Japanese calendar types have included a range of official and unofficial systems. At present, Japan uses the Gregorian calendar together with year designations stating the year of the reign of the current Emperor; the lunisolar Chinese calendar was introduced to Japan via Korea in the middle of the sixth century. After that, Japan calculated its calendar using various Chinese calendar procedures, from 1685, using Japanese variations of the Chinese procedures, but in 1873, as part of Japan's Meiji period modernization, a calendar based on the solar Gregorian calendar was introduced. In Japan today, the old Chinese calendar is ignored. Japan has had more than one system for designating years. Including: The Chinese sexagenary cycle was introduced early into Japan, it was used together with era names, as in the 1729 Ise calendar shown above, for "the 14th year of Kyōhō, tsuchi-no-to no tori", i.e. 己酉. Now, the cycle is used except around New Year; the era name system was introduced from China, has been in continuous use since AD 701.
Since the Taishō Emperor's ascension in 1912, each emperor's reign has begun a new era. Nengō are the official means of dating years in Japan, all government business is conducted using that system, it is in general use in private and personal business. The Japanese imperial year is based on the date of the legendary founding of Japan by Emperor Jimmu in 660 BC, it was first used in the official calendar in 1873. However, it never replaced era names, since World War II has been abandoned; the Western Common Era system has come into common use since the Meiji period. Now, most people know it, as well as era names; the official dating system known as nengō, has been in use since the late 7th century. Years are numbered within eras. Beginning with Meiji, each reign has been one era, but many earlier Emperors decreed a new era upon any major event; the nengō system remains in wide use on official documents and government forms. The imperial year system was used from 1872 to the Second World War. Imperial year 1 was the year when the legendary Emperor Jimmu founded Japan – 660 BC according to the Gregorian Calendar.
Usage of kōki dating can be a nationalist signal, pointing out that the history of Japan's imperial family is longer than that of Christianity, the basis of the Anno Domini system. Kōki 2600 was a special year; the 1940 Summer Olympics and Tokyo Expo were planned as anniversary events, but were canceled due to the Second Sino-Japanese War. The Japanese naval Zero Fighter was named after this year. After the Second World War, the United States occupied Japan, stopped the use of kōki by officials. Today, kōki is used, except in some judicial contexts; the 1898 law determining the placement of leap years is based on the kōki years, using a formula, equivalent to that of the Gregorian calendar: if the kōki year number is evenly divisible by four, it is a leap year, unless the number minus 660 is evenly divisible by 100 and not by 400. Thus, for example, the year Kōki 2560 is divisible by 4; the Japanese government has announced a new period of year on 2019 April Reiwa. The Heisei Period will end on 2019 April 30 and so the new period of year is expected to start on first of May 2019.
See "Seasonal days", below. The modern Japanese names for the months translate to "first month", "second month", so on; the corresponding number is combined with the suffix 月. The table below uses traditional numerals. In addition, every month has a traditional name, still used by some in fields such as poetry; the opening paragraph of a letter or the greeting in a speech might borrow one of these names to convey a sense of the season. Some, such as Yayoi and Satsuki, do double duty as given names; these month names appear from time to time on jidaigeki, contemporary television shows and movies set in the Edo period or earlier. The old Japanese calendar was an adjusted lunar calendar based on the Chinese calendar, the year—and with it the months—started anywhere from about 3 to 7 weeks than the modern year, so in historical contexts it is not accurate to equate the first month with January. Japan uses a seven-day week, aligned with the Western calendar; the seven-day week, with names for the days corresponding to the Latin system, was brought to Japan around AD 800 with the Buddhist calendar.
