People's Liberation Army
The Chinese People's Liberation Army is the armed forces of the People's Republic of China and its founding and ruling political party, the Communist Party of China. The PLA consists of five professional service branches: the Ground Force, Air Force, Rocket Force, the Strategic Support Force. Units around the country are assigned to one of five theater commands by geographical location; the PLA is the world's largest military force and constitutes the second largest defence budget in the world. It is one of the fastest modernising military powers in the world and has been termed as a potential military superpower, with significant regional defense and rising global power projection capabilities. China is the third largest arms exporter in the world; the PLA is under the command of the Central Military Commission of the CPC. It is obliged to follow the principle of civilian control of the military, although in practical terms this principle has been implemented in such a way as to ensure the PLA is under the absolute control of the Communist Party.
Its commander in chief is the Chairman of the Central Military Commission. The Ministry of National Defense, which operates under the State Council, does not exercise any authority over the PLA and is far less powerful than the CMC. Military service is compulsory by law. In times of national emergency, the People's Armed Police and the People's Liberation Army militia act as a reserve and support element for the PLAGF. Former CMC chairman Hu Jintao had defined the missions of the PLA as: To consolidate the ruling status of the Communist Party To ensure China's sovereignty, territorial integrity, domestic security to continue national development To safeguard China's national interests To help maintain world peace The People's Liberation Army was founded on 1 August 1927 during the Nanchang uprising when troops of the Kuomintang rebelled under the leadership of Zhu De, He Long, Ye Jianying and Zhou Enlai after the massacre of the Communists by Chiang Kai-shek, they were known as the Chinese Workers' and Peasants' Red Army, or the Red Army.
Between 1934 and 1935, the Red Army survived several campaigns led against it by Chiang Kai-Shek and engaged in the Long March. During the Second Sino-Japanese War from 1937 to 1945, the Communist military forces were nominally integrated into the National Revolutionary Army of the Republic of China forming two main units known as the Eighth Route Army and the New Fourth Army. During this time, these two military groups employed guerrilla tactics avoiding large-scale battles with the Japanese with some exceptions while at the same time consolidating their ground by absorbing nationalist troops and paramilitary forces behind Japanese lines into their forces. After the Japanese surrendered in 1945, the Communist Party merged the Eighth Route Army and New Fourth Army, renaming the new million-strong force the "People's Liberation Army", they won the Chinese Civil War, establishing the People's Republic of China in 1949. The PLA saw a huge reorganisation with the establishment of the Air Force leadership structure in November 1949 followed by the Navy leadership the following April.
In 1950, the leadership structures of the artillery, armoured troops, air defence troops, public security forces, worker–soldier militias were established. The chemical warfare defence forces, the railroad forces, the communications forces, the strategic forces, as well as other separate forces, were established on, all these depended on the leadership of the Communist Party and the National People's Congress via the Central Military Commission. During the 1950s, the PLA with Soviet assistance began to transform itself from a peasant army into a modern one. Part of this process was the reorganisation that created thirteen military regions in 1955; the PLA contained many former National Revolutionary Army units and generals who had defected to the PLA. Ma Hongbin and his son Ma Dunjing were the only two Muslim generals who led a Muslim unit, the 81st corps, to serve in the PLA. Han Youwen, a Salar Muslim general defected to the PLA. In November 1950, some units of the PLA under the name of the People's Volunteer Army intervened in the Korean War as United Nations forces under General Douglas MacArthur approached the Yalu River.
Under the weight of this offensive, Chinese forces drove MacArthur's forces out of North Korea and captured Seoul, but were subsequently pushed back south of Pyongyang north of the 38th Parallel. The war served as a catalyst for the rapid modernization of the PLAAF. In 1962, the PLA ground force fought India in the Sino-Indian War, achieving all objectives. Prior to the Cultural Revolution, military region commanders tended to remain in their posts for long periods of time; as the PLA took a stronger role in politics, this began to be seen as somewhat of a threat to the party's control of the military. The longest-serving military region commanders were Xu Shiyou in the Nanjing Military Region, Yang Dezhi in the Jinan Military Region, Chen Xilian in the Shenyang Military Region, Han Xianchu in the Fuzhou Military Region; the establishment of a professional military force equipped with modern weapons and doctrine was the last of the Four Modernizations announced by Zhou Enlai and supported by Deng Xiaoping.
