51st Guards Artillery Brigade (Belarus)
The 51st Guards Artillery Brigade is an artillery brigade of the Belarus Ground Forces, based at Osipovichi. Formed in 1942 during World War II as the 83rd Corps Artillery Regiment, the unit was made an elite Guards unit, the 83rd Guards Howitzer Artillery Regiment in mid-1943 for its actions in the Battles of Rzhev; the regiment fought in the Battle of Smolensk and Operation Bagration before advancing into the Baltic states, ending the war in the Battle of Königsberg. Postwar, it went through several reorganizations and was relocated to Osipovichi in 1960, when it became the 121st Guards Artillery Brigade. In 1972, the brigade was expanded into the 51st Guards Artillery Division. After the dissolution of the Soviet Union, the unit became part of the Belarus Ground Forces, in 1996 became the 51st Guards Central Artillery Reinforcement Group. In 2004 it was redesignated as the 51st Guards Mixed Artillery Group, before becoming the 51st Guards Artillery Brigade its current title, in 2014. On 7 August 1942, by an order of the People's Commissariat of Defense, the 83rd Corps Artillery Regiment was formed in Kolomna.
On 10 August 1943, for its courage and heroism in the capture of Vyazma during the Third Rzhev–Sychyovka Offensive, the regiment was converted into the 83rd Guards Howitzer Artillery Regiment. It fought in the Battle of Smolensk. For assisting in the capture of Orsha on 28 June 1944 in the Vitebsk–Orsha Offensive, part of Operation Bagration, the regiment received the city's name as an honorific, it fought in the Minsk Offensive. On 25 July, for its exemplary completion of command tasks in the capture of Grodno during the Belostock Offensive and for displaying courage and heroism, the regiment was awarded the Order of Alexander Nevsky. On 12 August, it was awarded the Order of the Red Banner for its courage and heroism in the crossing of the Neman and the capture of a bridgehead on the opposite bank; the regiment helped capture Kaunas in the Kaunas Offensive. The regiment ended the war in April 1945 in the town of Gross Blumenau in East Prussia after fighting in the Battle of Königsberg. On 12 September 1949, in accordance with a directive of the Chief of the General Staff of the Armed Forces of the USSR of 2 July of that year, the 83rd Guards Regiment was reorganized as the 347th Guards Corps Artillery Brigade.
On 25 May 1955, in accordance with a directive of 4 March of that year, the brigade was renumbered as the 39th Guards Corps Artillery Brigade. On 1 December, in accordance with a directive of 1 September, the brigade was reorganized as the 1127th Guards Corps Artillery Regiment, it became the 121st Guards Gun Artillery Brigade on 1 July 1956 in accordance with a directive of 19 April of that year, received the battle flag of the 83rd Guards Howitzer Artillery Regiment. The brigade was stationed in Baranovichi, but on 1 July 1960 was reorganized as the 121st Guards Artillery Brigade in accordance with a directive of 13 May and relocated to Osipovichi. By a directive of the commander of the Belorussian Military District of 25 August 1972, the brigade became the 51st Guards Artillery Division. In July 1984, the unit received its battle flag, it was directly subordinated to the district headquarters, by the late 1980s included the 170th Howitzer Artillery Brigade, the 171st Heavy Howitzer Artillery Brigade, the 178th Gun Artillery Brigade, the 336th Reactive Artillery Brigade, the 197th High Power Artillery Brigade, the 502nd Anti-Tank Artillery Brigade.
Support units included the 353rd Separate Equipment Maintenance and Recovery and 586th Separate Material Supply Battalions and the 626th Separate Medical Company. The 170th and 171st Brigades had been formed from the 1335th and 1336th Regiments in 1984; the division participated in the exercises Vesna-75, Zapad-81, Osen-88. On 30 December 1988, for its skills shown in exercises, the division received the Ministry of Defence Pennant for courage and military valor. In 1989, the 502nd Anti-Tank Artillery Brigade became a separate unit. On 19 November 1990, according to CFE Treaty data, the division's 170th Howitzer Artillery Brigade was equipped with 49 122 mm D-30 howitzers, two 2S1 Gvozdika self-propelled guns, two 2S3 Akatsiya self-propelled guns, one 2A65 Msta-B 152 mm howitzer, while vehicles included 60 MT-LBT; the 171st Heavy Howitzer Artillery Brigade had 48 2A65 Msta-B, the 178th Gun Artillery Brigade 48 2S5 Giatsint-S self propelled guns, the 336th Reactive Artillery Brigade 48 9A52 Smerch multiple rocket launchers.
