Strategy video game
A strategy video game is a video game that focuses on skillful thinking and planning to achieve victory. It emphasizes strategic and sometimes logistical challenges. Many games offer economic challenges and exploration, they are categorized into four sub-types, depending on whether the game is turn-based or real-time, whether the game focuses on strategy or tactics. Strategy video games are a genre of video game that emphasize skillful thinking and planning to achieve victory. A player must plan a series of actions against one or more opponents, the reduction of enemy forces is a goal. Victory is achieved through superior planning, the element of chance takes a smaller role. In most strategy video games, the player is given a godlike view of the game world, indirectly controls game units under their command. Thus, most strategy games involve elements of warfare to varying degrees, feature a combination of tactical and strategic considerations. In addition to combat, these games challenge the player's ability to explore, or manage an economy.
Though there are many action games that involve strategic thinking, they are classified as strategy games. A strategy game is larger in scope, their main emphasis is on the player's ability to outthink their opponent. Strategy games involve a physical challenge, tend to annoy strategically minded players when they do. Compared to other genres such as action or adventure games where one player takes on many enemies, strategy games involve some level of symmetry between sides; each side has access to similar resources and actions, with the strengths and weaknesses of each side being balanced. Although strategy games involve strategic and sometimes logistical challenges, they are distinct from puzzle games. A strategy game calls for planning around a conflict between players, whereas puzzle games call for planning in isolation. Strategy games are distinct from construction and management simulations, which include economic challenges without any fighting; these games may incorporate some amount of conflict, but are different from strategy games because they do not emphasize the need for direct action upon an opponent.
Although strategy games are similar to role-playing video games in that the player must manage units with a variety of numeric attributes, RPGs tend to be about a smaller number of unique characters, while strategy games focus on larger numbers of similar units. The player commands their forces by selecting a unit by clicking it with the mouse, issuing an order from a menu. Keyboard shortcuts become important for advanced players, as speed is an important factor. Units can move, stop, hold a position, although other strategy games offer more complex orders. Units may have specialized abilities, such as the ability to become invisible to other units balanced with abilities that detect otherwise invisible things; some strategy games offer special leader units that provide a bonus to other units. Units may have the ability to sail or fly over otherwise impassable terrain, or provide transport for other units. Non-combat abilities include the ability to repair or construct other units or buildings.
In imaginary or fantastic conflicts, strategy games try to reproduce important tactical situations throughout history. Techniques such as flanking, making diversions, or cutting supply lines may become integral parts of managing combat. Terrain becomes an important part of strategy, since units may gain or lose advantages based on the landscape; some strategy games such as Civilization III and Medieval 2: Total War involve other forms of conflict such as diplomacy and espionage. However, warfare is the most common form of conflict, as game designers have found it difficult to make non-violent forms of conflict as appealing. Strategy games involve other economic challenges; these can include building construction, population maintenance, resource management. Strategy games make use of a windowed interface to manage these complex challenges. Most strategy games allow players to accumulate resources which can be converted to units, or converted to buildings such as factories that produce more units.
The quantity and types of resources vary from game to game. Some games will emphasize resource acquisition by scattering large quantities throughout the map, while other games will put more emphasis on how resources are managed and applied by balancing the availability of resources between players. To a lesser extent, some strategy games give players a fixed quantity of units at the start of the game. Strategy games allow the player to spend resources on upgrades or research; some of these upgrades enhance the player's entire economy. Other upgrades apply to a unit or class of units, unlock or enhance certain combat abilities. Sometimes enhancements are enabled by building a structure. Games with a large number of upgrades feature a technology tree, a series of advancements that players can research to unlock new units and other capabilities. Technology trees are quite large in some games, 4X strategy games are known for having the largest. A build order is a linear pattern of production and resource management aimed at achieving a specific and specialized goal.
They are analogous to chess openings, in that a player will have a specific order of play in mind, however the amount the build order, the strategy around which the build order is built or which build order is used varies on the skill and other factors such as how aggressive or defensive each player is. Early strategy games featured a top-down per
Abandonia is an abandonware website, focused on showcasing video games and - where permissible – known best for its distributing and discussion of games made for the MS-DOS and earlier Windows operating systems. Abandonia features a music section and an Abandonware List, a expanding database of over 4600 games including information about their publishers, release dates and whether according to the staff's knowledge the software is sold, protected or "abandoned"; this list is a sum total of research and inquiries made by the site's volunteer workforce and its users, with sources including MobyGames and the company registry at Home of the Underdogs. Reloaded is a sister project of Abandonia, with the focus upon freeware and "freemake" games; every game showcased is accompanied by a set of screenshots, reviews written and proof-read by the site's forum members. Both Abandonia and Reloaded are community-driven projects. With the exception of the featured games themselves and current site coding, all content available on both sites is created by the community as a volunteer effort.