In keeping with Deng's mandate to reform, the PLA has demobilized millions o
A field army is a military formation in many armed forces, composed of two or more corps and may be subordinate to an army group. Air armies are equivalent formation within some air forces. A field army is composed of 100,000 to 150,000 troops. Particular field armies are named or numbered to distinguish them from "army" in the sense of an entire national land military force. In English, the typical style for naming field armies is word numbers, such as "First Army". A field army may be given a geographical name in addition to or as an alternative to a numerical name, such as the British Army of the Rhine, Army of the Niemen or Aegean Army; the Roman army was among the first to feature a formal field army, in the sense of a large, combined arms formation, namely the sacer comitatus, which may be translated as "sacred escort". The term is derived from the fact that they were commanded by Roman emperors, when they acted as field commanders. While the Roman comitatensis is sometimes translated as "field army", it may be translated as the more generic "field force" or "mobile force".
In some armed forces, an "army" has been equivalent to a corps-level unit. Prior to 1945, this was the case with a gun within the Imperial Japanese Army, for which the formation equivalent in size to a field army was an "area army". In the Soviet Red Army and the Soviet Air Forces, an army was subordinate in wartime to a front, it contained at least three to five divisions along with artillery, air defense and other supporting units. It could be classified as either tank army. In peacetime, a Soviet army was subordinate to a military district. Modern field armies are large formations which vary between armed forces in size and scope of responsibility. For instance, within NATO a field army is composed of a headquarters, controls at least two corps, beneath which are a variable number of divisions. A battle is influenced at the field army level by transferring divisions and reinforcements from one corps to another to increase the pressure on the enemy at a critical point. NATO armies are commanded by a general or lieutenant general.
Armeeoberkommando Military unit Military history List of numbered armies
Xu Haidong was a senior general in the People's Liberation Army of China. Xu was notable for leading his men from the front lines during the Chinese Civil War and Second Sino-Japanese War, his exploits earned him the nickname "Tiger Xu". He was wounded in battle nine times. Xu opposed the radical policies of the Cultural Revolution, was persecuted to death by the followers of Mao Zedong, Lin Biao and the Gang of Four. Xu was born in the village of Dawu County, Hubei, he was the sixth son in a family of ten children. His father was Xu Zhongben and his mother is only remembered by her last name, Wu; when Xu Haidong was born, his father recognized that Xu's mother was too old to nurse Xu, requested that his mother throw Xu in a pond to drown. Xu's mother refused to kill Xu, recruited her sister-in-law to nurse Xu. Xu's family was poor, Xu did not receive any education until he was nine years old, when he was sent to a primary school where his uncle taught. Most of the students at the school were from rich families, taunted Xu with the nickname "stinky tofu".
When he was twelve, Xu was expelled from school after he injured a rich classmate, bullying him. Because his parents were elderly they were unable to support Xu after his expulsion, he was forced to return home and work at his family's kiln. Xu worked at the kiln for several years, he raised ducks and worked for periods at a factory to support himself and his family. In 1921 Xu became a professional soldier. After becoming a professional soldier, Xu worked for six years in the service of various military forces established by local warlords, in the Nationalist Army. Xu joined the Chinese Communist Party in 1925, participated in the Northern Expedition. After the Shanghai massacre of 1927, Xu escaped the Nationalist Army and begun organizing a guerrilla resistance unit in Hubei. In August 1927 Xu led a rebellion in his native district of Huangping known as the "Macheng Uprising". Xu's uprising was one of the Autumn Harvest Uprisings, a broader series of peasant rebellions ordered by the CCP Central Committee.
Xu was joined by 27 local farmers. Xu's first attack supplies. Forces under Xu rose to 60 men before being defeated by government forces in 1927. Government forces attempted to capture Xu. In late 1929 Xu joined a group of communist guerillas active around the Hubei-Henan border area. After Joining the Red Army, Xu rose within the military ranks of the Hunan–Hubei–Jiangxi Soviet. Xu's first serious injury occurred in 1931, during a battle with Nationalist forces, when he was shot twice by a machine gun and put into a coma. Xu was promoted to battalion commander, to regiment commander, to division commander, by the early 1930s was the commander of the 25th Army. Most of Xu's military activities were within the area of the Dabie Mountains. In 1934, in order to escape Chiang Kai-shek's Fifth Encirclement Campaign, the Communists made the decision to abandon their bases in southeastern China, beginning the Long March. Xu was ordered to guard the rear of the Communist retreat, but he soon lost contact with the rest of the Red Army after the evacuation began, he led his forces northward independently.