The system was used for astrological purposes and little else until 1876. The names of the days come from the five visible planets, which in turn are named after the five Chinese elements, from the moon and sun. On the origin of the names of the days of the week see East Asian Seven Luminaries. Sunday and Saturday are regarded as "Western style take-a-rest days". Since the late 19th century, Sunday has been regarded as a "full-time holiday", Saturday a half-time holiday; these holidays have no religious meaning. Many Japanese retailers
The Nanakshahi calendar is a tropical solar calendar, used in Sikhism and is based on the'Barah Maha'. Barah Maha was composed by the Sikh Gurus and translates as the "Twelve Months", it is a poem reflecting the changes in nature which are conveyed in the twelve-month cycle of the Year. The year begins with 1 Chet corresponding to 14 March; the first year of the Nanakshahi Calendar starts in 1469 CE: the year of the birth of Guru Nanak Dev. The Nanakshahi Calendar is named after the founder of Guru Nanak Dev. Sikhs have traditionally recognised luni-solar calendars: the Nanakshahi and Khalsa. Traditionally, both these calendars followed the Bikrami calendar with the Nanakshahi year beginning on Katak Pooranmashi and the Khalsa year commencing with Vaisakhi; the methods for calculating the beginning of the Khalsa era were based on the Bikrami calendar. The year length was the same as the Bikrami solar year. According to Steel, the calendar has twelve lunar months that are determined by the lunar phase, but thirteen months in leap years which occur every 2–3 years in the Bikrami calendar to sync the lunar calendar with its solar counterpart.
Kay abbreviates the Khalsa Era as KE. References to the Nanakshahi Era have been made in historic documents. Banda Singh Bahadur adopted the Nanakshahi calendar in 1710 C. E. after his victory in Sirhind according to which the year 1710 C. E. became Nanakshahi 241. However, Singh states the date of the victory as 14 May 1710 CE. According to Dilagira, Banda "continued adopting the months and the days of the months according to the Bikrami calendar". Banda Singh Bahadur minted new coins called Nanakshahi. Herrli states. Although Banda may have proclaimed this era, it cannot be traced in contemporary documents and does not seem to have been used for dating". According to The Panjab Past and Present, it is Gian Singh who "is the first to use Nanak Shahi Samvats along with those of Bikrami Samvats" in the Twarikh Guru Khalsa. According to Singha, Gian Singh was a Punjabi author born in 1822. Gian Singh wrote the Twarikh Guru Khalsa in 1891; the revised Nanakshahi calendar was designed by Pal Singh Purewal to replace the Bikrami calendar.
The epoch of this calendar is the birth of the first Sikh Guru, Nanak Dev in 1469 and the Nanakshahi year commences on 1 Chet. New Year's Day falls annually on; the start of each month is fixed. According to Kapel, the solar accuracy of the Nanakshahi calendar is linked to the Gregorian civil calendar; this is because the Nanaskhahi calendar uses the tropical year instead of using the sidereal year, used in the Bikrami calendar or the old Nanakshahi and Khalsa calendars. The amended Nanakshahi calendar was adopted in 1998 but implemented in 2003 by the Shiromani Gurdwara Prabhandak Committee to determine the dates for important Sikh events; the calendar was implemented during the SGPC presidency of Sikh scholar Prof. Kirpal Singh Badungar at Takhat Sri Damdama Sahib in the presence of Sikh leadership. Nanakshahi Calendar recognizes the adoption event, of 1999 CE, in the Sikh history when SGPC released the first calendar with permanently fixed dates in the Tropical Calendar. Therefore, the calculations of this calendar do not regress back from 1999 CE into the Bikrami era, fixes for all time in the future.
Features of the Original Nanakshahi calendar: Uses the accurate Tropical year rather than the Sidereal year Called Nanakshahi after Guru Nanak Year 1 is the Year of Guru Nanak's Birth. As an example, April 14, 2019 CE is Nanakshahi 551. Is Based on Gurbani – Month Names are taken from Guru Granth Sahib Contains 5 Months of 31 days followed by 7 Months of 30 days Leap year every 4 Years in which the last month has an extra day Approved by Akal Takht in 2003 In 2010, the Shiromani Gurdwara Prabhandak Committee modified the calendar so that the dates for the start of the months are movable so that they coincide with the Bikrami calendar and changed the dates for various Sikh festivals so they are based upon the lunar phase; this has created controversy with some bodies adopting the original 2003 version called the "Mool Nanakshahi Calendar" and others, the 2010 version. By 2014, the SGPC had scrapped the original Nanakshahi calendar from 2003 and reverted to the Bikrami calendar however it was still published under the name of Nanakshahi.
