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Year 786 was a common year starting on Sunday of the Julian calendar. The denomination 786 for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years. King Charles the Younger, son of Charlemagne and ruler of Aquitaine, visits Monte Cassino and Capua, both in Beneventan territory. Prince Arechis II signs an agreement with the neighbouring Byzantine Duchy of Naples, called a'pactum'. Cyneheard, brother of the late king Sigeberht and kills his rival Cynewulf of Wessex, while he is at Meretun with his mistress; the Wessex nobles refuse to recognise Cyneheard as king. Cyneheard is succeeded by Beorhtric, through the support of King Offa of Mercia, his rival claimant to the Wessex throne, a distant nephew of the late king Ine, named Egbert, is driven across the Channel. Egbert settles at the court of Charlemagne, learns the arts of government during his time in Gaul. During his stay he meets Eadberht, a priest, who becomes king of Kent.

June 11 – Battle of Fakhkh: A Hasanid Alid uprising in Mecca is crushed by the Abbasids. One of the Alids, Idris ibn Abdallah, flees to the Maghreb in western North Africa, where he founds the Idrisid dynasty. September 14 – Harun al-Rashid becomes the Abbasid caliph in Baghdad, upon the death of his brother Al-Hadi, he appoints Salim Yunisi as governor of the Indus Valley. Beatus of Liébana and theologian, publishes his Commentary on the Apocalypse. October 10 – Saga, emperor of Japan Adelochus, archbishop of Strasbourg Al-Ḥajjāj ibn Yūsuf ibn Maṭar, Muslim mathematician Al-Ma'mun, Muslim caliph Sahl ibn Bishr, Muslim astrologer Tachibana no Kachiko, empress of Japan September 14 – Al-Hadi, Muslim caliph October 16 – Lullus, archbishop of Mainz Abo of Tiflis, Christian martyr Al-Rabi' ibn Yunus, Muslim minister Cyneheard the Ætheling, nobleman of Wessex Cynewulf, king of Wessex Desiderius, king of the Lombards Diarmait mac Conaing, king of South Brega Sakanoue no Karitamaro, Japanese general Tipraiti mac Taidg, king of Connacht Empress Wang of China In Arabic literature: There is an equation where when used.


The Astra-Gnome is a concept car by industrial designer Richard Arbib using a 1955 Nash Metropolitan chassis. Described as a "Time and Space Car", it features themes influenced by the space travel forms that were popular during the 1950s; the vehicle represented Arbib's vision of what an automobile would look like in the year 2000. American Motors commissioned Richard Arbib, a leading industrial designer of the 1950s, to develop a futuristic concept car. Built in four months, the Astra-Gnome represented the work of product stylists to create "new and exciting shapes and colors in a functional car." Arbib had the wheels and tires hidden behind full fender skirts to achieve "a floating special quality" and to suggest a spacecraft or hovercraft. The vehicle was featured on the 3 September 1956 cover of Newsweek magazine and a highlight at the 1956 New York International Auto Show. About 1,000 questionnaire cards were distributed to viewers at the auto show, with results indicating an 80% favorable response to the prototype.

Numerous photos were made of the car with Arbib, most accompanied by attractive female models who explained to the media that the concept was never intended for production. Despite a 25% increase in size over the original Metropolitan body, the total weight remains under 2,000 lb. About 400 lb of aluminum castings and extrusions were used, including fluted aluminum side panels, anodized in different blending colors; the bubble canopy provides an unobstructed vision all around. The Nash Metropolitan features the body work by Andrew Mazzara of New York. Among its many features is a Hamilton "celestial time-zone clock permitting actual flight-type navigation." The acrylic glass bubble canopy served as a sound chamber for the car's high fidelity radio and record player. The car included air conditioning and wrap-around bumper protection, matched to the height of full-sized car bumpers; the 6-foot width of the concept car was much greater than contemporary passenger automobiles and allowed for extra interior room, as well as storage and luggage spaces that included six pieces of matched integrated luggage.

The concept car "disappeared into oblivion" to be recovered from New York City in 1980. The car can be seen in a California museum. Nash Metropolitan

The Blood of the Bambergs

The Blood of the Bambergs is a short two-act play by John Osborne, published in his book "Plays for England". It was designed to be shown in a double-bill with another short play, Under Plain Cover; the Blood of the Bambergs is a satirical commentary on royal weddings, in a variation on the story of The Prisoner of Zenda. The play was inspired by the popular celebrations surrounding the marriage of Princess Margaret to Anthony Armstrong-Jones. Osborne's wife, the journalist Penelope Gilliatt, provided him with'backstage gossip' about the arrangement of the events, which Osborne found absurd. Satire of the monarchy was still not acceptable on the English stage; the Lord Chamberlain's office, which could censor plays by denying them a license to perform, felt unable to reject the play. The "devilish cleverness of this horrid play", wrote the author of the office's report, is that "If a licence is refused, this can at once be presented as a ridiculous banning of the old Prisoner of Zenda story sixty years later".

