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Joseph Gerrish

Joseph Gerrish was a soldier, merchant and political figure in Nova Scotia. He was a member of the 1st General Assembly of Nova Scotia, he is buried in the Old Burying Ground. He was born in Boston, the son of John Gerrish and Sarah Hobbes, he entered business with a Boston merchant. In 1740, Gerrish married Mary Brenton, he served with the 3rd Massachusetts Regiment in the Siege of Louisbourg and wounded at the Battle of Grand Pré. With a partner, he supplied goods to the garrison at Annapolis Royal. In 1749, he moved to Halifax, he established a fishing business which supported his family by farming. He served as justice of the judge of the Inferior Court of Common Pleas. In 1759, he was named naval storekeeper for the royal shipyard. In the same year, he was named to the Nova Scotia Council. With his brother Benjamin, he helped organize a boycott of the provincial assembly after lieutenant governor Jonathan Belcher did not renew the debtor's act in 1761; as a result, he was temporarily reinstated after Belcher was replaced.

In 1766, he was named surrogate judge in the vice admiralty court at Halifax. He married Mary Cradock in 1768 after the death of his first wife. Gerrish died in Halifax at the age of 64. Namesake of Gerrish Street, Halifax “Old Boston families, number two: the family of Capt. John Gerrish,” New England Hist. and Geneal. Register, LXVII, 105–15. Patterson, Stephen E.. "Gerrish, Joseph". In Halpenny, Francess G. Dictionary of Canadian Biography. IV. University of Toronto Press

Per Lindstrand

Per Lindstrand is a Swedish aeronautical engineer, pilot and entrepreneur. He is known for his series of record-breaking trans-oceanic hot air balloon flights and attempts to be the first to fly a Rozière balloon around the Earth – all with British entrepreneur, Sir Richard Branson, he is the founder of eponymous Lindstrand Balloons hot air balloon manufacturer based in Oswestry, England. Lindstrand not only flies balloons, but many other aircraft as well, holds an airline transport pilot's licence for single and multi-engined land and sea aeroplanes and helicopters, a commercial pilot's licence for autogyros and gliders, his long standing dream to make a flight around the world in a hot air balloon still remains unrealized. His distance and altitude records have made him one of the best known balloonists and aerostat designers and engineers in the world. Lindstrand's aeronautical career began in the Swedish Air Force, his first balloon flight in the early 1970s was the result of a bet. He built a makeshift balloon and flew it across the runway while in the Swedish Air Force to claim victory.

Lindstrand gained a masters degree in aeronautical engineering and worked for Saab Aircraft in Sweden and Lockheed in the United States. He saw his second hot air balloon in 1975 when a neighbour in Sweden purchased it from a British company; when Lindstrand learned that this new balloon was supposed to be state-of-the-art, he decided that he could do better. With Swedish aircraft engineer and entrepreneur, Håkan Colting, he formed Colting Balloons which operated in Ireland from 1976. In 1978 the company moved to England, to be closer to major markets in the UK and Europe; when Håkan Colting moved to Canada, Lindstrand continued to run the renamed Colt Balloons. In December 1991 Lindstrand founded Lindstrand Balloons Ltd. and created a specialized aerospace company, Lindstrand Technologies Ltd. to manufacture and repair aerostats, gas balloons, passenger-carrying tethered aerostats and other fabric engineering products. In 2002, Lindstrand Balloons was asked to manufacture the complex parachute for the Mars-lander, Beagle 2.

Beagle 2 was launched in June 2003 but failed to land on the Planet Mars on Christmas Day 2003. Lindstrand Balloons, in partnership with Daimler Chrysler Aerospace of Germany, was awarded a design contract by the European Space Agency to develop a high altitude long endurance airship for possible use in the telecommunications market. Resulting from this, Lindstrand was awarded the German-based Korber Prize for engineering excellence. From early in his business career, Lindstrand's main interest and ambition lay in pushing the boundaries of lighter-than-air technology and he subsequently captured every absolute world record for hot air balloon flight. Ascending from Plano, Texas, on 6 June 1988, Lindstrand set a new world altitude record for hot-air balloons, reaching 19,811 meters; the record stood until 26 November 2005. In January 1991, in the Virgin Pacific Flyer and Branson completed the longest flight in lighter-than-air history when they flew 6761 miles from Japan to Northern Canada, their flight set two new world records for distance and duration and they broke their own ground speed record, recording 245 mph.