The Sikh bodies termed it a step taken under pressure from the Shiromani Akali Dal. There is some controversy about the acceptance of the calendar altogether among certain sectors of the Sikh world. SGPC president, Gobind Singh Longowal, on 13 March 2018 urged all Sikhs to follow the current Nanakshahi calendar; the previous SGPC President before Longowal, Prof. Kirpal Singh Badungar, tried to appeal the Akal Takht to celebrate the birthday of Guru Gobind Singh on 23 Poh as per the original Nanakshahi calendar, but the appeal was denied; the PSGPC and a majority of the other gurdwara managements across the world are opposing the modified version of the calendar citing that the SGPC reverted to the Bikrami calendar. They argue that in the Bikrami calendar, dates of many gurpurbs coincide, thereby creating confusion among the Sikh Panth. According to Ahaluwalia, the Nanakshahi calendar goes against the use of lunar Bikrami dates by the Gurus themselves and is contradictory, it begins with the year of birth of
The 8th century is the period from 701 to 800 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Common Era. The coast of North Africa and the Iberian Peninsula come under Islamic Arab domination; the westward expansion of the Umayyad Empire was famously halted at the Siege of Constantinople by the Byzantine Empire and the Battle of Tours by the Franks. The tide of Arab conquest came to an end in the middle of the 8th century. In Europe, late in the century, the Vikings, seafaring peoples from Scandinavia, begin raiding the coasts of Europe and the Mediterranean, go on to found several important kingdoms. In Asia, the Pala Empire is founded in Bengal; the Tang dynasty reaches its pinnacle under Chinese Emperor Xuanzong. The Nara period begins in Japan. Estimated century in which the poem Beowulf is composed. Classical Maya civilization begins to decline; the first Serbian state is formed at the beginning of the century. Borobodur, the famous Indonesian Buddhist structure, begins construction as a non-Buddhist shrine.
Buddhist Jataka stories are translated into Arabic as Kalilag and Damnag. An account of Buddha's life is translated into Greek by Saint John of Damascus, circulated to Christians as the story of Barlaam and Josaphat. Height of the Classic period in pre-Columbian Maya civilization history. Śāntideva, a Buddhist monk at Nalanda Monastery in India, composes the famous Bodhicharyāvatāra, or Guide to the Bodhisattva's Way of Life. The height of the Giant Wild Goose Pagoda in Xian, China is extended by 5 stories. 701: The Taihō Code is enacted in late Asuka period Japan. 705: Overthrow of Empress Wu Zetian, the reign of China's first and only sole-ruling empress ends. 705: Justinian II is forced to give the title Caesar of Byzantium to the Bulgarian Emperor Tervel. The Byzantine Empire begins to pay annual tributes to Bulgaria. 708 – 711: The Bulgarians defeat Justinian II at the battle of Anchiallus. Arab armies occupied Sindh. 710: Empress Genmei moves the capital to Heijō-kyū, initiating the Nara period of Japan.
711: Palenque is conquered by Toniná. 711: Tariq ibn Ziyad crosses the Straits of Gibraltar. With the creation of Al-Andalus, most of the Iberian Peninsula is conquered by Arab and Berber Muslims, thus ending the Visigothic rule, beginning eight centuries of Muslim rule. 712: Liutprand, King of the Lombards begins his reign. C. 712: Metropolitan episcopal see is established by the Church of the East in Chinese capital of Chang'an. 712 – 756: Emperor Xuanzong reigned, the time was considered one of China's high points. 712 – 740: Caliphate campaigns in India 713: Death of Dajian Huineng and last Patriarch of Chán Buddhism. 717 – 718: Siege of Constantinople. The Bulgarians and the Byzantines decisively defeat the invading Arabs, thus halting the Arab advance toward Europe. 718: Sri Indravarman King of Srivijaya send a letter to the Caliph Umar bin Abdul Aziz of the Umayyad Caliphate in Damascus, signing early ancient Indonesian official contact with Islamic world in the Middle East. 726: Byzantine Emperor Leo III the Isaurian destroys the icon of Christ above the Chalke Gate in the capital city of Constantinople, beginning the first phase of the Byzantine Iconoclasm.