Xu's forces evacuated their own base area in September 1934, reached the Wei River area, around the city of Xi'an, in June 1935. After arriving in the communist base area of Shaanxi, Xu was named the commander of the 15th Army Corps. By the end of the Long March, the Nationalists were offering 250,000 silver dollars for Xu's assassination. In February 1936, Xu and Liu Zhidan led 34,000 Communist guerillas into southwestern Shanxi, ruled by a Nationalist-aligned warlord, Yan Xishan. After entering Shanxi, Xu's forces enjoyed massive popular support. Xu's strategy of guerrilla warfare was effective against, demoralizing for Yan's forces, who fell victim to surprise attacks. Xu made good use of cooperation supplied by local peasants to evade and locate Yan's forces; when reinforcements sent by the central government forced Xu to withdraw from Shanxi, the Red Army escaped by splitting into small groups that were supplied and hidden by local supporters. Yan himself admitted that his forces had fought poorly during the campaign.
After the Communists' retreat from Shanxi, Nationalist forces remained in Shanxi to deter further guerrilla activity. In 1936 Xu met the American journalist Edgar Snow, who visited Yan'an to interview notable Communist commanders. In his book, Red Star Over China, Snow wrote that, among the Communists in Yan'an, none were more famous or mysterious than Xu Haidong. Mao Tsetung once said, "among the Chinese revolutionaries, no one have shed more blood than Xu Haidong's family", during KMT's Communist Suppression Campaign, 66 of Xu's family members were killed by a KMT policy of target killing of Xu's clan. After the outbreak of the Second Sino Japanese War, Xu was named commander of the 344th Brigade of the 115th Division of the Eighth Route Army. Xu re-entered Shanxi in 1937 and participated in the Battle of Pingxingguan, in which a combined Nationalist-Communist force delayed the Imperial Japanese Army from occupying Shanxi. After the Japanese advanced further into Shanxi, Xu continued to direct guerrilla operations in the mountainous countryside of Shanxi and western Hebei.
In August 1938 Xu contracted tuberculosis, and
28th Group Army
The 28th Group Army was an army corps of the Chinese People's Liberation Army that existed from 1949 to 1998. From 1952 to 1971, the 28th Army was based in Putian and belonged to the Fujian Military Region. From 1971 to 1998, this army corps belonged to the Beijing Military Region and was based in Shanxi Province in Houma and in Datong. At the time of its dissolution in 1998, the 28th Army was composed of the 82nd, 83rd and 205th Infantry Divisions, the 7th Armored Division, an artillery brigade, an anti-aircraft brigade, an engineer regiment, a communication regiment and a reconnaissance battalion; the army corps’ unit ID number was 51366. The 28th Group Army was formed in February 1949 out of the 10th Column of the East China Field Army and consisted of the 82nd, 83rd and 84th Divisions; the 28th Army traces its lineage to the Eighth Route Army’s guerilla units in the Bohai Military District of Shandong during the War of Resistance Against Japan. After the end of World War II, most units of the Bohai Military Districts were relocated to Manchuria but the remaining units were reorganized into the 7th and 11th Divisions of the Shandong People’s Liberation Army in 1946.
At the outset of the Chinese Civil War in February 1947, these two divisions became the 10th Column of the East China Field Army, with 116,000 troops, under the command of General Song Shilun. In 1947, the 10th Column defeated Li Xianzhou’s Nationalist forces in the Battle of Laiwu and participated in the Battles of Taian and Menglianggu in April and May; the 10th Column covered the advance of the Jin-Ji-Lu-Yu Field Army into the Dabie Mountains in June and spent the fall fighting along the Longhai Railway. In early 1948, the 10th Column fought in the border region of southern Henan, northern Anhui, northern Jiangsu. In the summer and early fall, the 10th Column participated in the capture of Jinan. And, in the winter of 1948, the Liaoshen Campaign; when the 10th Column became the 28th Army in February 1949, the unit had 34,000 troops. In April 1949, the 28th Army crossed the Yangtze River at Jiangyin and captured Taicang and Jiading in the Shanghai Campaign. In July, the army entered Fujian and in October, captured Fuzhou and Pingtan.