The Virgin Pacific Flyer still remains the largest hot air balloon built. In an attempt to be the first to fly a balloon of any type around the world, in December 1998, partnered by Richard Branson and Steve Fossett, flew for 7 days and covered over 20,000 km in a Rozière balloon, launching from Morocco and landing in the Pacific Ocean near to rescue services in Hawaii. Rather less successful was his attempt in 1983 to achieve the world altitude record for hot-air balloons. Sponsored by the English and Welsh Milk Industry, a vast balloon emblazoned with "Milk's Gotta Lotta Bottle" was prepared for launch to be broadcast on live television early one Saturday morning. Adverse weather conditions led to the mission being aborted, but the balloon filled with air whilst being towed along the ground. Lindstrand was holding one of the ropes, was lifted 30 feet into the air. On letting go, he fell to the ground; the accident, including the fall, was heard on the television broadcast. Lindstrand received the Royal Aero Club's Gold Medal from Prince Andrew twice, in 1989 and 1991, the Royal Aero Club's Britannia Trophy in 1988.

He is a recipient of America's highest flying award, the Harmon Trophy, given to him by Vice President Quayle in the White House. In February 2006, he was awarded an Honorary Fellowship by the Royal Institute of British Architects for "his innovative work in the field of inflatables and their application to habitable structures". Lindstrand is in the Guinness Hall of Fame. Lindstrand Technologies Ltd. Lindstrand Balloons Ltd. Lindstrand Balloons US Filmmakers for Atlantic and Global flights

Social movement

A social movement is a type of group action. There is no single consensus definition of a social movement, they are large, sometimes informal, groupings of individuals or organizations which focus on specific political or social issues. In other words, they resist, or undo a social change, they provide a way of social change from the bottom within nations. Social movements can be defined as "organizational structures and strategies that may empower oppressed populations to mount effective challenges and resist the more powerful and advantaged elites". Political science and sociology have developed a variety of theories and empirical research on social movements. For example, some research in political science highlights the relation between popular movements and the formation of new political parties as well as discussing the function of social movements in relation to agenda setting and influence on politics. Sociologists distinguish between several types of social movement examining things such as scope, type of change, method of work and time frame.

Modern Western social movements became possible through education and increased mobility of labor due to the industrialization and urbanization of 19th-century societies. It is sometimes argued that the freedom of expression and relative economic independence prevalent in the modern Western culture are responsible for the unprecedented number and scope of various contemporary social movements. Many of the social movements of the last hundred years grew up, like the Mau Mau in Kenya, to oppose Western colonialism. Social movements have been and continue to be connected with democratic political systems. Social movements have been involved in democratizing nations, but more they have flourished after democratization. Over the past 200 years, they have become part of a global expression of dissent. Modern movements utilize technology and the internet to mobilize people globally. Adapting to communication trends is a common theme among successful movements. Research is beginning to explore how advocacy organizations linked to social movements in the U.

S. and Canada use social media to facilitate collective action. Mario Diani argues that nearly all definitions share three criteria: "a network of informal interactions between a plurality of individuals, groups and/or organizations, engaged in a political or cultural conflict, on the basis of a shared collective identity"Sociologist Charles Tilly defines social movements as a series of contentious performances and campaigns by which ordinary people make collective claims on others. For Tilly, social movements are a major vehicle for ordinary people's participation in public politics, he argues that there are three major elements to a social movement: Campaigns: a sustained, organized public effort making collective claims of target authorities. Sidney Tarrow defines a social movement as "collective challenges by people with common purposes and solidarity in sustained interactions with elites and authorities." He distinguishes social movements from political parties and advocacy groups. The sociologists John McCarthy and Mayer Zald define as a social movement as "a set of opinions and beliefs in a population which represents preferences for changing some elements of the social structure and/or reward distribution of a society."According to Paul van Seeters and Paul James defining a social movement entails a few minimal conditions of ‘coming together’: the formation of some kind of collective identity.

Thus we define a social movement as a form of political association between persons who have at least a minimal sense of themselves as connected to others in common purpose and who come together across an extended period of time to effect social change in the name of that purpose. The early growth of social movements was connected to broad economic and political changes in England in the mid-18th century, including political representation, market capitalization, proletarianization; the first mass social movement catalyzed around the controversial political figure John Wilkes. As editor of the paper The North Briton, Wilkes vigorously attacked the new administration of Lord Bute and the peace terms that the new government accepted at the 1763 Treaty of Paris at the end of the Seven Years' War. Charged with seditious libel, Wilkes was arrested after the issue of a general warrant, a move that Wilkes denounced as unlawful - the Lord Chief Justice ruled in Wilkes favour; as a result of this, Wilkes became a figurehead to the growing movement for popular sovereignty among the middle classes - people began chanting "Wilkes and Liberty" in the streets.

