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Year 798 was a common year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar. The denomination 798 for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years. Battle of Bornhöved: King Charlemagne forms an alliance with the Obodrites. Together with Prince Drożko, he defeats the Nordalbian Saxons near the village of Bornhöved, obliging these'northerners' to submit and give hostages against their future good behavior. In the coming years they are granted areas of present-day Hamburg. King Charles the Younger, a son of Charlemagne, conquers Sardinia. King Coenwulf of Mercia invades Gwynedd, kills his rival Caradog ap Meirion during the fighting in Snowdonia. Kings Cynan and Hywel retake the throne. Coenwulf defeats and captures King Eadberht Præn of Kent, he is blinded and his hands are cut off. He introduces his brother Cuthred as a sub-king of Kent. Battle of Billington: King Eardwulf of Northumbria defeats the nobleman Wada in battle, who has killed former King Æthelred I.

King Sigeric I of Essex departs for a pilgrimage to Rome. He is succeeded by his son Sigered. King Alfonso II of Asturias campaigns against the Arab Muslims in Al-Andalus. With Frankish military support, he raids into sacks Lisbon. Bahlul ibn Marzuq, a Vascon-Muslim military leader, revolts in Zaragoza against the Arab-Muslim government of Al-Andalus. Alcuin, Anglo-Saxon monk and scholar, writes to his friend, the exiled king Osbald of Northumbria, in order to dissuade him. Theodulf, Frankish poet, is appointed bishop of Orléans, he becomes one of Charlemagne's favoured theologians. Abdallah ibn Tahir, Muslim governor Babak Khorramdin, Persian military leader Ignatius I, patriarch of Constantinople Abu Yusuf, Muslim jurist and chief adviser Caradog ap Meirion, king of Gwynedd Lu Mai, chancellor of the Tang Dynasty Wonseong, king of Silla

Razmik Panossian

Razmik Panossian is a Canadian-Armenian historian and political scientist. An ethnic Armenian, Panossian was born in Beirut and raised in Canada in a family "engaged with community affairs." He is fluent in English and Armenian. He received his Ph. D. from the London School of Economics in 2002. His thesis was titled "The evolution of multilocal national identity and the contemporary politics of nationalism: Armenia and its diaspora."He was director of policy at the International Centre for Human Rights and Democratic Development and has served as an international consultant, including at the United Nations Development Programme. He has lectured at the LSE and at the SOAS, University of London. Panossian based in Portugal, has been the director of the department of Armenian communities for the Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation since 2013. Panossian is the author of The Armenians: From Kings and Priests to Merchants and Commissars, published by the Columbia University Press in 2006; the book was acclaimed for its extensive and balanced coverage of Armenian history and national identity.

James R. Russell praised the book in his review as the "most meticulously researched and scholarly study of the development of Armenian national identity written in any language. Levon Chorbajian wrote that despite his slight objection, the book is "a remarkably balanced, empirically sound, theoretically engaging one." William Safran wrote of the book: "a first-rate piece of scholarship. It is exhaustively documented; the book may well serve as a model for the study of other diaspora nations." Panossian, Razmik. "Between ambivalence and intrusion: Politics and identity in Armenia-diaspora relations". Diaspora: A Journal of Transnational Studies. 7: 149–196. Doi:10.1353/dsp.1998.0011. Panossian, Razmik. "The Irony of Nagorno-Karabakh: Formal Institutions versus Informal Politics". Regional & Federal Studies. 11: 143–164. Doi:10.1080/714004708. Panossian, Razmik. "The Past as Nation: Three Dimensions of Armenian Identity". Geopolitics. 7: 127. Doi:10.1080/714000931

East African campaign (World War II)

The East African campaign was fought in East Africa during the Second World War by Allies of World War II from the British Empire, against Italy and its colony of Italian East Africa, between June 1940 and November 1941. The Britsh Middle East Command with troops from the United Kingdom, South Africa, British India, Somaliland, West Africa and Southern Rhodesia and Nyasaland participated in the campaign; these were joined by the Allied Force Publique of Belgian Congo, Imperial Ethiopian Arbegnoch and a small unit of Free French. Italian East Africa was defended by the Comando Forze Armate dell'Africa Orientale Italiana, with units from the Regio Esercito, Regia Marina; the Italian forces included about 250,000 soldiers of the, led by Italian NCOs. With Britain in control of the Suez canal, the Italian forces were cut off from supplies and reinforcement one hostilities began. On 13 June 1940 an Italian air raid took place on the base of 237 Squadron RAF at Wajir in Kenya and continued until Italian forces had been pushed back from Kenya and Sudan, through Somaliland and Ethiopia in 1940 and early 1941.

