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8-bit clean

8-bit clean describes a computer system that handles 8-bit character encodings, such as the ISO 8859 series and the UTF-8 encoding of Unicode. Up to the early 1990s, many programs and data transmission channels assumed that all characters would be represented as numbers between 0 and 127. On computers and data links using 8-bit bytes this left the top bit of each byte free for use as a parity, flag bit, or meta data control bit. 7-bit systems and data links are unable to handle more complex character codes which are commonplace in non-English-speaking countries with larger alphabets. Binary files cannot be transmitted through 7-bit data channels directly. To work around this, binary-to-text encodings have been devised which use only 7-bit ASCII characters; some of these encodings are uuencoding, Ascii85, SREC, BinHex, kermit and MIME's Base64. EBCDIC-based systems cannot handle all characters used in UUencoded data. However, the base64 encoding does not have this problem. Various media were used to transfer messages, some of them only supporting 7-bit data, so an 8-bit message had high chances to be garbled during transmission in the 20th century.

But some implementations did not care about formal discouraging of 8-bit data and allowed high bit set bytes to pass through. Many early communications protocol standards, such as RFC 780, 788, 821, RFC 977, RFC 1056, 2821 and 5321, were designed to work over such "7-bit" communication links, they mention the use of ASCII character set "transmitted as an 8-bit byte with the high-order bit cleared to zero" and some of these explicitly restrict all data to 7-bit characters. For the first few decades of email networks, most email messages were plain text in the 7-bit US-ASCII character set. According to RFC 1428, the original RFC 821 definition of SMTP limits Internet Mail to lines of 7-bit US-ASCII characters; the format of email messages was re-defined in order to support messages that are not US-ASCII text. The Internet community adds features by "extension", allowing communication in both directions between upgraded machines and not-yet-upgraded machines, rather than declaring standards-compliant legacy software to be "broken" and insisting that all software worldwide be upgraded to the latest standard.

In the mid-1990s, people objected to "just send 8 bits" because of a perception that "just send 8 bits" is an implicit declaration that ISO 8859-1 become the new "standard encoding", forcing everyone in the world to use the same character set. Instead, the recommended way to take advantage of 8-bit-clean links between machines is to use the ESMTP 8BITMIME extension. Despite this, some Mail Transfer Agents, notably Exim and qmail, relay mail to servers that do not advertise 8BITMIME without performing the conversion to 7-bit MIME required by RFC 6152; this "just-send-8" attitude does not in fact cause problems in practice, since all modern email servers are 8-bit clean. MIME#Content-Transfer-Encoding Telnet#8-bit data 32-bit clean This article is based on material taken from the Free On-line Dictionary of Computing prior to 1 November 2008 and incorporated under the "relicensing" terms of the GFDL, version 1.3 or later

Hermann Schaaffhausen

Hermann Schaaffhausen was a German anatomist and paleoanthropologist. Hermann Schaaffhausen was the son of Anna Maria Wachendorf, he studied medicine at the University of Berlin and received his doctorate degree in 1839, became a Professor of Anatomy at the University of Bonn. Schaaffhausen soon became involved in research in physical anthropology and the study of prehistoric humans in Europe, he is best known for his study of the Neanderthal fossils. He was a member of several scientific societies, including the Naturhistorischen Vereins der preussischen Rheinlande und Westphalens located in Bonn, the Vereins von Alterthumsfreunden im Rheinlande, was an honorary member of the Deutsche Gesellschaft für Anthropologie, Ethnologie und Urgeschichte, he became a member of the prestigious Kaiserlichen Leopoldinisch-Carolinischen Deutschen Akademie der Naturforscher on 25 November 1873. Schaafhausen served as co-editor of the influential journal Archiv für Anthropologie, he was one of the founders of the Rheinischen Landesmuseums located in Bonn.

In addition to his scientific activities Schaaffhausen served as president of the Vereins der Rettung zur See. Although Darwin's theory of evolution was not yet published, Schaaffhausen discussed the idea of species evolving in an article titled “Ueber Beständigkeit und Umwandlung der Arten” published in the Verhandlungen des Naturhistorischen Vereins der preussischen Rheinlande und Westphalens in which he declared that "the immutability of species...is not proven." In the third edition of On the Origin of Species published in 1861, Charles Darwin added a Historical Sketch that acknowledged the ideas of Schaaffhausen. Many of his most important anthropological papers were collected and published in a book titled Anthropologische Studien. Workmen quarrying the Feldhofer Grotte in the Neander Valley, near Düsseldorf in northern Germany, in 1856 unearthed human bones in the floor of the cave. A local schoolmaster Johann Carl Fuhlrott, interested in geology and paleontology, learned of the discovery and went to the site to collect the unusual bones.