Only the Abovo Media Group are paid for the distribution of any software, or for any member's choice to provide content or volunteer effort at the site. Both have a game evaluation system, in which games are rated by a site reviewer and any regular visitors that might happen to try the game. Despite Abandonia.com reporting a sum total of 3 members of staff and asking for donations of 5 Euros per visitor, the actual revenue, from advertising and other methods, on Abandonia and the associated downloads brings in around 2,800e per month. The sites each are worth 30,000 Euros, despite the seven-fold drop in traffic in the past few years. User stats have dropped over the past year in particular, with less than 4,000 daily visitors to Abandonia and 3,000 to Reloaded. From these 4,000 visitors, there are now 1,900 downloads from the site file servers per day; this marked decrease can be attributed to the increase in online distributors such as GOG.com and publishers realising that there are still people wanting to play these games, they are willing to pay a comparatively low price for the privilege of "golden era" gaming, than be spoon-fed AAA sequels from these same publishers, each year.
Reloaded does not host its own files. As a freeware site, it redirects to the game-maker's download site directly. Abandonia was created by Croatian, Kosta Krauth on June 21, 1999. At that time Abandonia was an oldwarez site, with games such as Monkey Island and Doom available for download though these games were still being sold in stores; the site gained a major boost in popularity throughout 2003 and 2004 as a discussion forum was opened, updates became more frequent, the focus shifted towards abandoned games in lieu of the piracy and copied crack files, during the early days of expansion of internet access. At the present time Abandonia has been translated into German, French, Portuguese, Italian, Polish, Norwegian, Icelandic, Greek and Romanian, in addition to the main English. Other translations being worked on include Hebrew and Russian. In July 2010 Abandonia was acquired by a Swedish internet media company. Abovo Media Group took over the hosting responsibilities for Abandonia and support of its upcoming versions.
Since 2010 the Abovo Media Group team led by Rafiq Ahmed, Andreas Swahn, Steven Harding and Abdul Majid has managed the development and support of the site. Between 2006 and 2010, Abandonia was owned by a Swedish online community company. Studentis supported its upcoming versions. In October 2007 Abandonia received a new layout and was transferred over to the Drupal platform by Kosta Krauth and the Studentis team consisting of Andreas Swahn, Marcus Johansson, Daniele Testa, Fredrik Holm and Carl McDade. However, access to all site functions was never handed-over and to this day, the initial design flaws from Kosta Krauth persist due to this; the introduction of advertisements to the site was seen as an inconvenience by many of its users. By this time, however, so many other abandonware sites had opened that many of the site volunteers and users have moved away from Abandonia, leaving it abandoned by all but the most stubborn of long-suffering volunteers and a diminishing community. In November 2015, the website's database was breached, allowing attackers to gain information on 776,000 accounts registered on the site.
The data contained email and IP addresses and salted MD5 hashes of passwords. This hack was made public by website Have I Been Pwned? on June 5, 2017 via a front-page announcement.. It was not deemed necessary to inform each member via their confirmed, sign-up email addresses, nor was an enforced password change deemed necessary; the incident, was reported as a news article on the site's main page. Abandonia's definition of abandonware is one of the more defined in the abandonware scene. In order for a game to be considered abandoned - therefore hosted on the site for download - it has to pass three criteria: First, the game has to be unavailable on the retail market and no longer distributed by its publishers nor in any format by legitimate retailers. Second, official support for the game, by both its publisher and developer, must have ended. Third, the game must not be under active protectio
The Amiga is a family of personal computers introduced by Commodore in 1985. The original model was part of a wave of 16- and 32-bit computers that featured 256 KB or more of RAM, mouse-based GUIs, improved graphics and audio over 8-bit systems; this wave included the Atari ST—released the same year—Apple's Macintosh, the Apple IIGS. Based on the Motorola 68000 microprocessor, the Amiga differed from its contemporaries through the inclusion of custom hardware to accelerate graphics and sound, including sprites and a blitter, a pre-emptive multitasking operating system called AmigaOS; the Amiga 1000 was released in July 1985, but a series of production problems kept it from becoming available until early 1986. The best selling model, the Amiga 500, was introduced in 1987 and became one of the leading home computers of the late 1980s and early 1990s with four to six million sold; the A3000, introduced in 1990, started the second generation of Amiga systems, followed by the A500+, the A600 in March 1992.