After a period of exile brought about by further charges of libel and obscenity, Wilkes stood for the Parliamentary seat at Middlesex, where most of his support was located. When Wilkes was imprisoned in the King's Bench Prison on 10 May 1768, a mass movement of support emerg

The Cornish Trilogy

The Cornish Trilogy is three related novels by Canadian novelist, critic and professor Robertson Davies. The trilogy consists of The Rebel Angels, What's Bred in the Bone, The Lyre of Orpheus; the series explores the influence of Francis Cornish. In each novel, Davies looks at; the story of The Rebel Angels is set in motion by the death of eccentric art patron and collector Francis Cornish. University professors Clement Hollier, Urquhart McVarish, Simon Darcourt are the executors of Cornish's complicated will, which includes material that Hollier wants for his scholarly work in Medieval Studies; the deceased's nephew Arthur Cornish, who stands to inherit the fortune, is a character. All three executors are intrigued by Maria Theotoky, Hollier's half-Polish, half-Gypsy graduate student, while the plot revolves around John Parlabane: ex-monk, skeptic philosopher and general mischief-maker; the intuitive theme in this novel is the Tarot. What's Bred in the Bone is the life story of Francis Cornish, whose death and will were the subject of The Rebel Angels.

His was a full life, we follow him through his childhood as a wealthy and precocious misfit in a small Ontario town, his education in Toronto and Oxford, his unusual apprenticeship as a restorer and painter in Nazi Germany, his wartime experiences in England, his career as a collector and a patron of the arts in Toronto. Cornish's life story develops as related by Cornish's daemon, a Mercurial influence who intervenes at crucial moments to ensure that Cornish becomes a great man, although that may be seen only after his death. Intuition in this novel is expressed through astrology. What's Bred in the Bone was shortlisted for the 1986 Booker Prize. In the third novel, Simon Darcourt, Arthur Cornish, Maria Cornish find themselves at the head of the "Cornish Foundation" and are called upon to decide what projects deserve funding, their first assay into the world of humanist patronage is to support a precocious composer in completing an unfinished opera by E. T. A. Hoffmann entitled Arthur of Britain, or the Magnanimous Cuckold, bringing it to the stage at Stratford, Ontario.

The novel follows the course of this project from inception to completion. At the same time, the archetypes in the opera are reflected in the personal lives of those involved: Arthur and Maria as the central "ruling" couple, Arthur's best friend Geraint Powell, a Welsh actor-turned-director as Lancelot, Simon Darcourt as the household cleric and writer, so on. In this final novel, archetypes tie together the three levels of Arthurian and modern characters

Mary Mack

"Mary Mack" is a clapping game played by children in English-speaking countries. It is first attested in the book The Counting Out Rhymes of Children by Henry Carrington Bolton, whose version was collected in West Chester, Pennsylvania, it is well known in various parts of the United States, Canada, United Kingdom and in New Zealand and has been called "the most common hand-clapping game in the English-speaking world". In the game, two children stand or sit opposite to each other, clap hands in time to a rhyming song; the same song is used as a jumprope rhyme, although so according to one source. Various versions of the song exist, she asked her mother, mother for fifty cents, cents To see the elephants, elephants Jump the fence, fence. They jumped so high, high they reached the sky, sky And didn't come back, back Till the 4th of July ly ly, she asked her mother, mother For 5 cents more, more To see the elephants, elephants Jump the door, door. They jumped to the flow flow flow they stubbed their toe toe toe and, the end end end of the elephant show show show.

An alternate version, sung in Canada, includes the words: She could not read, read She could not write, write But she could smoke, smoke Her father’s pipe, pipe. An alternate version, sung in the American South: Mary Mack, dressed in black, silver buttons all down her back, she combed her hair and broke the comb She's gonna get a whoopin' when her Momma comes home Gonna get a whoopin' when her Momma comes home A common version of the accompanying clap is as follows: &: Arms across chest 4: Pat thighs &: Clap hands 1: Clap right palms with partner &: Clap left palms with partner 2: Clap both palms with partnerAnother version: &: One palm up, one palm down 4: Clap both partners hands &: Clap own hands 1: Cross arms to chest 2: Slap thighs 3: Clap own handsAnother Version: 4: Pat thighs &: Clap hands 1: Clap partners right hand &: Clap hands &: Clap partners left hand &: Clap hands 2: Clap both partners hands &: Clap handsAnother Version: &: One palm up, one palm down 1: Clap both partners hands &: Reverse hands 2: Clap both partners hands &: Clap own hands 4: clap partners right hand &: clap hands 5: clap partners left hand &: clap hands 6: clap partners right hand &: clap handsrepeat The first verse, the repetition, is a riddle with the answer "coffin".

Early mentions of the part about the elephant do not include the part about Mary Mack. The origin of the name Mary Mack is obscure, various theories have been proposed. According to one theory, Mary Mack referred to the USS Merrimack, a United States warship of the mid-1800s named after the Merrimack River, that would have been black, with silvery rivets; this may suggest that the first verse refers to the Battle of Hampton Roads during the American Civil War. "Walking The Dog", a 1960s R&B song by Rufus Thomas with lyrics based on "Mary Mack". "Witchcraft", a song from the Pop group, Book of Love, with a reference to "Mary Mack". "Tobacco Origin Story", a poem by Joy Harjo, refers to the song twice in a prominent way