731: Bede completes his Historia ecclesiastica gentis Anglorum. 732: Battle of Tours. Near Poitiers, leader of the Franks Charles Martel and his men defeat a large army of Moors under the governor of Cordoba, Abdul Rahman Al Ghafiqi, killed during the battle; the Battle of Tours halts the advance of Islam into Western Europe and establishes a balance of power between Western Europe and the Byzantine Empire. 732: The Sanjaya dynasty is founded around this time according to the Canggal inscription. 738: Quiriguá declares independence from Copan 740: Battle of Akroinon. Byzantines win their first large-scale victory in a pitched battle against the Arabs. 742: For the municipal census of the Tang-dynasty Chinese capital city Chang'an and its metropolitan area of Jingzhou Fu, the New Book of Tang records that in this year there were 362,921 registered families with 1,960,188 persons. 748: The Chinese Buddhist monk Jian Zhen writes in his Yue Jue Shu of the international sea traffic coming to Guangzhou, ships from Borneo, Sri Lanka and others bringing tons of goods.
750: The last Umayyad Caliph Marwan II is overthrown and executed by the first Abbasid Caliph, Abu al-Abbas al-Saffah. The Caliphate is moved to Baghdad which would develop into a centre of trade and culture; the Ghana Empire begins in western Africa. Mid-8th century - Great Wild Goose Pagoda at Ci'en Temple, Xi'an, Shanxi, is rebuilt. C. mid-8th century - Camel Carrying a Group of Musicians, from a tomb near Xi'an, Shanxi, is made. Tang dynasty, it is now kept at Museum of Beijing. 751: Arabian armies defeat Chinese Tang dynasty troops in the Battle of Talas, in the high Pamirs near Samarkand, conquer Central Asia completely. 752: The Hindu Medang kingdom flourishes and declines. 755 – 763: The An Shi Rebellion devastates China during the mid Tang dynasty. 757: King Offa of Mercia becomes dominant ruler in England. 758: Arab and Persian pirates and travelers burn and loot the Chinese city of Guangzhou, while the Tang Dynasty authorities shut the port down for the next five decades. 760: The construction of Borobudur started.
768: Pepin dies. 770's – 780's: Java launched series of naval raids on ports of Dai Viet and Cambodia. The naval raids was launched by Sailendran-Srivijayan Maharaja
The 9th century was a period from 801 to 900 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Common Era. Around the 9th century the Edo people of what is now southeastern Nigeria developed bronze casts of humans and mythical creatures; these bronzes, which were used as vessels, amulets and sacrificial tools, are among the earliest made bronzes found in Nigeria. Most items were part of a burial of a nobleman culture in the northern part of benin empire. Evidence of long distance trade between benin empire and poutugist was discovered through the thousands of glass beads found at Old Cairo at the workshops of Fustat; the development of the Benin Kingdom can be attributed to the proficiency at advanced metallurgy seen in the bronze jewelry crafted by local artisans. The Ghana Empire was located in what is now western Mali, it is considered the first of the Sahelian Kingdoms, which would exist in some form until the early 20th century. Britain experienced a great influx of Viking peoples in the 9th century as the Viking Age continued from the previous century.
The kingdoms of the Heptarchy were conquered by the Danes, who set up Anglo-Saxon puppet rulers in each kingdom. This invasion was achieved by a huge military force known as the Great Heathen Army, led by Ivar the Boneless, Halfdan Ragnarsson, Guthrum; this Danish army first arrived in Britain in 865 in East Anglia. After conquering that kingdom, the army proceeded to capture the city of York and establish the kingdom of Jorvik; the Danes went on to subjugate the kingdom of Northumbria and to take all but the western portion of Mercia. The remaining kingdom of Wessex was the only kingdom of the Heptarchy left. Alfred the Great managed to maintain his kingdom of Wessex and push back the Viking incursions, relieving the neighbouring kingdoms from the threat of the Danes following his famous victory over them at the Battle of Ethandun in 878. Alfred re-established Anglo-Saxon rule over the western half of Mercia, the Danelaw was established which separated Mercia into halves, the eastern half remaining under the control of the Danes.