As the third generation, the A1200 and the A4000 were released in late 1992. The platform became popular for gaming and programming demos, it found a prominent role in the desktop video, video production, show control business, leading to video editing systems such as the Video Toaster. The Amiga's native ability to play back multiple digital sound samples made it a popular platform for early tracker music software; the powerful processor and ability to access several megabytes of memory enabled the development of several 3D rendering packages, including LightWave 3D, Aladdin4D, TurboSilver and Traces, a predecessor to Blender. Although early Commodore advertisements attempt to cast the computer as an all-purpose business machine when outfitted with the Amiga Sidecar PC compatibility add-on, the Amiga was most commercially successful as a home computer, with a wide range of games and creative software. Poor marketing and the failure of the models to repeat the technological advances of the first systems meant that the Amiga lost its market share to competing platforms, such as the fourth generation game consoles and the dropping prices of IBM PC compatibles which gained 256-color VGA graphics in 1987.
Commodore went bankrupt in April 1994 after the Amiga CD32 model failed in the marketplace. Since the demise of Commodore, various groups have marketed successors to the original Amiga line, including Genesi, Eyetech, ACube Systems Srl and A-EON Technology. AmigaOS has influenced replacements and compatible systems such as MorphOS, AmigaOS 4 and AROS. "The Amiga was so far ahead of its time that nobody—including Commodore's marketing department—could articulate what it was all about. Today, it's obvious the Amiga was the first multimedia computer, but in those days it was derided as a game machine because few people grasped the importance of advanced graphics and video. Nine years vendors are still struggling to make systems that work like 1985 Amigas." Jay Miner joined Atari in the 1970s to develop custom integrated circuits, led development of the Atari 2600's TIA. As soon as its development was complete, the team began developing a much more sophisticated set of chips, CTIA, ANTIC and POKEY, that formed the basis of the Atari 8-bit family.
With the 8-bit line's launch in 1979, the team once again started looking at a next generation chipset. Nolan Bushnell had sold the company to Warner Communications in 1978, the new management was much more interested in the existing lines than development of new products that might cut into their sales. Miner wanted to start work with the new Motorola 68000, but management was only interested in another 6502 based system. Miner left the company, for a time, the industry. In 1979, Larry Kaplan founded Activision. In 1982, Kaplan was approached by a number of investors. Kaplan hired Miner to run the hardware side of the newly formed company, "Hi-Toro"; the system was code-named "Lorraine" in keeping with Miner's policy of giving systems female names, in this case the company president's wife, Lorraine Morse. When Kaplan left the company late in 1982, Miner was promoted to head engineer and the company relaunched as Amiga Corporation. A breadboard prototype was completed by late 1983, shown at the January 1984 Consumer Electronics Show.
At the time, the operating system was not ready, so the machine was demonstrated with the Boing Ball demo. A further developed version of the system was demonstrated at the June 1984 CES and shown to many companies in hopes of garnering further funding, but found little interest in a market, in the final stages of the North American video game crash of 1983. In March, Atari expressed a tepid interest in Lorraine for its potential use in a games console or home computer tentatively known as the 1850XLD, but the talks were progressing and Amiga was running out of money. A temporary arrangement in June led to a $500,000 loan from Atari to Amiga to keep the company going; the terms required the loan to be repaid at the end of the month, otherwise Amiga would forfeit the Lorraine design to Atari. During 1983, Atari lost over $1 million a week, due to the combined effects of the crash and the ongoing price war in the home computer market. By the end of the year, Warner was desperate to sell the company.