In March 1992, the division was taken over by the Armed Forces of Belarus. On 1 August 1996, the 51st Guards Artillery Division was reformed as the 51st Guards Central Artillery Reinforcement Group in Osipovichi, it participated in Exercise Neman-2001, Exercise Berezina-2002, Osen-2008. On 20 February 2004, it became the 51st Guards Mixed Artillery Group; the group was directly subordinated to the Chief of Missile Troops and Artillery of the Armed Forces of Belarus, served as a testing unit for tactical changes. By 2013, it included two battalions, a self-propelled gun battalion with the 2S5 Giatsint-S and a howitzer battalion with the 152 mm 2A65 Msta-B. In September 2014, its chief of staff, Colonel Andrey Zhidovich, became commander of the group; the group was reorganized into the 51st Guards Artillery Brigade on 30 October of that year. At least one self-propelled gun battalion from the brigade participated in the joint Zapad 2017 exercise alongside Russian troops. In November 2017, testing of Russian-made 2B23 Nona-M1 120mm mortars was conducted at the brigade's training range by artillerymen from the 38th Guards Air Assault Brigade and 103rd Guards Airborne Brigade.
Feskov, V. I.. I.. A.. A.. Вооруженные силы СССР после Второй Миро
Cuban Missile Crisis
The Cuban Missile Crisis known as the October Crisis of 1962, the Caribbean Crisis, or the Missile Scare, was a 13-day confrontation between the United States and the Soviet Union initiated by the American discovery of Soviet ballistic missile deployment in Cuba. The confrontation is considered the closest the Cold War came to escalating into a full-scale nuclear war. In response to the failed Bay of Pigs Invasion of 1961 and the presence of American Jupiter ballistic missiles in Italy and Turkey, Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev agreed to Cuba's request to place nuclear missiles on the island to deter a future invasion. An agreement was reached during a secret meeting between Khrushchev and Fidel Castro in July 1962, construction of a number of missile launch facilities started that summer; the 1962 United States elections were under way, the White House had for months denied charges that it was ignoring dangerous Soviet missiles 90 miles from Florida. The missile preparations were confirmed when an Air Force U-2 spy plane produced clear photographic evidence of medium-range and intermediate-range ballistic missile facilities.
The US established a naval blockade on October 22 to prevent further missiles from reaching Cuba. The US announced it would not permit offensive weapons to be delivered to Cuba and demanded that the weapons in Cuba be dismantled and returned to the Soviet Union. After several days of tense negotiations, an agreement was reached between US President John F. Kennedy and Khrushchev. Publicly, the Soviets would dismantle their offensive weapons in Cuba and return them to the Soviet Union, subject to United Nations verification, in exchange for a US public declaration and agreement to avoid invading Cuba again. Secretly, the United States agreed that it would dismantle all US-built Jupiter MRBMs, deployed in Turkey against the Soviet Union; when all offensive missiles and Ilyushin Il-28 light bombers had been withdrawn from Cuba, the blockade was formally ended on November 21, 1962. The negotiations between the United States and the Soviet Union pointed out the necessity of a quick and direct communication line between Washington and Moscow.
As a result, the Moscow–Washington hotline was established. A series of agreements reduced US–Soviet tensions for several years until both parties began to build their nuclear arsenal further. With the end of World War II and the start of the Cold War, the United States had grown concerned about the expansion of communism. A Latin American country allying with the Soviet Union was regarded by the US as unacceptable, it would, for example, defy the Monroe Doctrine, a US policy limiting US involvement in European colonies and European affairs but holding that the Western Hemisphere was in the US sphere of influence. The Kennedy administration had been publicly embarrassed by the failed Bay of Pigs Invasion in May 1961, launched under President John F. Kennedy by CIA-trained forces of Cuban exiles. Afterward, former President Dwight Eisenhower told Kennedy that "the failure of the Bay of Pigs will embolden the Soviets to do something that they would otherwise not do." The half-hearted invasion left Soviet premier Nikita Khrushchev and his advisers with the impression that Kennedy was indecisive and, as one Soviet adviser wrote, "too young, not prepared well for decision making in crisis situations... too intelligent and too weak".