British Princess Melanie of Bamberg is to be married to Prince Willy, heir to the throne of another kingdom. On his way to the wedding, Willy is killed in a road accident. State officials do not know; the marriage is crucial for the future of the nation - as the next in line for the throne, the prince's brother, is a flagrant homosexual, unlikely to produce an heir. They discover that Russell, a brash Australian photographer, looks like the deceased Willy. Russell is none too keen to take the job, but is enticed when he is told of all the advantages he will have as Prince Consort, not the least of, the desirable Princess Melanie herself. However, though beautiful, is a bully, she is appalled by the idea. All is resolved when it is discovered that Russell is of royal blood, related to Willy through a royal affair with a commoner; the play has been regarded as a clumsy work, showing Osborne's "lack of talent for satire", as Colin Wilson said. John Russell Taylor says that it is "by general consent the least satisfactory of all Osborne's plays" and "easiest the feeblest work Osborne has yet allowed to reach the stage"

Colombian Air Force

The Colombian Air Force or FAC is the Air Force of the Republic of Colombia. The Colombian Air Force is one of the three institutions of the Military Forces of Colombia charged, according to the 1991 Constitution, working to exercise and maintain control of Colombia's airspace and to defend its sovereignty, territorial integrity and constitutional order, it is one of the largest American air forces and has increased its activity due to important roles in the fight against narco-terrorism. The FAC has been used in observation and aerial combat missions since the Colombian-Peruvian war of 1932 and operated during the Second World War in the islands of San Andrés, it has never assisted in ousting an elected government by force, but has helped quell many rebellions. Military aviation began in Colombia in 1919 with the creation of a military aviation school for the Colombian Army. By Law 15 of 1916 of September 7 two commissions were sent overseas to study new technological advancements in aviation, cavalry and trains.

Officers pertaining to the Colombian Army were sent to take a course on flight training on techniques and tactics. The school was created in Colombia along with the Colombian National Army Aviation as a fifth regiment by Law 126 of 1919 of December 31 authorized by President of Colombia, Marco Fidel Suárez; the unit was activated on February 15, 1921 in Flandes, Department of Tolima with the support of a French mission led by Lieutenant Colonel Rene Guichard. The Aviation School had 3 Caudron G.3 E-2, 3 Caudron G.4 A-2 and four Nieuport Delage 11 C-1. The school was closed due to financial hardships in 1922; the School of Military Aviation was reopened on November 8, 1924 in Madrid, Department of Cundinamarca with the support of a Swiss mission headed by Captain Henry Pillichody. The aircraft used for training were 4 Wild WT and 8 Wild X performing the first air review on August 7, 1927. On December 28, 1928 the first combat aircraft was shown in Colombia, the Curtiss Falcon O-1. On September 1, 1932, Peruvian civilians crossed into Colombian territory and invaded the town of Leticia in the Colombian Amazon claiming that the town was Peruvian territory.

The Colombian military aviation only had 11 instructors, four Curtiss-Wright CW-14R Osprey air combat support planes and one Curtiss Falcon O-1. The military aviation received full financial support from the Congress of Colombia. Colombia bought aircraft from Germany and the United States, while others were activated from the airline operating in Colombia SCADTA and their pilots, which included some German citizens, one of these was Major Herbert Boy; the imported aircraft were 4 Junkers F.13, 4 Junkers W 34 and 3 Junkers K 43, 6 Junkers Ju 52, 2 Dornier Merkur II, 4 Dornier Wal, 20 Curtiss Falcon F-8F and 30 Curtiss Hawk II F-11C. The contingent was sent to southern Colombia to fight Peruvian forces with the main mission of delivering supplies to the front lines, aerial reconnaissance and air to land attacks; the fleet was divided into three squadrons with Puerto Boy as the main camp site. Support bases were in Caucaya airstrip, El Encanto, Puerto Arica, La Pedrera and Tarapacá; the main combat operations started on February 14, 1933 in Tarapacá where the Peruvian garrison was bombed by seven Colombian aircraft and assaulted by land forces.

On March 26, in the village of Guepi eleven Colombian planes and two cannon boats bombarded Peruvian positions and took over the town. The last military actions of the conflict with Peru were on May 8, 1933 and in which there was an aerial engagement between the two forces. Peruvian planes were attacking the fluvial fleet of Colombia over the Algodón River and were surprised by the Colombian squadron. One of the Peruvian aircraft, a Douglas O-38P was taken to Colombian territory. On May 24, 1933 a cease fire was declared after an agreement was reached with the intervention of the League of Nations; the town of Leticia was returned to Colombia. The captured plane was returned to Peru; as a result of the war, four pilots died in four accidents during non-combat related actions. Among these was one of the German pilots. Four planes were lost in these accidents a Falcon O-1, an Osprey C-14, a Junker F-13 and a Curtiss F-11; the diplomatic breach between Colombia and the Axis countries was declared on December 18, 1941, when President Eduardo Santos took the decision following the Japanese attack on military bases, naval and U.