In January 1984, Jack Tramiel resigned from Commodore due to internal battles over the future direction of the company. A number of Commodore employees followed him to Tramiel Technology; this included a number of the senior technical staff, where they began development of a 68000-based machine of the
MS-DOS is an operating system for x86-based personal computers developed by Microsoft. Collectively, MS-DOS, its rebranding as IBM PC DOS, some operating systems attempting to be compatible with MS-DOS, are sometimes referred to as "DOS". MS-DOS was the main operating system for IBM PC compatible personal computers during the 1980s and the early 1990s, when it was superseded by operating systems offering a graphical user interface, in various generations of the graphical Microsoft Windows operating system. MS-DOS was the result of the language developed in the seventies, used by IBM for its mainframe operating system. Microsoft acquired the rights to meet IBM specifications. IBM re-released it on August 12, 1981 as PC DOS 1.0 for use in their PCs. Although MS-DOS and PC DOS were developed in parallel by Microsoft and IBM, the two products diverged after twelve years, in 1993, with recognizable differences in compatibility and capabilities. During its lifetime, several competing products were released for the x86 platform, MS-DOS went through eight versions, until development ceased in 2000.
MS-DOS was targeted at Intel 8086 processors running on computer hardware using floppy disks to store and access not only the operating system, but application software and user data as well. Progressive version releases delivered support for other mass storage media in greater sizes and formats, along with added feature support for newer processors and evolving computer architectures, it was the key product in Microsoft's growth from a programming language company to a diverse software development firm, providing the company with essential revenue and marketing resources. It was the underlying basic operating system on which early versions of Windows ran as a GUI, it is a flexible operating system, consumes negligible installation space. MS-DOS was a renamed form of 86-DOS – owned by Seattle Computer Products, written by Tim Paterson. Development of 86-DOS took only six weeks, as it was a clone of Digital Research's CP/M, ported to run on 8086 processors and with two notable differences compared to CP/M.
This first version was shipped in August 1980. Microsoft, which needed an operating system for the IBM Personal Computer hired Tim Paterson in May 1981 and bought 86-DOS 1.10 for $75,000 in July of the same year. Microsoft kept the version number, but renamed it MS-DOS, they licensed MS-DOS 1.10/1.14 to IBM, who, in August 1981, offered it as PC DOS 1.0 as one of three operating systems for the IBM 5150, or the IBM PC. Within a year Microsoft licensed MS-DOS to over 70 other companies, it was designed to be an OS. Each computer would have its own distinct hardware and its own version of MS-DOS, similar to the situation that existed for CP/M, with MS-DOS emulating the same solution as CP/M to adapt for different hardware platforms. To this end, MS-DOS was designed with a modular structure with internal device drivers, minimally for primary disk drives and the console, integrated with the kernel and loaded by the boot loader, installable device drivers for other devices loaded and integrated at boot time.
The OEM would use a development kit provided by Microsoft to build a version of MS-DOS with their basic I/O drivers and a standard Microsoft kernel, which they would supply on disk to end users along with the hardware. Thus, there were many different versions of "MS-DOS" for different hardware, there is a major distinction between an IBM-compatible machine and an MS-DOS machine; some machines, like the Tandy 2000, were MS-DOS compatible but not IBM-compatible, so they could run software written for MS-DOS without dependence on the peripheral hardware of the IBM PC architecture. This design would have worked well for compatibility, if application programs had only used MS-DOS services to perform device I/O, indeed the same design philosophy is embodied in Windows NT. However, in MS-DOS's early days, the greater speed attainable by programs through direct control of hardware was of particular importance for games, which pushed the limits of their contemporary hardware. Soon an IBM-compatible architecture became the goal, before long all 8086-family computers emulated IBM's hardware, only a single version of MS-DOS for a fixed hardware platform was needed for the market.
This version is the version of MS-DOS, discussed here, as the dozens of other OEM versions of "MS-DOS" were only relevant to the systems they were designed for, in any case were similar in function and capability to some standard version for the IBM PC—often the same-numbered version, but not always, since some OEMs used their own proprietary version numbering schemes —with a few notable exceptions. Microsoft omitted multi-user support from MS-DOS because Microsoft's Unix-based operating system, was multi-user; the company planned, over time, to improve MS-DOS so it would be indistinguishable from single-user Xenix, or XEDOS, which would run on the Motorola 68000, Zilog Z8000, the LSI-11. Microsoft advertised MS-DOS and Xenix together, listing the shared features of its "single-user OS" and "the multi-user, multi-tasking, UNIX-derived operating system", promising easy
Blockout is a puzzle video game, published in 1989 by California Dreams, developed in Poland by Aleksander Ustaszewski and Mirosław Zabłocki. The player's perspective is that of looking down into a three-dimensional rectangular pit. Polycube blocks of various shapes appear, one at a time, fall toward the bottom of the pit; the player can use three buttons to rotate the block around any of the three coordinate axes, can maneuver the block horizontally and vertically with a joystick. Once any part of a block comes to rest on the floor of the pit or in contact with an already-placed cube, it freezes in place and can no longer be moved; the player can press a button on the joystick to drop a block. Once a solid layer of cubes is formed with no gaps, it disappears and all cubes above it drop toward the bottom of the pit to fill the space. Completing multiple faces with a single block awards higher scores, the player earns a "Block Out" bonus for emptying the pit. A set number of faces must be completed in order to end each round.