US covert operations against Cuba continued in 1961 with the unsuccessful Operation Mongoose. In addition, Khrushchev's impression of Kennedy's weaknesses was confirmed by the President's response during the Berlin Crisis of 1961 to the building of the Berlin Wall. Speaking to Soviet officials in the aftermath of the crisis, Khrushchev asserted, "I know for certain that Kennedy doesn't have a strong background, nor speaking, does he have the courage to stand up to a serious challenge." He told his son Sergei that on Cuba, Kennedy "would make a fuss, make more of a fuss, agree". In January 1962, US Army General Edward Lansdale described plans to overthrow the Cuban government in a top-secret report, addressed to Kennedy and officials involved with Operation Mongoose. CIA agents or "pathfinders" from the Special Activities Division were to be infiltrated into Cuba to carry out sabotage and organization, including radio broadcasts. In February 1962, the US launched an embargo against Cuba, Lansdale presented a 26-page, top-secret timetable for implementation of the overthrow of the Cuban government, mandating guerrilla operations to begin in August and September.
"Open revolt and overthrow of the Communist regime" would occur in the first two weeks of October. When Kennedy ran for president in 1960, one of his key election issues was an alleged "missile gap" with the Soviets leading; the US at that time led the Soviets by a wide margin that would only increase. In 1961, the Soviets had only four intercontinental ballistic missiles. By October 1962, they may have had a few dozen, with some intelligence estimates as high as 75; the US, on the other hand, had 170 ICBMs and was building more. It had eight George Washington- and Ethan Allen-class ballistic missile submarines, with the capability to launch 16 Polaris missiles, each with a range of 2,500 nautical miles. Khrushchev increased the perception of a missile
The MR-UR-100 Sotka was a MIRV-warhead intercontinental ballistic missile developed and deployed by the Soviet Union from 1978 to 1993. The missile was given the NATO reporting name SS-17 Spanker and was built under the Soviet industry designation 15A15. An alternative designation for the missile is the UR-100MR. OKB-586 developed the MR-UR-100 project; the purpose was to develop a MIRV capable replacement for the existing UR-100 missiles in service. While designed to fit into existing UR-100 silos, it still required some modification of existing silos to accommodate the new missile, due to its requirement for a cold launch system; the development of "modernized UR-100" was authorized on 19 August 1970 and assigned to both OKB-586 and TsKBM. The design bureau conducted flight tests from 1971 through 1974. Deployment commenced in December 1978; the more advanced MR-UR-100UTTh version began development in 1979, with flight tests from 1977 through 1979. The new missiles had replaced the original version by 1983, at which time the Soviets fielded 270 launchers.
From there the number of launchers declined, by the 1991 START I Treaty they were down to 76. All were removed from the inventory. In the historical fiction novel The Third World War, written by General Sir John Hackett, a warhead from a MR-UR-100 detonates 3500m above Birmingham, England at 10:30 hours GMT on 20 August 1985; the explosion kills 300,000 people within minutes, with a further 250,000 to die in the aftermath. Soviet Union The Strategic Rocket Forces were the only operators of the Sotka. List of missiles List of rockets 15A15
Bologovsky District is an administrative and municipal district, one of the thirty-six in Tver Oblast, Russia. It is located in the north of the oblast and borders with Borovichsky District of Novgorod Oblast in the north, Udomelsky District in the east, Vyshnevolotsky District in the southeast, Firovsky District and the urban-type settlement of Ozyorny in the south, Valdaysky District of Novgorod Oblast in the west, with Okulovsky District of Novgorod Oblast, to the northwest; the area of the district is 2,463.7 square kilometers. Its administrative center is the town of Bologoye. Population: 38,557; the population of Bologoye accounts for 60.9% of the district's total population. The district is located in the eastern part of the Valdai Hills; the whole area of the district belongs to the drainage basin of the Msta River, a major tributary of Lake Ilmen, which, in its turn, belongs to the basin of the Baltic Sea. A stretch of the Msta makes a border between Bologovsky and Udomelsky Districts, Msta crosses the northeast corner of the district.
The biggest tributary of the Msta within the district is the Berezayka River, with its tributary, the Valdayka River. The rivers in the south of the district drain into the Shlina River, a tributary of the Tsna River in the basin of the Msta; the Shlina crosses the southern part of the district. The Valdai Hills are notable by its large lake district, of which a part belongs to Bologovsky District; the largest lakes within the district are Lake Piros and Lake Kaftino, which belong to the basin of the Berezayka. Much of the area of the district is covered by forest; the area from the Middle Ages was dependent on Novgorod and in the 15th century was a part of Derevskaya Pyatina of Novgorod. In the course of the administrative reform carried out in 1708 by Peter the Great, it was included into Ingermanland Governorate. In 1727, separate Novgorod Governorate was split off. In 1770, it became a part of Valdaysky Uyezd of Novgorod Viceroyalty. In 1796, the viceroyalty was transformed into Novgorod Governorate.