S. carriers at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii. Thereafter, the Colombian government introduced special measures to limit and counter the Axis military action in areas of national jurisdiction. On June 23, 1942 a German submarine attacked and sank the schooner Colombian "Resolute", 50 miles northwest of the island of San Andrés; the same schooner had rescued some Marine officers and 23 British Royal Navy survivors of a capsized ship, 200 miles north of Cartagena just five days before. Following these events, the government took the decision to patrol and monitor the Pacific Coast and the Colombian Caribbean coast; the Palanquero Air Base commanders decided to move one fighter squadron and a Combat Reconnaissance Squadron, consisting of F-8 Falcon aircraft, to Barranquilla. In 1943, the Falcons were replaced by the AT-6 Texan; this Squadron was active until 1945. In 1936 the first combat monoplanes made of aluminum were purchased by the Colombian Air Force. While the war was ongoing in southern Colombia, the Air Force built bases in the towns o


Dumfries is a market town and former royal burgh within the Dumfries and Galloway council area of Scotland. It is located near the mouth of the River Nith into the Solway Firth. Dumfries is the traditional county town of the historic county of Dumfriesshire. Dumfries is nicknamed Queen of the South; the nickname has given name to the town's professional football club. People from Dumfries are known colloquially in Scots language as Doonhamers. There are at least three theories on the etymology of the name. One is that the name Dumfries originates from the Scottish Gaelic name Dùn Phris which means "Fort of the Thicket". Another is. Dumfries may be the same place as Penprys, mentioned in an awdl by Taliesin, suggests that the first element may have been pen, "summit, head". According to a third theory, the name is a corruption of two Old English or Old Norse words which mean "the Friars’ Hill". If the name were English or Norse, the expected form would have the elements in reversed orientation. A Celtic derivation is therefore preferred.

Moreover, the Brittonic element drum, meaning "ridge", the Gaelic elements druim, which means the same, dronn-, "a hump", have all been suggested as an explanation of the first element. No positive information has been obtained of the era and circumstances in which the town of Dumfries was founded; some writers hold that Dumfries flourished as a place of distinction during the Roman occupation of North Great Britain. The Selgovae inhabited Nithsdale at the time and may have raised some military works of a defensive nature on or near the site of Dumfries; this is inferred from the etymology of the name, according to one theory, is resolvable into two Gaelic terms signifying a castle or fort in the copse or brushwood. Dumfries was once within the borders of the Kingdom of Northumbria; the district around Dumfries was for several centuries ruled over and deemed of much importance by the invading Romans. Many traces of Roman presence in Dumfriesshire are still to be found; the Caledonian tribes in the south of Scotland were invested with the same rights by an edict of Antoninus Pius The Romanized natives received freedom as well as civilisation from their conquerors.

Late in the fourth century, the Romans bade farewell to the country. According to another theory, the name is a corruption of two words. In the list of British towns given by the ancient historian Nennius, the name Caer Peris occurs, which some modern antiquarians suppose to have been transmuted, by a change of dialect, into Dumfries. Twelve of King Arthur's battles were recorded by Nennius in Historia Brittonum; the Battle of Tribruit, has been suggested as having been near Dumfries or near the mouth of the river Avon near Bo'ness. After the Roman departure the area around Dumfries had various forms of visit by Picts, Anglo-Saxons and Norse culminating in a decisive victory for Gregory, King of Scots at what is now Lochmaben over the native Britons in 890. When, in 1069, Malcolm Canmore and William the Conqueror held a conference regarding the claims of Edgar Ætheling to the English Crown, they met at Abernithi – a term which in the old British tongue means a port at the mouth of the Nith, it has been argued, the town thus characterised.

However, against this argument is that the town is situated eight to nine miles distant from the sea, although the River Nith is tidal and navigable all the way into the town itself. Although at the time 1 mile upstream and on the opposite bank of the Nith from Dumfries, Lincluden Abbey was founded circa 1160; the abbey ruins are on the site of the bailey of the early Lincluden Castle, as are those of the Lincluden Tower. This religious house was used for various purposes, until its abandonment around 1700. Lincluden Abbey and its grounds are now within the Dumfries urban conurbation boundary. William the Lion granted the charter to raise Dumfries to the rank of a royal burgh in 1186. Dumfries was much on the frontier during its first 50 years as a burgh and it grew as a market town and port. Alexander III visited Dumfries in 1264 to plan an expedition against the Isle of Man Scots but for 180 years subjected by the crown of Norway. Identified with the conquest of Man, Dumfries shared in the well being of Scotland for the next 22 years until Alexander's accidental death brought an Augustan era in the town's history to an abrupt finish.