As the game progresses, the blocks begin to drop faster, the dimensions of the pit change from round to round, differently-shaped blocks begin to appear. A bonus stage is played after every fifth round, in which the player has 30 seconds to form as many faces as possible in a 2x2 pit; the game ends if the blocks stack up to the top with the exception of the bonus stages. The game allows head-to-head competition between two players, each of whom has their own pit and blocks; when one player completes a face, all the cubes in the opponent's pit are raised by one level. To win a round, a player must either be the first to complete a set number of faces or must force their opponent's cubes to stack up to the top of the pit. Despite the other known console ports of Blockout, there were two for NES: the first is an official unreleased prototype developed in 1990 by Technos Japan Corp. under the name "Block Out", while the second is an unauthorized clone programmed by Hwang Shinwei and published by both himself and RCM Group in 1989/1990.
Blockout saw a port on Virtual Boy entitled 3D Tetris, though the game suffers from the lack of colors beyond red and black. Around 2007 a modernized, authorized continuation/remake named "Blockout II" was released with a license from Kadon Enterprises, Inc. to use the trademarked "Blockout" name. The game is open-source and was ported to many platforms the original wasn't available before, like Windows and the OpenPandora handheld; the New York Times reviewed the game in an article about educational software for mathematics, writing that Blockout "doesn't pretend to be educational, but the skills required to master it are not unrelated to mathematics geometry." A 1993 study found evidence that playing Blockout improved the spatial visualization ability of 10- to 14-year-olds. Dragon gave the game's Atari Lynx version a perfect score. Robert A. Jung reviewed the Atari Lynx version of the game, published to IGN. In his final verdict he wrote "This is a addictive, no-nonsense strategy game. Without any patterns to memorize and several options to choose from, Blockout will keep its freshness for quite some time.
If you thought Tetris was too simple, give this title a try." Scoring the game 8 out of 10. Entertainment Weekly gave the game am A, picked the game as the #17 greatest game available in 1991
Tetris is a tile-matching puzzle video game designed and programmed by Soviet Russian game designer Alexey Pajitnov. The first playable version was completed on June 6, 1984, while he was working for the Dorodnitsyn Computing Centre of the Academy of Science of the Soviet Union in Moscow, he derived Pajitnov's favorite sport. The name is used in-game to refer to the play where four lines are cleared at once. Tetris was the first entertainment software to be exported from the Soviet Union to the United States, where it was published by Spectrum HoloByte for the Commodore 64 and IBM PC; the game is a popular use of tetrominoes, the four-element case of polyominoes, which have been used in popular puzzles since at least 1907. The game, or one of its many variants, is available for nearly every video game console and computer operating system, as well as on devices such as graphing calculators, mobile phones, portable media players, PDAs, Network music players, as an Easter egg on non-media products like oscilloscopes.
It has inspired Tetris serving dishes, it has been played on the sides of various buildings. While versions of Tetris were sold for a range of 1980s home computer platforms as well as arcades, it was the successful handheld version for the Game Boy, launched in 1989, that established the game as one of the most popular video games ever. Electronic Gaming Monthly's 100th issue had Tetris in first place as "Greatest Game of All Time". In 2007, it came in second place in IGN's "100 Greatest Video Games of All Time". In January 2010, it was announced that the games in the franchise had sold more than 170 million copies–approximately 70 million physical copies, over 100 million copies for cell phones–making it the best selling paid-downloaded game of all time. Tetriminos are game pieces shaped like tetrominoes, geometric shapes composed of four square blocks each. A random sequence of Tetriminos fall down the playing field; the objective of the game is to manipulate these Tetriminos, by moving each one sideways and/or rotating by quarter-turns, so that they form a solid horizontal line without gaps.