They consisted of the top portion of a skull, a clavicle and scapula, the right and left ulnae, a radius bone, the left hip bone, the right and left femora. Fuhlrott was struck by the fact that the bones appeared to be fossilized and the geological location of the bones in the cave, both suggesting that the bones were old. Fuhlrott, recognizing the possible scientific significance of the find, brought the bones to Schaaffhausen in Bonn for analysis. Schaaffhausen was impressed by the primitive form of the skull and the evidence for their geological antiquity. Fuhlrott and Schaaffhausen presented papers on the fossils and the geology of the Feldhofer Cave at a meeting of the Niederrheinische Gesellschaft für Natur- und Heilkunde in Bonn in 1857. Schaaffhausen published a paper on the Neanderthal fossils in the Archiv für Anatomie, Physiologie und wissenschaftliche Medicin in 1858 and Fuhlrott published a paper in the Verhandlungen des Naturhistorischen Vereins der preussischen Rheinlande und Westphalens in 1859 describing the geology of the site and how the bones were discovered.

Fuhlrott and Schaaffhausen believed the Neanderthal fossils dated from the Glacial Period when extinct animals such as mammoths and the woolly rhinoceros still lived in Europe, which would make them among the oldest human remains known. This was. Furthermore, Schaaffhausen noted, he argued that the prominent bony ridges over the eyes and the general shape of the skull indicated that it belonged to a savage and barbarous race of human. Schaaffhausen concluded that the bones belonged to the original wild race of humans that lived in Europe before modern European peoples migrated into Europe in prehistoric times; the fossils generated considerable debate among anthropologists in Germany and abroad. The prominent German anthropologist Rudolf Virchow rejected Schaaffhausen's interpretation of the fossils, considering them the pathological remains of an ancient human. However, in 1864 William King, professor of geology at Queens College in Galway, presented a paper where he argued the Neanderthal fossils belonged to an extinct species of early human that he named Homo neanderthalensis.

Schaaffhausen continued to write on the Neanderthal fossils over the next two decades, comparing the bones with newly discovered Ice Age human fossils from Belgium, the Cro-magnon fossils from France, Stone Age human bones from tombs across Europe. Über Beständigkeit und Umwandlung der Arten. In: Verhandlungen des Naturhistorischen Vereins. Bonn 1853 Zur Kenntnis der ältesten Rasseschädel. In: Archiv für Anatomie, Physiologie und wissenschaftliche Medicin: 453–478. Über die Urform des menschlichen Schädels. Bonn 1869 Die anthropologischen Fragen der Gegenwart. In: Archiv für Anthropologie. 1868 Über die Methode der vorgeschichtlichen Forschung. In: Archiv für Anthropologie. 1871 Der Schädel Raphaels. In: Archiv für Anthropologie. 1883 Anthropologische Studien. Bonn: Adolph Marcus, 1885 Der Neanderthaler Fund. In: Archiv für Anthropologie. 1888 Johannes Ranke: "Professor Dr. Hermann Schaaffhausen." In: Jahrbücher des Vereins von Alterthumsfreunden im Rheinlande 94: 1-42. E. Roth: "Hermann Schaaffhause

The Booty Tape

The Booty Tape is the commercial debut mixtape by American rapper Ugly God. It was released on August 2017, by Asylum Records. Recording sessions took place from 2015 to 2017, with all the writing and its executive production credited to Ugly God himself, alongside the additional production from Danny Wolf and Nikko Bunkin, among others; the mixtape features a solo guest appearance from American rapper Wiz Khalifa. On March 16, 2016, Ugly God premiered a song, called "Water" through his account on SoundCloud, it was re-released for digital download as the official lead single for his upcoming commercial debut project on November 19, 2016, by Asylum Records. The song peaked at number 80 on the US Billboard Hot 100."Fuck Ugly God" was released as the album's second single on June 27, 2017. "No Lies" was released as the album's third and final single on July 31, 2017. The song features a guest appearance from American rapper Wiz Khalifa; the album's first promotional single, "Bitch!", was released on February 1, 2017.