The remnants of the Italian forces in the region surrendered after the Battle of Gondar in November 1941, except for small groups that fought a guerrilla war in Ethiopia against the British until the Armistice of Cassibile in September 1943, which ended the war between Italy and the Allies. The East African campaign was the first Allied strategic victory in the war. Most of the Commonwealth forces were transferred to North Africa to participate in the Western Desert Campaign. On 9 May 1936, the Italian dictator, Benito Mussolini, proclaimed the formation of Italian East Africa, from Ethiopia after the Second Italo-Abyssinian War and the colonies of Italian Eritrea and Italian Somaliland. On 10 June 1940, Mussolini declared war on Britain and France, which made Italian military forces in Libya a threat to Egypt and those in the AOI a danger to the British and French colonies in East Africa. Italian belligerence closed the Mediterranean to Allied merchant ships and endangered British sea lanes along the coast of East Africa, the Gulf of Aden, the Red Sea and the Suez Canal.

Egypt, the Suez Canal, French Somaliland and British Somaliland were vulnerable to invasion but Comando Supremo had planned for a war after 1942. Amedeo, Duke of Aosta, was appointed Viceroy and Governor-General of the AOI in November 1937, with a headquarters in Addis Ababa, the Ethiopian capital. On 1 June 1940, as the commander in chief of Comando Forze Armate dell'Africa Orientale Italiana and Generale d'Armata Aerea, Aosta had about 290,476 local and metropolitan troops. By 1 August, mobilisation had increased the number to 371,053 troops. On 10 June, the Italian army was organised in four commands: Northern Sector, vicinity of Asmara Eritrea, Lieutenant-General Luigi Frusci Southern Sector, around Jimma Ethiopia, General Pietro Gazzera Eastern Sector, General Guglielmo Nasi Giuba Sector, Lieutenant-General Carlo De Simone, southern Somalia near Kismayo, Italian Somaliland Aosta had two metropolitan divisions, the 40th Infantry Division Cacciatori d'Africa and the 65th Infantry Division Granatieri di Savoia, a battalion of Alpini, a Bersaglieri battalion of motorised infantry, several "Blackshirt" Milizia Coloniale battalions and smaller units.

About 70 percent of Italian troops were locally recruited Askari. The regular Eritrean battalions and the Regio Corpo Truppe Coloniali were among the best Italian units in the AOI and included Eritrean cavalry Penne di Falco. Most colonial troops were recruited and equipped for colonial repression, although the Somali Dubats from the borderlands were useful light infantry and skirmishers. Irregular bandes were hardy and mobile, knew the country and were effective scouts and saboteurs, although sometimes confused with Shifta, undisciplined marauders who plundered and murdered at will. Once Italy entered the war, a 100-strong company formed out of German residents of East Africa and German sailors unable to leave East African ports. Italian forces in East Africa were equipped with about 3,313 heavy machine-guns, 5,313 machine-guns, 24 M11/39 medium tanks, 39 L3/35 tankettes, 126 armoured cars and 824 guns, twenty-four 20 mm anti-aircraft guns, seventy-one 81 mm mortars and 672,800 rifles. Due to the isolation of the AOI from the Mediterranean, the Italians had little opportunity for reinforcements or supply, leading to severe shortages of ammunition.