Ireland was affected by the Viking expansion across the North Sea. Extensive raids were carried out all along the coast and permanent settlements were established, such as that of Dublin in 841. Particular targets for these raids were the monasteries on the western coast of Ireland, as they provided a rich source for loot. On such raids the Vikings set up impermanent camps, which were called longphorts by the Irish—this period of Viking raids on the coasts of Ireland has been named the longphort phase after these types of settlements. Ireland in the 9th century was organised into an amalgam of small kingdoms, called tuatha; these kingdoms were sometimes ruled by a single, provincial ruler. If such a ruler could establish and maintain authority over a portion of these tuatha, he was sometimes granted the title of High King. Scotland experienced significant Viking incursions during the 9th century; the Vikings established themselves in coastal regions in northern Scotland, in the northern islands such as Orkney and Shetland.
The Viking invasion and settlement in Scotland provided a contributing factor in the collapse of the kingdoms of the Picts, who inhabited most of Scotland at the time. Not only were the Pictish realms either destroyed or weakened, the Viking invasion and settlement may have been the reason for the movement of Kenneth MacAlpin, the king of Dál Riata at that time; the kingdom of Dál Riata was located on the western coast of Scotland, Viking incursions destroyed it after the death of its previous king, Áed mac Boanta in 839, according to the Annals of Ulster. This may have caused the new king, MacAlpin, to move to the east, conquer the remnants of the Pictish realms. MacAlpin became king of the Picts in 843 and kings would be titled as the King of Alba or King of Scots. Art in the 9th century was dedicated to the Gospel and employed as basic tools of liturgy of the Roman Orthodox Church. Thousands of golden art objects were made: Sacred cups, reliquaries, rosaries, altar pieces, statues of the Virgin and Child or Saints all kept the flame of western art from dying out.
Architecture began to revive to some extent by the 9th century, taking the form of Church facilities of all kinds, the first castle fortifications since Roman times began to take form in simple "moat and bailey" castles, or simple "strong point" tower structures, with little refinement. 9th - 13th century - El Castillo, Chichen Itza, Mexico, is built. Itza culture. An unknown event causes the decline of the Maya Classical Era. Beowulf might have been written down in this century. Reign of Charlemagne, concurrent Carolingian Renaissance in Western Europe. Large-scale Viking attacks on Europe begin, devastating countless numbers of people. Oseberg ship burial; the Magyars begin their conquest of Pannonia, a process that will take several decades to be completed. The Tukolor settle in the Senegal river valley. Muslim traders settle in the southeast of Madagascar. 800: Charlemagne is crowned emperor of Rome by Pope Leo III. 800: Charlemagne expands the Frankish state and founds the Carolingian Empire.
He rules over the empire for 14 years. 800: An Arab fleet sails up the Tiber. 800 – 909: Rule of Aghlabids as an independent Muslim dynasty in North Africa, with their capital at Tunis. 802: Jayavarman II of the Khmer people in Cambodia founds the Khmer empire and establishes the Angkorian dynasty. 803: Construction on t
Battle of Pliska
The Battle of Pliska or Battle of Vărbitsa Pass was a series of battles between troops, gathered from all parts of the Byzantine Empire, led by the Emperor Nicephorus I Genik, Bulgaria, governed by Khan Krum. The Byzantines plundered and burned the Bulgar capital Pliska which gave time for the Bulgarians to block passes in the Balkan Mountains that served as exits out of Bulgaria; the final battle took place on 26 July 811, in some of the passes in the eastern part of the Balkans, most the Vărbitsa Pass. There, the Bulgarians used the tactics of ambush and surprise night attacks to trap and immobilize the Byzantine forces, thus annihilating the whole army, including the Emperor. After the battle, Krum encased Nicephorus's skull in silver, used it as a cup for wine-drinking; this is one of the best documented instances of the custom of the skull cup. The Battle of Pliska was one of the worst defeats in Byzantine history, it deterred Byzantine rulers from sending their troops north of the Balkans for more than 150 years afterwards, which increased the influence and spread of the Bulgarians to the west and south of the Balkan Peninsula, resulting in a great territorial enlargement of the First Bulgarian Empire.