The invasion of Kinmen Island ended in failure and the 28th Army lost all 9,086 troops contributed to the mission. At the end of 1949, the 28th Army was tasked with “bandit suppression” in Fujian. In 1952, the 28th Army was belonged to the Fujian Military Region. After the outbreak of Sino-Soviet Border clashes in 1969, the 28th Army was relocated from Putian north to Houma, Shanxi in 1971. In 1985, headquarters were moved to Datong and the 84th Division was dissolved; the 28th Army was notable for its passive enforcement of the martial law order against the Tiananmen Square protests of 1989. The 28th Army, led by commander He Yanran and political commissar Zhang Mingchun and based in Datong, Shanxi Province, received the mobilization order on May 19 and led the 82nd and 83rd Divisions by motorized transport to Beijing. Like other PLA units trying to enforce martial law, the 28th Army's advance into the city was blocked by students and residents; the 28th Army retreated to Yanqing County northwest of Beijing's city centre.
When ordered to enter the city on June 3, the 28th encountered protesting residents along route but did not open fire and missed the deadline to reach Tiananmen Square by 5:30 am on June 4. At 7:00am, the 28th Army ran into a throng of angry residents at Muxidi on West Chang'an Avenue west of the Square; the residents told the soldiers of the killings from earlier in the morning and showed blood stained shirts of victims. At noon, Liu Huaqing, the commander of the martial law enforcement action, ordered Wang Hai, head of the PLA Air Force, to fly over Muxidi in by helicopter and order by loud speaker the 28th Army to counterattack, but on the ground, the commanders of the 28th refused to comply. Instead the troops abandoned their positions en masse. By 5:00 pm, many had retreated into the Military Museum of the Chinese People's Revolution nearby. Of all units involved in the crackdown, the 28th Army lost by far the most equipment, as 74 vehicles including 31 armored personnel and two communications vehicles were burned.
The unit was removed and ordered to undergo six months of reorganization. Afterwards, all commanding officers were reassigned to other units. Commander He Yanran was demoted. Political commissar Zhang Mingchun was demoted to political commissar of the Jilin Military District. Chief of Staff Qiu Jinkai was demoted to the Guizhou Military District, but was re-elevated in 1993 to become the deputy commander of the 27th Army, he held the position for a decade. In 2004, Qiu became the chief of staff of the Beijing Military Region and in 2005 became the deputy commander of the military region as well as the commander of the Beijing Garrison. In 1998, the 28th Army was dissolved as a unit with the 82nd Motorized Infantry Division assigned to the 63rd Army, the 7th Armored Division, reorganized as the 7th Armored Brigade, assigned to the 65th Army; the 83rd Division became a local reserve division in Shanxi. The 205th Division, downsized to a brigade, was assigned to the Inner Mongolia Military District.
Wu, Renhua. Archived copy 六四事件中的戒严部队. Hong Kong: 真相出版社. ISBN 978-0-9823203-8-9. Archived from the original on 2007-10-17. Retrieved 2013-07-16. CS1 maint: Archived copy as title
Second Field Army
The Second Field Army was a military formation of the Chinese Communist Party during the last stages of the Chinese Civil War. The Second Field Army took control of PLA troops in central China, with Liu Bocheng as commander and Deng Xiaoping as commissar, it comprised three armies: the 3rd Army 4th Army, 5th Army, plus a special technical column, totalled 128,000 men. After 1949, the Second Field Army was stationed in southwest China and controlled five provinces - Yunnan, Sichuan and Tibet; the 15th Army was transferred to the Second Field Army in 1950. Http://www.orbat.info/history/volume6/PLA%201st%20and%202nd%20Field%20Armies%201949.htm - Bajwa listing of divisions 1949 drawing on William W. Whitson, with Chen-hsia Huang; the Chinese high command. Foreword by Lucian W. Pye
The Korean War was a war between North Korea and South Korea. The war began on 25 June 1950 when North Korea invaded South Korea following a series of clashes along the border; as a product of the Cold War between the Soviet Union and the United States, Korea had been split into two sovereign states in 1948. A socialist state was established in the north under the communist leadership of Kim Il-sung and a capitalist state in the south under the anti-communist leadership of Syngman Rhee. Both governments of the two new Korean states claimed to be the sole legitimate government of all of Korea, neither accepted the border as permanent; the conflict escalated into warfare when North Korean military forces—supported by the Soviet Union and China—crossed the border and advanced south into South Korea on 25 June 1950. The United Nations Security Council authorized the formation and dispatch of UN forces to Korea to repel what was recognized as a North Korean invasion. Twenty-one countries of the United Nations contributed to the UN force, with the United States providing around 90% of the military personnel.