A royal castle, which no longer exists, was built in the 13th century on the site of the present Castledykes Park. In the latter part of the century William Wallace chased a fleeing English force southward through the Nith valley; the English fugitives met


Keen's is a brand of McCormick Foods Australia Pty Ltd, the Australian branch of American food company, McCormick & Co. Inc. McCormick Foods Australia is located in Melbourne and is a producer of food products for both the retail and food service industries. Keen's Mustard Powder and Keen's Traditional Curry Powder are flavouring products produced in Australia; the Keen's brand remains a common item in kitchens throughout Australia. The brand is well known for its distinctive yellow and orange tins. Keen's Mustard Powder is sold in 60g or 120g tins. Keen's Traditional Curry Powder is a blend of turmeric, salt, black pepper, chili powder, rice flour and celery. Keen's Curry is available in 120g tins. Keen's Mustard has a history extending back to the 18th century; the first mustard factory in London was opened by Messrs Keen & Sons at Garlick Hill in 1742, in the 1890s the chimes of the Royal Exchange, set to the well known song'The Roast Beef of Old England', could be heard, during a lull in the traffic, at Keen's factory.

Part of the factory was sealed off for manufacture of washing blue, because everything, including the workers, bore a shade of blue. Mustard tins too were made, there was a penny tin packing room. Thomas Keen was born in Camberwell, south London, in 1801, but the family subsequently moved to Croydon and ran the 311-acre Welcomes Farm at nearby Coulsdon. In 1825 Thomas married Harriett Toulmin, whose family lived at The Elms, 61 High Street, the couple moved in 1831. In 1862, Thomas Keen died on 17 February at the age of 61. In that same year, Keen & Sons amalgamated with Robinson & Belville, manufacturers of patented groats and barley, to become Keen Robinson & Company. In 1903, Keen Robinson & Company was acquired by J & J Colman, the mustard producer based in Norwich. Colman's merged with Reckitt & Sons in 1938, becoming Colman. In the 1930s, the Keen's Mustard Club was created. Members received a Mustard Club Badge in the shape of a mustard pot and a booklet entitled "Inner Secrets of the Mustard Club".

In the 1940s, the versatility of mustard was promoted with the formula for a mustard footbath appearing on the back of Keen's tins: "one of mustard, two of flour, leave it on for half an hour". In 1995, Unilever purchased the food side of Colman. Reckitt & Colman retained the Colman part of its name and continued to make mustard – the American mass mustard called French's. Outside of the UK, in places such as Canada and Australia, Colman's still sells its mustard under the Keen's name. In 1998, Keen's Mustard was bought by McCormick Foods Australia. Keen's asked Australians to search their homes for nostalgic Keen's memorabilia; the search uncovered historic advertisements and an original mustard powder tin dating back to 1904. In 2000, Keen's Mustard took the memorabilia on tour to share with the rest of Australia. In 1841, 22-year-old carpenter Joseph Keen sailed to Australia from Britain with his new wife, Johanna. Following Johanna's death in Sydney in 1843, Joseph left for Van Diemen's Land.

There he met and married Annie Burrows and they had 16 children – nine daughters and seven sons. Joseph and Annie settled at Browns River, south of Hobart, where they established a bakery, small manufacturing outlet and a general store. Here Joseph sold his own sauces and condiments including his own blend of curry powder. Within a decade, Joseph's curry powder was known throughout the colony and his produce was winning awards: he received a medal for his spice mix at the 1866 Inter-Colonial Exhibition in Melbourne and an honourable mention for his spicy sauce at the 1879 Sydney International Exhibition. In 1915, after both Joseph and Annie had died, the couple's sixth daughter Louisa and her husband Horace Watson took over the family’s curry-powder business. Horace was reported to be a colourful character, daringly transformed land at the foothills of Mount Wellington, overlooking Hobart, into a large advertising sign: using heavy stones painted white, he formed the words'Keen's Curry' in letters 15 metres high.

Public uproar resulted. In a university prank in 1926, the letters read'Hell's Curse', students altered it again in 1962 to promote a theatre production. In 1994 the landmark read'No Cable Car' as a protest against a proposed development; however the sign has been restored after every change. While well known in Tasmania, Keen's Curry Powder began to receive national attention in 1954 when the formula and rights were sold to Reckitt & Colman Australia Ltd – more than a century after Joseph set sail from England. Reckitt & Colman Australia had long been the manufacturers of a different product – Keen's Mustard. In 1998, both the Keen's Mustard and Curry brands were acquired by McCormick Foods Australia Pty Ltd. List of mustard brands Keen's Curry Powder Keen's Mustard Powder McCormick Foods Australia