The album's second promotional single, "Stop Smoking Black & Milds", was released on August 3, 2017. In the United States, The Booty Tape debuted at number 27 on the US Billboard 200 chart, earning 12,000 album-equivalent units, with less than 3,000 coming from pure album sales in its first week. Sample credits "Welcome to the Booty Tape" contains a sample from "Mom Reacts to Ugly God" from YouTube personality Cufboys. "Bitch!" Contains a sample from "Solid", performed by Duwap Kaine

David T. Wilentz

David Theodore Wilentz was the Attorney General of New Jersey from 1934 to 1944. In 1935 he prosecuted Bruno Hauptmann in the Lindbergh kidnapping trial, he was the father of Robert Wilentz, Chief Justice of the New Jersey Supreme Court from 1979 to 1996, as well as Norma Hess, wife of Leon Hess, founder of Hess Corporation and Warren Wilentz Wilentz was born in Dvinsk in the Russian Empire on December 21, 1894. The following year he emigrated with his parents to the United States, settling in Perth Amboy, New Jersey, he graduated from Perth Amboy High School in 1912. Upon graduation he worked at the Perth Amboy Evening News becoming sports editor, he was manager of the local basketball team. In World War I he served in the United States Army, entering as a private and receiving an honorable discharge as a lieutenant, he commuted to Manhattan to attend night classes at New York Law School, receiving his LL. B. degree in 1917. He was admitted to the New Jersey Bar in 1919. In the same year he married Lena Goldman and they settled in Perth Amboy.

Wilentz entered private practice there and became involved in local Democratic politics. In 1928 he was appointed City Attorney of Perth Amboy, was elected Democratic chairman for Middlesex County in the same year. Governor A. Harry Moore appointed Wilentz Attorney General of New Jersey on February 5, 1934; the appointment was at the behest of Democratic political boss Frank Hague, but Wilentz was reported to have told Hague, "If I take the office, I will be no dummy." Charles A. Lindbergh, Jr. infant son of Charles Lindbergh and Anne Morrow Lindbergh, had been abducted from the family home in Hopewell, New Jersey on March 1, 1932. The child's body was found two months a few miles from the Lindberghs' home, but the arrest of Bruno Hauptmann, a German carpenter, was not made until September 19, 1934. Over $14,000 in ransom money was found in Hauptmann's garage, wood found in his home was said to match the ladder used in the kidnapping; the trial began on January 1935, with Wilentz prosecuting.

Press descriptions of the trial focused on his sharp tongue and natty attire. Wilentz had no previous experience in trying criminal cases, but he was certain he could secure the conviction and execution of Hauptmann, whom he called "Public Enemy Number One of the World."Wilentz built his case against Hauptmann on circumstantial evidence, supported by both eyewitness and expert witness testimony. Expert witnesses included handwriting expert Albert Osborn, who testified that Hauptmann had written the ransom notes, wood expert Arthur Koehler, who testified that the wood used to construct the ladder found at the scene of the kidnapping came from Hauptmann's attic. Wilentz's final star witness was John F. Condon, Lindbergh's go-between for the delivery of the ransom money, who testified that he had met Hauptmann and given the money to him. After Wilentz's effective presentation of evidence, the jury returned a guilty verdict and Hauptmann was sentenced to death, his appeals were rejected, despite a temporary reprieve from Governor Harold G. Hoffman, who ordered the New Jersey Board of Pardons to review the case.

Hauptmann was electrocuted on April 3, 1936. The conviction was questioned many times in subsequent years, but Wilentz never wavered in his assertion that Hauptmann was guilty. In 1981 Hauptmann's widow, unsuccessfully sought to overturn the guilty verdict, requesting $100 million in damages from Wilentz and the state, claiming false prosecution. At the time, Robert Wilentz, David's son, was Chief Justice of the New Jersey Supreme Court, though Anna Hauptmann's appeal was made in Federal District Court. After the Lindbergh trial, Wilentz leveraged his fame to exert greater control within the state Democratic Party. In the 1940s his Middlesex County Democratic organization rivaled the Hudson County machine of Frank Hague. After John V. Kenny defeated Hague in the Jersey City mayoral election of 1949, Wilentz consolidated his power, joining with Kenny in founding the National Democratic Club of New Jersey to combat Hague's influence. In the 1950s, Wilentz grew influential behind the scenes as a confidante of Democratic governors and one of a small number of kingmakers who selected Democratic nominees for statewide office.