The area was located along the road connecting St. Petersburg. On June 3, 1917 Bologoye was granted a town status. Between April 1, 1919 and October 1920, the uyezd center was transferred from Valday to Bologoye, but soon after it was moved back to Valday again. In August 1927, the governorates and uyezds were abolished. Bologovsky District, with the administrative center in the town of Bologoye, was established within Borovichi Okrug of Leningrad Oblast effective October 1, 1927, it included parts of former Valdaysky Uyezd. On July 23, 1930, the okrugs were abolished, the districts were directly subordinated to the oblast. On January 29, 1935 Bologovsky District was transferred to newly established Kalinin Oblast. In February 1963, during the abortive administrative reform by Nikita Khrushchev, Udomelsky District was merged into Bologovsky District, but in January 1965 it was re-established. In 1990, Kalinin Oblast was renamed Tver Oblast. In 1938, in 1939, Kuzhenkino and Vypolzovo were granted urban-type settlement status.
In 2005, Vypolzovo and Berezayka were downgraded to the status of rural localities. Effective October 1, 1927 Uglovsky District was established as well, with the administrative center in the railway station of Uglovka, it was a part of Borovichi Okrug of Leningrad Oblast. On January 1, 1932, Uglovsky District was abolished and split between Borovichsky and Bologovsky Districts; the industry of the district serves the railways. Additionally, there are a pipe production factory, a glass-making factory, a metal production plant, as well as enterprises of construction and food industries; the main agricultural specialization in the district is cattle breeding with meat and milk production. Bologoye is a major railway hub, where four railway lines cross: One connects Moscow and Saint Petersburg, three more connect Bologoye with Rybinsk via Bezhetsk and Sonkovo, with Pskov via Valday and Staraya Russa, with Velikiye Luki via Andreapol. There is passenger traffic along all these lines; the principal stations are Bologoye and Lykoshino.
The M10 highway, which connects Moscow and St. Petersburg, crosses the district from southeast to northwest, passing just north of the urban-type settlement of Kuzhenkino. Bologoye has access to this road. There are local roads as well; the district contains six cultural heritage monuments of federal significance and additionally thirty-three objects classified as cultural and historical heritage of local significance. The federal monuments are the wooden Transfiguration Church in the village of Beryozovy Ryadok, built in the first half of the 19th century, as well as the ensemble of the Kemtsy Estate in the selo Kemtsy. Bologoye hosts Nikolay Dubravitsky Bologoye District Museum which specializes on the history of the district. Законодательное Собрание Тверской области. Закон №4-ЗО от 18 января 2005 г. «Об установлении границ муниципальных образований Тверской области и наделении их статусом городских округов, муниципальных районов», в ред. Закона №65-ЗО от 24 июля 2012 г. «О внесении изменения в статью 2 Закона Тверской области "Об установлении границ муниципальных образований Тверской области и наделении их статусом городских округов, муниципальных районов"».
Вступил в силу через десять дней после официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Тверские ведомости", №3, 21–27 января 2005 г. (Legislative Assembly of Tver Oblast. Law #4-ZO of January 18, 2005 On Establishing the Borders of
7th Guards Mountain Air Assault Division
The 7th Guards Mountain Air Assault Division is an elite guards division of the Russian Airborne Troops. The 7th Guards Airborne Division was formed in September 1948 based on 322nd Guards Rifle Regiment which fought in Eastern Europe in World War II. In October 1948 the division was relocated to Lithuania. During the Cold War period, the division served in the suppression of the Hungarian and Czech revolutions. On August 1993, the division was relocated to Russia, it took part in various counter-insurgency operations in the Caucasus region. On 1 December 2006 it was renamed as 7th Guards Mountain Air Assault Division. In 2014 the division's 247th Guards Air Assault Regiment took part in the War in Donbass in Ukraine. There were two separately formed 7th Guards Airborne Divisions in the Red Army and Soviet Ground Forces/Soviet Airborne Troops; the first division was formed during the Second World War at Ramenskoye in December 1942. It fought at Demyansk, Korsun, on the Dnieper River, at Targul Frumos and Budapest.
