8.8 cm Flak 16

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8.8 cm Flak 16
88 Flak 16 3397921.jpg
8.8 cm Flak 16 cannon
Type Anti-aircraft gun
Place of origin German Empire
Service history
In service 1917-1918
Used by German Empire
Wars World War I
Production history
Designed 1916
Manufacturer Krupp
Barrel length 396 cm (156 in)

Shell Fixed
Shell weight 9.4 kilograms (21 lb)
Caliber 88 mm (3.46 in)
Barrels One
Traverse 360°
Muzzle velocity 785 m/s (2,575 ft/s)

The 8.8 cm Flak 16 was a German 88 mm anti-aircraft artillery gun from World War I, the forerunner of the later 88 mm guns of World War II. Its contemporary name was the 8.8 cm K.Zugflak L/45.


Early anti-aircraft artillery guns of World War I were primarily adaptations of existing medium-caliber weapons, mounted to enable fire at higher angles. By 1915, the German military command realized that these were useless for anything beyond deterrence, even against vulnerable balloons and slow-moving aircraft.[1] With the increase of aircraft performance, many armies developed dedicated AA guns with a high muzzle velocity – allowing the projectiles to reach greater altitudes. The first such German gun, the Flak 16, was introduced in 1917, using the 88 mm caliber, common in the Kaiserliche Marine.[1]


  1. ^ a b Westermann, Edward B. (2005–2009) [2001]. Flak: German Anti-aircraft Defenses 1914-1945. Modern War Studies. University Press of Kansas. pp. 19, 36–38, 44, 53, 58, 83, 90, 108, 128–129. ISBN 9780700614202. 

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