On occasion, foreign merchant vessels captured by German merchant raiders in the Indian Ocean were brought to Somali ports but their cargoes were not always of much use to the Italian war effort. (For example, the Yugoslav steamer Dur


Harrawi was a Palestinian Arab village in the Safad Subdistrict. It was depopulated during the 1948 Arab-Israeli War on May 25, 1948 by the Palmach's First Battalion of Operation Yiftach, it was located 18 km northeast of Safad. In 1948 it had a population of 290; the villagers of Harrawi were descendants of Bedouin from the ‘Arab al-Hamdun tribe. There is evidence to suggest the village was inhabited as far back as the early Byzantine period, with ruins of Greek inscriptions, old walls, tessellated floors, a wine-press. In 1875 Victor Guérin passed by, thought the ruins he found there could be ancient Hazor; the same was reported by the PEF's Survey of Western Palestine. In the 1931 census of Palestine, conducted by the British Mandate authorities, Arab el Hamdun had a population of 148 Muslims, in a total of 36 houses. Harrawi was located on a mountain in eastern Upper Galilee; the area is forested but much land was converted by the settlers for agricultural purposes, given that in 1945, 551 dunums of land was devoted to the farming of cereals.

However, they were employed in animal husbandry, brought their livestock down seasonal pastures in the winter. A large number of inhabitants were employed in cereal farming, which dominated all of the area under cultivation. Types of land use in dunums by Arabs in the 1945 statistics: The village comprised a total area of 3,726 dunums of which 60% was owned by Arabs and 40% by Jews; the land ownership of the village before occupation in dunums: Although it was in May 1948 that the village was depopulated, the Palestinian newspaper Filastin reported an incident that occurred in February 1948 when a bus carrying Arab passengers en route from al-Hula to Safad was ambushed at Harrawi on 12 February by a Zionist military unit. A mine exploded under the bus, subject to gunfire and firebombing, killing four people. In mid May 1948, the village was defended by the Arab Liberation Army's Second Yarmuk Battalion, commanded by Lt. Col. Adib Shishakli, who served as president of Syria; the initial resistance was reported by the American newspaper New York Times in Damascus to have been a success, with the ALA claiming victories at Harrawi and al-Malikiyya, located 5 km to the northwest.

However, any early successes were short-lived. Ramot Naftali is located close to the village site. In 1992 the village site was described: "No traces of the village are visible. Woods cover the slopes and peak of the mountain; some of the lands in the area are wooded while others have been planted by Israelis with fruit trees." Welcome To Harrawi Harrawi, Zochrot Harrawi, from the Khalil Sakakini Cultural Center al-Harrawi, Villages of Palestine Survey of Western Palestine, Map 4: IAA, Wikimedia commons

Papilio albinus

Papilio albinus is a species of swallowtail butterfly from the genus Papilio, found in west Western New Guinea and Papua New Guinea. The species was first described by Alfred Russel Wallace in 1865. Papilio albinus albinus Papilio albinus lesches Godman & Salvin, 1880 Papilio albinus yapenensis Goode 2012 Papilio albinus yahukimo Goode, 2012 Papilio albinus is a member of the fuscus species group; the members of this clade are Papilio albinus Wallace, 1865 Papilio diophantus Grose-Smith, 1883 Papilio fuscus Goeze, 1779 Papilio hipponous C. Felder & R. Felder, 1862 Papilio jordani Fruhstorfer, 1906 Papilio pitmani Elwes & de Nicéville, Papilio prexaspes C. Felder & R. Felder, 1865 Papilio sakontala Hewitson, 1864 "Papilio albinus Wallace, 1865". With images

Centurion Air Cargo Flight 164

Centurion Air Cargo Flight 164 was a chartered international cargo flight, flying from Bogota's El Dorado International Airport while en route to Miami International Airport. The flight was operated by Kalitta Air and the aircraft was wet leased by Centurion Cargo. On 7 July 2008, the aircraft, a Boeing 747-209BSF registered as N714CK, crashed shortly after takeoff. All aboard suffered injuries. Two people on the ground were killed; the crash was the second crash of a Boeing 747 in 2008 in Kalitta Air service, after a previous accident at Brussels in May. An investigation was launched by Colombian authorities and concluded that the crash was caused by dual engine failures. During its take-off section, the engine number 4 and number 1 suffered loss of power; the flight crews could not recover the plane. The aircraft took off from El Dorado International Airport to Miami International Airport carrying 8 crew and a cargo of flowers, as a chartered cargo flight; the flight was operated by Kalitta Air for Centurion Air Cargo as Flight 164.