It ended the war with 4th Guards Army of the 3rd Ukrainian Front in May 1945. As part of a postwar military reorganization, this division was retitled the 115th Guards Rifle Division in June 1945; the second formation of the 7th Guards Airborne Division was started in September 1948 based on 322nd Guards Rifle Regiment. The first formation of the division was formed during the Second World War at Ramenskoye in December 1942, it fought at Demyansk, Korsun, on the Dnieper River, at Targul Frumos and Budapest. On May 8, 1945, the divisional commander, Major General Dmitrii Aristarkhovich Drichkin, set up his headquarters in the village of Erlauf, some 60 miles west of Vienna and 50 miles east of Linz. Anxious to meet the Allies, he sent out scouts. At midnight, he met Major General Stanley Eric Reinhart, commander of the U. S. 65th Infantry Division. For the duration of their presence on the Danube river, both commanders continued to cooperate in an unusually effective manner. Twenty years public affairs officer Captain John J. Pullen described their first cordial encounter for the National Observer.
For the 50th anniversary, Erlauf erected a Soviet-sponsored memorial. It features a local girl, linking arms with a GI on her right, a Soviet soldier on her left. To this day, an enlarged photo and a small exhibit mark the spot where this historic encounter took place: A life-size Major General Reinhart, smiling at General Drichkin, as they compare their watches one minute past midnight, on 9 May 1945, the moment the unconditional surrender of Germany became effective; as part of a postwar military reorganization at the end of June 1945, the first formation of the 7th Guards Airborne Division was retitled as the 115th Guards Rifle Division. The 22nd Guards Tank Division was activated on 4 June 1957 in Novomoskovsk, Dnepropetrovsk Oblast, from the 115th Guards Rifle Division; the baptism of fire of the second formation division's predecessor regiment took place in 1945, fighting around Lake Balaton under the 37th Guards Rifle Corps, 9th Guards Army, 3rd Ukrainian Front. On 26 April 1945, the 322nd Guards Rifle Regiment of the 103rd Guards Rifle Division was awarded the Order of Kutuzov, second class, for exemplary performance.
In commemoration, the division's official day is 26 April, by an order of the Defense Minister of the USSR. At the end of the war, the 322nd Guards Rifle Regiment was in the city of Czechoslovakia. During the war, the regiment was thanked on six occasions by the Supreme Commander. In all 2,065 of its soldiers and officers were decorated for valor and heroism by the Soviet Union; the 7th Guards Airborne Division was established on 15 October 1948 on the basis of the 322nd Guards Air Landing Regiment of the 103rd Guards Airborne Division at Polotsk in the Belorussian Military District, becoming part of the 8th Guards Airborne Corps. The division was relocated to the cities of Kaunas and Marijampole, Lithuanian SSR. Personnel from these bases took part in actions against Lithuanian partisans. Units in this premier division of airborne troops have mastered the landing of Antonov An-8, An-12, An-22, Il-76 aircraft, tested a number of new parachute systems, all generations of BMD, 2S9 Nona artillery systems.
In 1956, the division was involved in "Operation Whirlwind", the suppression of the Hungarian revolution. On 3 November 1956, the 108th Parachute Regiment landed at the Tököl airbase in Il-12 and Li-2 aircraft and disabling six antiaircraft batteries positioning themselves to defend the base. On 4 November 1956 the regimental staff, together with fighters from the 119th Parachute Regiment, entered the city of Budapest and took part in street fighting until the city was secured on 7 November. In 1968, the division participated in Operation Danube to suppress the Prague Spring uprising; the 108th Regiment distinguished itself in the most dangerous and difficult missions, for which about two hundred of its personnel received high government awards. On 23 June 1969, troops of the 108th Airborne Regiment were tasked to fly from Kaunas to Ryazan, where they were to demonstrate their vehicle assault landing skills to the Minister of Defence of the USSR, Andrei Grechko; the group of three An-12 aircraft took off early in the morning, reaching a cruising altitude of 3,000 metres.
Approaching the city of Kaluga, a plane carrying the staff of a company and battalion command collided with an Ilyushin Il-14 passenger plane, at 3000 meters without clearance, with the loss of all aboard. The division was involved in many major exercises and maneuvers, such as "Shield-76", "Neman", "West-81", "West-84" and "Watch-86", in the latter three exerc
Nikita Sergeyevich Khrushchev was a Soviet statesman who led the Soviet Union during part of the Cold War as the First Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union from 1953 to 1964, as Chairman of the Council of Ministers, or Premier, from 1958 to 1964. Khrushchev was responsible for the de-Stalinization of the Soviet Union, for backing the progress of the early Soviet space program, for several liberal reforms in areas of domestic policy. Khrushchev's party colleagues removed him from power in 1964, replacing him with Leonid Brezhnev as First Secretary and Alexei Kosygin as Premier. Khrushchev was born in 1894 in the village of Kalinovka, close to the present-day border between Russia and Ukraine, he was employed as a metal worker during his youth, he was a political commissar during the Russian Civil War. With the help of Lazar Kaganovich, he worked his way up the Soviet hierarchy, he supported Joseph Stalin's purges, approved thousands of arrests. In 1938, Stalin sent him to govern Ukraine, he continued the purges there.