When Nicephorus I became emperor in 802, he planned to reincorporate Bulgar-held territory back into the empire. In 807 he launched a campaign but only reached Odrin and achieved nothing because of a conspiracy in his capital; that attempted attack, gave reason for the Bulgar Khan Krum to undertake military operations against the Byzantine Empire. The main objective was an extension to the south-west. In the next year a Bulgar army defeated the Byzantines; the Bulgar troops captured 1,100 litres of gold and killed many enemy soldiers including all strategoi and most of the commanders. In 809 the Khan besieged the strong fortress of Serdica and seized the city, killing the whole garrison of 6,000. In 811, the Byzantine Emperor organised a large campaign to conquer Bulgaria once and for all, he gathered an enormous army from the Anatolian and European themata, the imperial bodyguard. The conquest was supposed to be easy, most of the high-ranking officials and aristocrats accompanied him, including his son Stauracius and his brother-in-law Michael I Rangabe.
The whole army consisted of around 80,000 soldiers. The army gathered in May, by 10 July had set up camp at the fortress of Marcelae near the Bulgarian frontier. Nicephorus intended to confuse them and over the next ten days launched several supposed attacks, which were called back. Krum assessed the situation and estimated that he could not repulse the enemy and offered peace, which Nicephorus haughtily rejected. Theophanes wrote that the Emperor, "was deterred from his own ill thoughts and the suggestions of his advisors who were thinking like him"; some of his military chiefs considered the invasion of Bulgaria to be imprudent and too risky, but Nicephorus was convinced of his ultimate success. In June he invaded the Bulgarian lands and marched through the Balkan passes towards the capital of Pliska. On 20 July Nicephorus divided the army into three columns, each marching by a different route towards Pliska, he met little resistance and after three days he reached the capital where the Byzantines met an army of 12,000 elite soldiers who guarded the stronghold.
The Bulgarians were defeated and most of them perished. Another hastily assembled army of 50,000 soldiers had a similar fate. On 23 July the Byzantines captured the defenseless capital; the city was sacked and the countryside destroyed. Khan Krum attempted once more to negotiate for peace. According to the historian Theophanes, Krum's proclamation stated, "you have won. So take what you please and go with peace." Nicephorus, overconfident from his success, ignored him. He believed that Bulgaria was conquered. Michael the Syrian, patriarch of the Syrian Jacobites in the twelfth century, described in his Chronicle the brutalities and atrocities of Nicephorus's troops: "Nicephorus, emperor of the Romans, walked in Bulgarians land: he was victorious and killed a great number of them, he took it over and devastated it. His savagery went to such a point that he ordered to bring their small children, got them tied down on earth and made thresh grain stones to smash them." The Byzantine soldiers plundered.
The Emperor locked it and did not allow his troops to reach it. While Nicephorus and his army were busy plundering the Bulgarian capital, Krum mobilized his people to set traps and ambushes in the mountain passes. Nicephorus intended to march through Moesia and reach Serdica before returning to Constantinople but the news of these preparations for a battle changed his decision and he chose the shortest way to his capital; the overconfident Emperor neglected to scout ahead. On 25 July his army entered the Varbica Pass but his cavalry told him the road was barred with thick wooden walls and Krum's detachments watched from the heights around; the Emperor became panicked by the situation and stated to his companions "Even if we have had wings we could not have escaped from peril." Before they could retreat, the Bulgars blocked the valley entrance too. Nicephorus, unable to face attacking one of the palisades set up camp, despite his generals' misgivings. By the third night Byzantine morale was shattered, while Bulgar troops banged their shields and taunted
The Byzantine calendar called "Creation Era of Constantinople" or "Era of the World", was the calendar used by the Eastern Orthodox Church from c. 691 to 1728 in the Ecumenical Patriarchate. It was the official calendar of the Byzantine Empire from 988 to 1453, of Kievan Rus' and Russia from c. 988 to 1700. Since "Byzantine" is a historiographical term, the original name uses the noun "Roman" as it was how the Eastern Roman Empire continued calling itself; the calendar was based on the Julian calendar, except that the year started on 1 September and the year number used an Anno Mundi epoch derived from the Septuagint version of the Bible. It placed the date of creation at 5509 years before the Incarnation, was characterized by a certain tendency, a tradition among Jews and early Christians to number the years from the calculated foundation of the world, its Year One, marking the supposed date of creation, was September 1, 5509 BC, to August 31, 5508 BC. It is not known when; the first appearance of the term is in the treatise of a certain "monk and priest", who mentions all the main variants of the "World Era" in his work.
