon would be sufficiently suppressed for the attackers to breach the walls. Broadly speaking, sappers were experts at demolishing or otherwise overcoming or bypassing fortification systems. An additional term applied to sappers of the British Indian Army was miner, the native engineer corps were referred to as sappers and miners, as for example, the Royal Bombay Sappers and Miners. The term arose from a task done by sappers to further the battle after saps were dug, the saps permitted cannon to be brought into firing range of the besieged fort and its cannon, but often the cannon themselves were unable to breach the fort walls. This was dangerous work, often lethal to the sappers, and was resisted by the besieged enemy. Since the two tasks went hand in hand and were done by the troops, native Indian engineer corps came to be called sappers and miners. Sapper is the Royal Engineers equivalent of private, the term sapper was introduced in 1856 when the Corps of Royal Sappers and Miners was amalgamated with the officer corps of the Royal Engineers to form the Corps of Royal Engineers.
During the Sinai and Palestine Campaign of World War I Australian sappers repaired a bridge at the crossing of the Jordan River at Jisr Benat Yakub. Here the retreating Ottoman and German rearguard had blown up the central arch which was repaired in five hours by sappers attached to the Australian Mounted Division. Australian Sappers in the Vietnam War were honoured in the Cold Chisel song Khe Sanh with the line I left my heart to the Sappers round Khe Sanh, in the Canadian Forces, sappers exist both in the regular force and reserve force. The rank of sapper is used instead of private trained to signify completion of the Engineer DP1 course, Canadian sappers have been deployed in many major conflicts in recent history including World War I, World War II, the Korean War, and the War in Afghanistan. Ultimately, the objective of the sappers is to facilitate the living and fighting for friendly troops on the battlefield, the motto of the Canadian Military Engineers is Ubique a motto shared with the Royal Canadian Artillery