As a member of the Democratic National Committee he was a powerful voice in the selection of candidates for president and vice-president. Wilentz maintained a private practice with Wilentz, Goldman & Spitzer, the firm he founded in Perth Amboy in 1950, his sons and Robert, joined him in the family firm. Robert Wilentz remained a member until 1979, when he was appointed Chief Justice of the New Jersey Supreme Court. Warren W. Wilentz was the Democratic candidate for United States Senate in 1966, losing to the incumbent Clifford P. Case. David Wilentz's daughter Norma married Leon Hess, founder of the Hess Corporation and owner of the New York Jets. Norma and Leon's daughter, Constance H. Williams, served as a state representative and state senator in Pennsylvania. In 1988 Wilentz died at his home in Long Branch, New Jersey at the age of 93. Biographical information for David T. Wilentz from The Political Graveyard

Austria at the 2000 Summer Olympics

Austria competed at the 2000 Summer Olympics in Sydney, Australia. 92 competitors, 55 men and 37 women, took part in 68 events in 17 sports. Men's 100 m Martin Lachkovics Round 1 — 10.41 Round 2 — 10.44 Men's 200 m Martin Lachkovics Round 1 — 21 Men's 110 m Hurdles Elmar Lichtenegger Round 1 — 13.65 Round 2 — 13.73 Semifinal — 13.59 Men's 3,000 m Steeplechase Günther Weidlinger Round 1 — 08:24.07 Final — 08:26.70 Men's Javelin Throw Gregor Hoegler Qualifying — 80.89 Men's marathon Michael Buchleitner Final — 2:19:26 Men's Decathlon Klaus Ambrosch 100 m — 11.01 400 m — 50.23 100 m Hurdles — 14.92 1,500 m — 04:40.94 Shot Put — 15.30 Discus Throw — 41.22 Javelin Throw — 67.94 Long Jump — 7.17 High Jump — 1.91 Pole Vault — 4.60Points — 7917.00 Women's 100 m Karin Mayr Round 1 — 11.50 Women's 200 m Karin Mayr Round 1 — 23.90 Women's 800 m Stephanie Graf Round 1 — 01:58.39 Semifinal — 01:57.56 Final — 01:56.64 Women's 5,000 m Susanne Pumper Round 1 — 15:16.66 Women's Shot Put Valentina Fedjuschina Qualifying — 17.84 Final — 17.14 Women's High Jump Linda Horvath Qualifying — 1.89 Women's Pole Vault Doris Auer Qualifying — 4.30 Final — 4.25 Nikolas Berger and Oliver Stamm — 9th place Women's Kayak Singles 500 m Uschi Profanter Qualifying Heat — 01:56.118 Semifinal — 01:55.626 Final — 02:20.598 Men's Kayak Singles Helmut Oblinger Qualifying — 253.94 Final — 226.45 Manuel Koehler Qualifying — 255.79 Final — 226.80 Women's Kayak Singles Violetta Oblinger-Peters Qualifying — 308.48 Final — 282.29 Men's Individual Time Trial Rene Haselbacher Final — 1:02:38 Men's Road Race Peter Wrolich Final — 5:30:46 Gerrit Glomser Final — 5:30:46 Matthias Buxhofer Final — 5:30:46 Rene Haselbacher Final — DNF Men's Point Race Franz Stocher Points — 8 Laps Down — 1 Men's Madison Werner Riebenbauer, Roland Garber Final — 10 points Women's Point Race Michaela Brunngraber Points — 0 Men's 3 Metre Springboard Richard Frece Preliminary — 328.68 Women's 10 Metre Platform Marion Reiff Preliminary — 206.55 Women's 10 Metre Platform Anja Richter-Libiseller Preliminary — 314.31 Semi-final — 168.78- 483.09 Final — 313.38-482.16 Women's Synchronized 10 Metre Platform Marion Reiff, Anja RichterLib Final — 294 Six fencers, five men and one woman, represented Austria in 2000.