Georgios argues that the main advantage of the World era is the common starting point of the astronomical lunar and solar cycles, of the cycle of indictions, the usual dating system in Byzantium since the 6th century. He already regards it as the most convenient for the Easter computus. Complex calculations of the 19-year lunar and 28-year solar cycles within this world era allowed scholars to discover the cosmic significance of certain historical dates, such as the birth or the crucifixion of Jesus; this date underwent minor revisions before being finalized in the mid-7th century, although its precursors were developed c. AD 412. By the second half of the 7th century, the Creation Era was known in Western Europe, at least in Great Britain. By the late 10th century around AD 988, when the era appears in use on official government records, a unified system was recognized across the Eastern Roman world; the era was calculated as starting on September 1, Jesus was thought to have been born in the year 5509 since the creation of the world.
Historical time was thus calculated from the creation, not from Christ's birth, as in the west after the Anno Domini system was adopted between 6th and 9th centuries. The Eastern Church avoided the use of the Anno Domini system of Dionysius Exiguus, since the date of Christ's birth was debated in Constantinople as late as the 14th century. Otherwise the Byzantine calendar was identical to the Julian Calendar except that: the names of the months were transcribed from Latin into Greek; the leap day of the Byzantine calendar was obtained in an identical manner to the bissextile day of the original Roman version of the Julian calendar, by doubling the sixth day before the calends of March, i.e. by doubling 24 February. The Byzantine World Era was replaced in the Orthodox Church by the Christian Era, utilized by Patriarch Theophanes I Karykes in 1597, afterwards by Patriarch Cyril Lucaris in 1626, formally established by the Church in 1728. Meanwhile, as Russia received Orthodox Christianity from Byzantium, she inherited the Orthodox Calendar based on the Byzantine Era.
After the collapse of the Byzantine Empire in 1453, the era continued to be used by Russia, which witnessed millennialist movements in Moscow in AD 1492. It was only in AD 1700 that the Byzantine World Era in Russia was changed to the Julian Calendar by Peter the Great, it still forms the basis of traditional Orthodox calendars up to today. September AD 2000 began the year 7509 AM; the earliest extant Christian writings on the age of the world according to the Biblical chronology are by Theophilus, the sixth bishop of Antioch from the Apostles, in his apologetic work To Autolycus, by Julius Africanus in his Five Books of Chronology. Both of these early Christian writers, following the Septuagint version of the Old Testament, determined the age of the world to have been about 5,530 years at the birth of Christ. Ben Zion Wacholder points out that the writings of the Church Fathers on this subject are of vital significance, in that through the Christian chronographers a window to the earlier Hellenistic biblical chronographers is preserved: An immense intellectual effort was expended during the Hellenistic period by both Jews and pagans to date creation, the flood, building of the Temple...
In the course of their studies, men such as Tatian of Antioch, Clement of Alexandria, Hippolytus of Rome
The Islamic, Muslim, or Hijri calendar is a lunar calendar consisting of 12 lunar months in a year of 354 or 355 days. It is used to determine the proper days of Islamic holidays and rituals, such as the annual period of fasting and the proper time for the pilgrimage to Mecca; the civil calendar of all countries where the religion is predominantly Muslim is the Gregorian calendar. Notable exceptions to this rule are Afghanistan, which use the Solar Hijri calendar. Rents and similar regular commitments are paid by the civil calendar; the Islamic calendar employs the Hijri era whose epoch was established as the Islamic New Year of 622 AD/CE. During that year and his followers migrated from Mecca to Yathrib and established the first Muslim community, an event commemorated as the Hijra. In the West, dates in this era are denoted AH in parallel with the Christian and Jewish eras. In Muslim countries, it is sometimes denoted as H from its Arabic form. In English, years prior to the Hijra are reckoned as BH.