During what was known in the Soviet Union as the Great Patriotic War, Khrushchev was again a commissar, serving as an intermediary between Stalin and his generals. Khrushchev was present at the bloody defense of Stalingrad, a fact he took great pride in throughout his life. After the war, he returned to Ukraine before being recalled to Moscow as one of Stalin's close advisers. On 5 March 1953, the death of Stalin triggered a power struggle in which Khrushchev emerged victorious after consolidating his leadership of the party with that of the Council of Ministers. On 25 February 1956, at the 20th Party Congress, he delivered the "Secret Speech", which denounced Stalin's purges and ushered in a less repressive era in the Soviet Union, his domestic policies, aimed at bettering the lives of ordinary citizens, were ineffective in agriculture. Hoping to rely on missiles for national defense, Khrushchev ordered major cuts in conventional forces. Despite the cuts, Khrushchev's rule saw the most tense years of the Cold War, culminating in the Cuban Missile Crisis.
Khrushchev's popularity was eroded by flaws in his policies. This emboldened his potential opponents, who rose in strength and deposed the Premier in October 1964. However, he did not suffer the deadly fate of previous Soviet power struggles, was pensioned off with an apartment in Moscow and a dacha in the countryside, his lengthy memoirs were smuggled to the West and published in part in 1970. Khrushchev died in 1971 of a heart attack. Khrushchev was born on 15 April 1894, in Kalinovka, a village in what is now Russia's Kursk Oblast, near the present Ukrainian border, his parents, Sergei Khrushchev and Xeniya Khrushcheva, were poor peasants of Russian origin, had a daughter two years Nikita's junior, Irina. Sergei Khrushchev was employed in a number of positions in the Donbas area of far eastern Ukraine, working as a railwayman, as a miner, labouring in a brick factory. Wages were much higher in the Donbas than in the Kursk region, Sergei Khrushchev left his family in Kalinovka, returning there when he had enough money.
Kalinovka was a peasant village. Nikita worked as a herdsboy from an early age, he was schooled for a total of four years, part in the village parochial school and part under Shevchenko's tutelage in Kalinovka's state school. According to Khrushchev in his memoirs, Shevchenko was a freethinker who upset the villagers by not attending church, when her brother visited, he gave the boy books, banned by the Imperial Government, she urged Nikita to seek further education. In 1908, Sergei Khrushchev moved to the Donbas city of Yuzovka. Yuzovka, renamed Stalino in 1924 and Donetsk in 1961, was at the heart of one of the most industrialized areas of the Russian Empire. After the boy worked in other fields, Khrushchev's parents found him a place as a metal fitter's apprentice. Upon completing that apprenticeship, the teenage Khrushchev was hired by a factory, he lost that job when he collected money for the families of the victims of the Lena Goldfields Massacre, was hired to mend underground equipment by a mine in nearby Rutchenkovo, where his father was the union organiser, he helped distribute copies and organise public readings of Pravda.
He stated that he considered emigrating to the United States for better wages, but did not do so. When World War I broke out in 1914, Khrushchev was exempt from conscription because he was a skilled metal worker, he was employed by a workshop that serviced ten mines, he was involved in several strikes that demanded higher pay, better working conditions, an end to the war. In 1914, he married daughter of the lift operator at the Rutchenkovo mine. In 1915, they had a daughter, in 1917, a son, Leonid. After the abdication of Tsar Nicholas II in 1917, the new Russian Provisional Government in Petrograd had little influence over Ukraine. Khrushchev was elected to the worker's council in Rutchenkovo, in May he became its chairman, he did not join the Bolsheviks until 1918, a year in which the Russian Civil War, between the Bolsheviks and a coalition of opponents known as the White Army, began in earnest. His biographer, William Taubman, suggests that Khrushchev's delay in affiliating himself with the Bolsheviks was because he felt closer to the Mensheviks who prioritised economic progress, whereas the Bolsheviks so