Men's foilBenny Wendt Michael LudwigMen's épéeOliver Kayser Christoph Marik Michael SwitakMen's team épéeOliver Kayser, Christoph Marik, Michael SwitakWomen's épéeAndrea Rentmeister Four men and one woman participated in the sailing competition for Austria. They won two gold medals. MenWomenOpen MenWomen Men's 400 m Freestyle Hannes Kalteis Preliminary Heat — 04:03.66 Men's 1500 m Freestyle Hannes Kalteis Preliminary Heat — 15:32.90 Men's 200 m Butterfly Michael Windisch Preliminary Heat — 02:01.20 Men's 100 m Breaststroke Patrick Schmollinger Preliminary Heat — 01:02.87 Men's 200 m Breaststroke Maxim Podoprigora Preliminary Heat — 02:14.37 Semi-final — 02:14.20 Men's 100 m Backstroke Markus Rogan Preliminary Heat — 57.35 Men's 200 m Backstroke Markus Rogan Preliminary Heat — 02:02.84 Men's 200 m Individual Medley Michael Windisch Preliminary Heat — 02:05.15 Men's 400 m Individual Medley Michael Windisch Preliminary Heat — 04:24.62 Women's 50 m Freestyle Judith Draxler Preliminary Heat — 26.26 Women's 100 m Freestyle Judith Draxler Preliminary Heat — 57.4 Women's 200 m Butterfly Petra Zahrl Preliminary Heat — 02:13.29 Women's 200 m Breaststroke Elvira Fischer Preliminary Heat — 02:30.05 Men's Individual Competition: Johannes Enzenhofer — 1:51:02.48

Stuart Anderson (restaurateur)

Stuart Anderson was an American restaurateur and founder of the Black Angus Steakhouse restaurant chain, first established in Seattle in 1964. Anderson was born in Tacoma and raised in Seattle in well-to-do circumstances, his father was a successful orthopedic surgeon during the Great Depression. Anderson would joke that his difficult circumstances included having to walk all the way across the Broadmoor golf course to school, he left Seattle to join the United States Army during World War II, driving tanks in General George S. Patton's Third Army, returned to Seattle in 1949. In Seattle after the war, Anderson bought a hotel, The Caledonia, in order to circumvent the state's blue laws and sell alcohol in the hotel bar which he called the Ringside Room. Anderson would say in his book Here's the Beef! My Story of Beef that "Hookers, seamen and wrestlers made up most of my trade." Around 1960, he called it The French Quarter. In 1962, it was remade with a Klondike Gold Rush theme for the 1962 World's Fair and renamed to The Gold Coast.

In 1964 it was renamed again to Stuart Anderson's Black Angus before moving to Seattle's Elliott Avenue in the Denny Triangle. Black Angus became a chain with over 100 restaurants which Anderson sold in 1972. Anderson's 2,600-acre ranch in Thorp could be seen from Interstate 90, was featured in commercials. Anderson came out of retirement in Rancho Mirage, California to re-open a struggling Black Angus restaurant under the name Stuart's Steakhouse in 2010, it closed in 2012. He died from lung cancer at his home in Rancho Mirage on June 6, 2016, at the age of 93. Anderson and his restaurants are credited with launching the western-theme restaurant concept and the careers of other successful restaurant businesspeople like Julia Stewart, DineEquity CEO, his wife Helen said that despite his success in business, he could not cook steak, "the best he could do would be peanut butter sandwiches or frying eggs". Anderson was inducted to the Ellensburg Rodeo Hall of Fame in 2008 for his support. Anderson wrote two books about his life in the restaurant business.

The second, Corporate Cowboy Stuart Anderson: How a Maverick Entrepreneur Built Black Angus, America’s #1 Restaurant Chain of the 1980s, was written in 2014 shortly before his death. Anderson, Stuart. Here’s the Beef! My Story of Beef. Seattle, Washington: Hara. ISBN 1883697948. Anderson, Stuart. Corporate Cowboy Stuart Anderson: How a Maverick Entrepreneur Built Black Angus, America’s #1 Restaurant Chain of the 1980s. San Bernardino, California: Stuart Anderson. ISBN 0692200630. Anderson was married to Helen Anderson, née Fisher, from North Dakota