After the first two months of war, South Korean and U. S. forces dispatched to Korea were on the point of defeat, forced back to a small area in the south known as the Pusan Perimeter. In September 1950, an amphibious UN counter-offensive was launched at Incheon, cut off many North Korean troops; those who escaped envelopment and capture were forced back north. UN forces approached the Yalu River—the border with China—but in October 1950, mass Chinese forces crossed the Yalu and entered the war; the surprise Chinese intervention triggered a retreat of UN forces which continued until mid-1951. In these reversals of fortune, Seoul changed hands four times, the last two years of fighting became a war of attrition, with the front line close to the 38th parallel; the war in the air, was never a stalemate. North Korea was subject to a massive bombing campaign. Jet fighters confronted each other in air-to-air combat for the first time in history, Soviet pilots covertly flew in defense of their communist allies.
The fighting ended on 27 July 1953. The agreement created the Korean Demilitarized Zone to separate North and South Korea, allowed the return of prisoners. However, no peace treaty was signed, according to some sources the two Koreas are technically still at war, engaged in a frozen conflict. In April 2018, the leaders of North and South Korea met at the demilitarized zone and agreed to work towards a treaty to formally end the Korean War. In South Korea, the war is referred to as "625" or the "6–2–5 Upheaval", reflecting the date of its commencement on June 25. In North Korea, the war is referred to as the "Fatherland Liberation War" or alternatively the "Chosǒn War". In China, the war is called the "War to Resist America and Aid Korea", although the term "Chaoxian War" is used in unofficial contexts, along with the term "Hán War" more used in regions such as Hong Kong and Macau. In the U. S. the war was described by President Harry S. Truman as a "police action" as the United States never formally declared war on its opponents and the operation was conducted under the auspices of the United Nations.
It has been referred to in the English-speaking world as "The Forgotten War" or "The Unknown War" because of the lack of public attention it received both during and after the war, in relation to the global scale of World War II, which preceded it, the subsequent angst of the Vietnam War, which succeeded it. Imperial Japan destroyed the influence of China over Korea in the First Sino-Japanese War, ushering in the short-lived Korean Empire. A decade after defeating Imperial Russia in the Russo-Japanese War, Japan made Korea its protectorate with the Eulsa Treaty in 1905 annexed it with the Japan–Korea Annexation Treaty in 1910. Many Korean nationalists fled the country; the Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea was founded in 1919 in Nationalist China. It failed to achieve international recognition, failed to unite nationalist groups, had a fractious relationship with its U. S.-based founding president, Syngman Rhee. From 1919 to 1925 and beyond, Korean communists led internal and external warfare against the Japanese.
In China, the Nationalist National Revolutionary Army and the communist People's Liberation Army helped organize Korean refugees against the Japanese military, which had occupied parts of China. The Nationalist-backed Koreans, led by Yi Pom-Sok, fought in the Burma Campaign; the communists, led by Kim Il-sung among others, fought the Japanese in Manchuria. At the Cairo Conference in November 1943, the United Kingdom, the United States all decided that "in due course Korea shall become free and independent". At the Tehran Conference in November 1943 and the Yalta Conference in February 1945, the Soviet Union promised to join its allies in the Pacific War within three months of the victory in Europe. Accordingly, it declared war o
Liaoyang is a prefecture-level city of east-central Liaoning province, situated on the Taizi River and, together with Anshan, forms a metro area of 2,057,200 inhabitants in 2010. It is one hour south of Shenyang, the provincial capital, by car. Liaoyang is home to Liaoning University's College of Foreign Studies and a number of vocational colleges; the city hosts a limited number of professional basketball and volleyball games in a modern sports facility. Liaoyang is one of the oldest continuously-inhabited cities in northeast China, dating back to before the Spring and Autumn period. During the Chinese Tang dynasty, Liaoyang was part of the northern edge of the Goguryeo kingdom. Remains of Yodong and Baegam cities, the old Goguryeo cities, can still be seen near the modern city; this was the site of a major battle between the Tang and Goguryeo in 645 AD. Goguryeo ruled the area from the early 5th to the mid-7th century. Liaoyang rose to prominence during the Liao dynasty. Several buildings in the city date to this period.