When such a line is formed, it disappears and any blocks above it fall down to fill the space. When a certain number of lines are cleared, the game enters a new level; as the game progresses, each level causes the Tetriminos to fall faster, the game ends when the stack of Tetriminos reaches the top of the playing field and no new Tetriminos are able to enter. Some games end after a finite number of levels or lines. All of the Tetriminos doubles. I, J, L are able to clear triples. Only the I Tetrimino has the capacity to clear four lines and this is referred to as a "tetris". Pajitnov's original version for the Electronika 60 computer used green brackets to represent blocks. Versions of Tetris on the original Game Boy/Game Boy Color and on most dedicated handheld games use monochrome or grayscale graphics, but most popular versions use a separate color for each distinct shape. Prior to The Tetris Company's standardization in the early 2000s, those colors varied from implementation to implementation.
The scoring formula for the majority of Tetris products is built on the idea that more difficult line clears should be awarded more points. For example, a single line clear in Tetris Zone is worth 100 points, clearing four lines at once is worth 800, while each subsequent back-to-back Tetris is worth 1,200. In conjunction, players can be awarded combos that exist in certain games which reward multiple line clears in quick succession; the exact conditions for triggering combos, the amount of importance assigned to them, vary from game to game. Nearly all Tetris games allow the player to press a button to increase the speed of the current piece's descent or cause the piece to drop and lock into place known as a "soft drop" and a "hard drop", respectively. While performing a soft drop, the player can stop the piece's increased speed by releasing the button before the piece settles into place; some games only allow hard drop. Many games award a number of points based on the height that the piece fell before locking, so using the hard drop awards more points.
Traditional versions of Tetris move the stacks of blocks down by a distance equal to the height of the cleared rows below them. Contrary to the laws of gravity, blocks may be left floating above gaps. Implementing a different algorithm that uses a flood fill to segment the playfield into connected regions will make each region fall individually, in parallel, until it touches the region at the bottom of the playfield; this opens up additional "chain-reaction" tactics involving blocks cascading to fill additional lines, which may be awarded as more valuable clears. Although not the first Tetris game to feature a new kind of Tetris, "easy spin" called "infinite spin" by critics, Tetris Worlds was the first game to fall under major criticisms for it. Easy spin refers to the property of a Tetrimino to stop f
Russia the Russian Federation, is a transcontinental country in Eastern Europe and North Asia. At 17,125,200 square kilometres, Russia is by far or by a considerable margin the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, the ninth most populous, with about 146.77 million people as of 2019, including Crimea. About 77 % of the population live in the European part of the country. Russia's capital, Moscow, is one of the largest cities in the world and the second largest city in Europe. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Estonia, Latvia and Poland, Ukraine, Azerbaijan, China and North Korea, it shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U. S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. However, Russia recognises two more countries that border it, Abkhazia and South Ossetia, both of which are internationally recognized as parts of Georgia.
The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' disintegrated into a number of smaller states; the Grand Duchy of Moscow reunified the surrounding Russian principalities and achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had expanded through conquest and exploration to become the Russian Empire, the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state; the Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War.
The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Belarus, Uzbekistan, Azerbaijan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Lithuania, it is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. Russia's economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2018. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally; the country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction.
Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation, the G20, the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the World Trade Organization, as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States, the Collective Security Treaty Organization and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union, along with Armenia, Belarus and Kyrgyzstan; the name Russia is derived from Rus', a medieval state populated by the East Slavs. However, this proper name became more prominent in the history, the country was called by its inhabitants "Русская Земля", which can be translated as "Russian Land" or "Land of Rus'". In order to distinguish this state from other states derived from it, it is denoted as Kievan Rus' by modern historiography.
The name Rus itself comes from the early medieval Rus' people, Swedish merchants and warriors who relocated from across the Baltic Sea and founded a state centered on Novgorod that became Kievan Rus. An old Latin version of the name Rus' was Ruthenia applied to the western and southern regions of Rus' that were adjacent to Catholic Europe; the current name of the country, Россия, comes from the Byzantine Greek designation of the Rus', Ρωσσία Rossía—spelled Ρωσία in Modern Greek. The standard way to refer to citizens of Russia is rossiyane in Russian. There are two Russian words which are commonly