The current Islamic year is 1440 AH. In the Gregorian calendar, 1440 AH runs from 11 September 2018 to 30 August 2019. For central Arabia Mecca, there is a lack of epigraphical evidence but details are found in the writings of Muslim authors of the Abbasid era. Inscriptions of the ancient South Arabian calendars reveal the use of a number of local calendars. At least some of these South Arabian calendars followed the lunisolar system. Both al-Biruni and al-Mas'udi suggest that the ancient Arabs used the same month names as the Muslims, though they record other month names used by the pre-Islamic Arabs; the Islamic tradition is unanimous in stating that Arabs of Tihamah and Najd distinguished between two types of months and forbidden months. The forbidden months were four months during which fighting is forbidden, listed as Rajab and the three months around the pilgrimage season, Dhu al-Qa‘dah, Dhu al-Hijjah, Muharram. Information about the forbidden months is found in the writings of Procopius, where he describes an armistice with the Eastern Arabs of the Lakhmid al-Mundhir which happened in the summer of 541 AD/CE.
However, Muslim historians do not link these months to a particular season. The Qur'an links the four forbidden months with Nasī’, a word that means "postponement". According to Muslim tradition, the decision of postponement was administered by the tribe of Kinanah, by a man known as the al-Qalammas of Kinanah and his descendants. Different interpretations of the concept of Nasī’ have been proposed; some scholars, both Muslim and Western, maintain that the pre-Islamic calendar used in central Arabia was a purely lunar calendar similar to the modern Islamic calendar. According to this view, Nasī’ is related to the pre-Islamic practices of the Meccan Arabs, where they would alter the distribution of the forbidden months within a given year without implying a calendar manipulation; this interpretation is supported by Arab historians and lexicographers, like Ibn Hisham, Ibn Manzur, the corpus of Qur'anic exegesis. This is corroborated by an early Sabaic inscription, where a religious ritual was "postponed" due to war.
According to the context of this inscription, the verb ns'’ has nothing to do with intercalation, but only with moving religious events within the calendar itself. The similarity between the religious concept of this ancient inscription and the Qur'an suggests that non-calendaring postponement is the Qur'anic meaning of Nasī’; the Encyclopaedia of Islam concludes "The Arabic system of can only have been intended to move the Hajj and the fairs associated with it in the vicinity of Mecca to a suitable season of the year. It was not intended to establish a fixed calendar to be observed." The term "fixed calendar" is understood to refer to the non-intercalated calendar. Others concur that it was a lunar calendar, but suggest that about 200 years before the Hijra it was transformed into a lunisolar calendar containing an intercalary month added from time to time to keep the pilgrimage within the season of the year when merchandise was most abundant; this interpretation was first proposed by the medieval Muslim astrologer and astronomer Abu Ma'shar al-Balkhi, by al-Biruni, al-Mas'udi, some western scholars.
This interpretation considers Nasī’ to be a synonym to the Arabic word for "intercalation". The Arabs, according to one explanation mentioned by Abu Ma'shar, learned of this type of intercalation from the Jews; the Jewish Nasi was the official. Some sources say that the Arabs followed the Jewish practice and intercalated seven months over nineteen years, or else that they intercalated nine months over 24 years. Postponement of one ritual in a particular circumstance does not imply alteration of the sequence of months, scholars agree that this did not happen. Al-Biruni says this did not happen, the festivals were kept within their season by intercalation every second or third year of a month between Dhu al-Hijjah and Muharram, he says that, in terms of the fixed calendar, not introduced until 10 AH, the first intercalation was, for example, of a month between Dhu al-Hijjah and Muharram, the second of a month between Muharram and Safar, the third of a month between Safar and Rabi'I, so on. The intercalations were arranged.
The notice of interca