During its rotation, the Number 4 engine suffered a non-recoverable surge. It declared emergency 20 seconds reporting an engine fire in engine number 4 and requested to return to runway 13R. Bogota Tower cleared the airplane for that return to and landing on 13R; the airplane initiated a left-hand turn as by the published engine out procedure. Just about 20 seconds after the loss of the number 4 engine, the number 1 engine somehow failed. By this time, the aircraft had started to lose control; the crew recognized that they no longer had the thrust necessary to get back to the airport and attempted an off-airport landing. A taxi driver fueling his car at the nearby petrol station said that the airplane hit the wires along the highway triggering sparks, before it impacted ground; the aircraft crashed at 03:57 local time. It skimmed over trees and crash landed, skidded along the field and slammed into a ranch house, killing 2 people, Pedro Suarez, 50, his 13-year-old son Edwin; the aircraft broke up into several sections.

Rescuers arrived at the crash site and evacuated the survivors. All eight crew members survived. At least 5 people were injured in the crash. Two crew members were treated at a Madrid hospital, while six others were sent to the Central Police Hospital in Bogota; the aircraft, a Boeing 747-209BSF, registered as N714CK, was a 27 years and 3 months old aircraft. It had a total airframe hours of 90.613 hours equipped with 4 Pratt and Whitney Canada engines with a MSN number of 519. Before it was sold to Kalitta Air, it was delivered to China Airlines in 1981 as B-1886, it delivered to China Airlines Cargo as B-18753. The Colombian Grupo de Investigacion de Accidentes opened an investigation into the crash; the U. S National Transportation Safety Board sent five investigators to assist the Colombian investigation team; the Federal Aviation Administration, aircraft-maker Boeing Co. and engine-maker Pratt & Whitney assisting the investigation. The captain was pilot flying, the first officer was pilot monitoring, the flight engineer had a total flying experience of 10,665 hours and 2,665 hours on type.

Both the flight data recorder and the cockpit voice recorder were recovered and taken for an analysis. The aircraft was configured for takeoff with flaps at 10 degrees with the engines at EPR between 1.69 and 1.72, when it accelerated through Vr and rotation was initiated. While the aircraft rotated the pitch went through 13 degrees nose up and the airspeed had exceeded V2 when engine #4 lost power, the engine rolling down from about 1.7 EPR to 1.0 EPR within 2–3 seconds, the engine surged 4 times during that time. Engineers determined that the high-pressure turbine of engine #4, installed during the last work shop visit in January 2008, was inefficient due to too large a blade tip clearance, the reduced chord and wear of leading edges of fan blades resulting in a loss of engine power estimated at 5.8%. The high altitude impaired operatibility of the engine. Engine #1 suffered a failure of the low-pressure turbine, which resulted in ejection of engine parts through the engine exhaust; the failure originated in the third stage of the LPT, engineers believe the failure started with the loss of a number of guide vanes or the loss of a large piece of outside air seal due to thermal damage.

Although an overboost condition existed outside regular engine operation range, the application of such engine power for a short period of time should not have caused an engine failure. The exact cause of the engine failure could not be determined. Investigators noted that engine #2 suffered a rapid decline of EPR and recovery of EPR for five times, each lasting for about 2–3 seconds, the surges happening at 87 seconds, 33 seconds, 13 and 3 seconds before impact. Few minutes the aircraft crashed. On 22 August 2011, the investigation board published the final report; the crash was caused by the failure of two engines of the aircraft engine number 4 and engine number 1. The number 4 engine suffered a non-recoverable surge during the rotation; the aircraft struggled to climb. As the flight crews were conducting the emergency procedure, the number 1 engine somehow failed. With two engines malfunctioning, the aircraft was unable to sustain flight in its configuration, it began to experience problems with a third engine, the inboard left-hand JT9D, which surged.

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