Among these is the White Pagoda, which dates back to 1189 in the Liao Dynasty with additions during the Yuan dynasty. The Liaoyang White Pagoda sits in Baita Park within Baita district in the centre of the city. Next to the park is Guangyou Temple, one of the oldest and largest temple complexes in the north east of China covering some 60,000 square metres. Under the Jurchen Jin dynasty, the city served as their empire's eastern capital under the name Dongjing. In the 17th century, the Manchu people rose up against the Ming dynasty of China. Liaoyang was one of the first Ming cities to fall and Nurhaci, the new Emperor of the Later Jin dynasty, made his capital there naming the city Dongjing in 1621, he moved the tombs of several family members to Liaoyang and they can still be seen in Dongjingling, just east of the city. As the Manchu expanded, they again moved the capital to Shenyang in 1625. After this Dongjing faded in importance. Today, remains of the city walls can still be see and a small museum stands within the reconstructed south gate.
The year 1900 saw the Boxer Rebellion in China. Russian troops camped in Liaoyang city. On the August 24 September 1904, the Battle of Liaoyang took place; this was a major battle of the Russo-Japanese war. Liaoyang was one of the major centres of the Manchurian revival, a Protestant Christian revival which took place in Mukden and the surrounding countryside in 1908; the city was the site of widespread labor protests in March 2002 that were sparked by the bankruptcy and subsequent liquidation of the Liaoyang Ferroalloy Factory, or Liaotie. The protesters were workers from at least seven different factories, including failing textile, piston, instruments and precision tool plants, their grievances involved local government corruption and widespread worker layoffs coupled with arrearage in employee wages and unemployment benefits. The activists demanded compensation for what they were owed, an investigation into the bankruptcy of Liaotie, the resignation of the chairman of the local legislature, Gong Shangwu.
The protests were dispersed after several days by the government after declaring a curfew under martial law. Two of the workers' representatives, Xiao Yunliang and Yao Fuxin, were given prison terms of four and seven years, respectively; the government responded by paying most but not all of the money that the workers were owed, by ordering an investigation into the charges of corruption at Liaotie which culminated in the arrest and thirteen-year prison sentence of its manager, Fan Yicheng, for smuggling and fraudulent dereliction of duty. The provincial governor who approved the Liaotie bankruptcy was imprisoned for accepting bribes, but Gong Shangwu evaded punitive action. Within Liaoyang prefecture there are five districts and one city; the largest park within the city is Baita park. There are several historical sites; the new Liaoyang Museum, open to the public since 2009, contains many antiques. Guangyou temple beside the Baita has become one of Liaoyang's main tourism attraction in recent years.
The first temple on the site dates back to 1145. The temple was destroyed by Russian troops during the 1900 Boxer Rebellion but was rebuilt, it houses a giant statue of Buddha made from sandalwood. There are two small museums for famous Liaoyang residents: Cao Xueqin, author of the book Dreams of a Red Mansion, Wang Erlie, a notable Qing dynasty official. There is a small museum just outside the city on the site of Dongjing, the old capital city. Gongchangling County, just east of the main city is noted for its hot spring resort, golf course and ski centre. Outdoor activities include the Tanghe River, Shenwo Reservoir Scenic Area and rafting on the Taizi river. In the downtown area busy shopping malls can be found; the shopping area includes a total of five malls and pedestrianized streets with many Chinese brand name stores. On the streets, there are many delicious regional snacks. Within the shopping area are two streets with many Korean BBQ restaurants. Liaoyang is the headquarters of the 39th Mechanized Group Army of the People's Liberation Army, one of the three group armies that comprise the Shenyang Military Region responsible for defending China's northeastern borders with Russia and North Korea.
Liaoyang is twinned with: Los Gatos, United States Joliet, United States Haman, South Korea Cao Xueqin, the author of Dream of the Red Chamber Wang Erlie, a notable Qing dynasty official Toshiko Akiyoshi (秋吉 敏子 or 穐吉 敏子 Akiy