click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

813

Year 813 was a common year starting on Saturday of the Julian calendar. "813" may refer to a pair of novels by Maurice Leblanc, starring his gentleman thief Arsène Lupin.813, a 1920 American film based upon the Leblanc novels. June 22 – Battle of Versinikia: The Bulgars, led by Krum, ruler of the Bulgarian Empire, defeat Emperor Michael I near Edirne; the Byzantine army is destroyed by a counter-attack of Bulgarian heavy cavalry, while trapped in the valley. Krum captures a rich prize, including gold and weaponry. July 11 – Michael I, under threat by conspiracies, abdicates in favor of his general Leo the Armenian, becomes a monk, his sons are castrated to prevent them succeeding the Byzantine throne, relegated into monasteries. One of them, Niketas becomes a patriarch of Constantinople. July 17 – Krum reaches Constantinople, sets his camp outside the walls, he is given an invitation, a promise of safe conduct, to meet Leo V. Krum sets out unarmed for the capital with only a small escort, but is ambushed and manages to escape.

After this unsuccessful Byzantine murder attempt, the Bulgars ravage much of Eastern Thrace. Autumn – Siege of Adrianople: Krum captures Adrianople—one of the most important Byzantine fortresses in Thrace—after being attacked with siege engines; the garrison is forced to surrender, due to starvation. On the orders of Krum, the population of the surrounding area is transferred to Bulgarian territory, north of the Danube. Ashot I becomes the first Georgian Bagratid prince of Iberia, under Byzantine protection. September 11 — Louis the Pious, king of Aquitaine, is crowned co-emperor of the Franks, with his father Charlemagne. Danish Viking raiders, led by King Horik I, attack Vestfold, due to its insubordination. Autumn – Siege of Baghdad: Caliph al-Amin surrenders Baghdad, after Tahir ibn Husayn accepts his peace terms, but he is captured and executed, his brother al-Ma'mun becomes undisputed ruler of the Abbasid Caliphate. The Baghdad School of Astronomy is opened by al-Ma'mun. Caliph al Ma' mun founds.

In this school scholars translated Greek philosophy classics into Arabic. Third Council of Tours: Priests are ordered to preach in the vernacular. Fujiwara no Yoshimi, Japanese nobleman Fujiwara no Yoshisuke, Japanese statesman Li Rong, prince of the Tang Dynasty Li Shangyin, Chinese official and poet Moses Bar-Kepha, Syriac bishop Muhammad at-Taqi, Muslim ninth Ismā'īlī imam Theophilus, emperor of the Byzantine Empire Wandelbert, Benedictine monk ’Abd Allah ibn Wahb, Muslim jurist Eanberht, bishop of Hexham Muhammad ibn Harun al-Amin, Muslim caliph

Uganda Senior Command and Staff College

The Uganda Senior Command and Staff College is a training facility for senior commanders in the Uganda People's Defense Force, including the army, air force, special forces. The facility is located in Kimaka, a suburb of the city of Jinja 86 kilometres, by road, east of Kampala, Uganda's capital and largest city; this location is adjacent to Jinja Airport, the civilian and military airport that serves the city of Jinja. The coordinates of Kimaka are 0°27'09.0"N, 33°11'55.0"E. The college was established in 2003; the first commandant was Major General Benon Biraaro. The first group of students was admitted in 2004 to attend the senior command course that lasted one year; the first officers to graduate from the college included some of the most senior leaders of the UPDF. The course has been given every year since and has been attended by the majority of the senior commanders in the UPDF; as of February 2010, the commandant of USCSC was Lieutenant General Andrew Gutti. The most popular and attended course is the senior command course, conducted annually.

The course is attended by senior officers from the UPDF and by senior military officers from other African countries including Kenya, South Sudan and Rwanda. Other courses, including strategic courses in peacekeeping, have been in the planning stages. In 2018, the college graduated the first class of military officers who had undergone a year’s education, graduating with a Master of Arts degree in Defence and Security; the graduates of the USCSC include, but are not limited to, the following: Elly Tumwine - Former Commander of the UPDF Salim Saleh - Former Commander of the UPDF David Sejusa - Former Director of National Intelligence, Uganda Elly Kayanja - Deputy Director of National Intelligence, Uganda Nobel Mayombo - Former Permanent Secretary, Uganda Ministry of Defense Julius Oketta - Member of Parliament, Director of National Emergency Coordination and Operations. Member of Advisory Group of United Nations Central Emergency Response Fund Peter Kerim - Deputy Director of the External Security Organization Shaban Bantariza - Deputy Executive Director, Uganda Media Centre Sabiiti Muzeyi - Deputy Inspector General of Police, former Commander of the UPDF Military Police.

USCSC Class of 2009 National Resistance Army Uganda Military Academy List of military schools in Uganda Ivan Koreta About USCSC Personal Experience of a Graduate of USCSC USCSC Inaugurates Board of Directors

Captain Benjamin Williams House

The Captain Benjamin Williams House known as deKoven House or DeKoven Community Center, is a historic house at 27 Washington Street in Middletown, Connecticut. Built in the late 18th century, it is a fine example of late Georgian architecture, was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1978, it is now operated as a community center. The Captain Benjamin Williams House stands just east of downtown Middletown, at the southwest corner of Washington Street and deKoven Drive, it is an L-shaped two-story brick structure, its original main block set close to Washington Street and facing north. It is covered with two chimneys rising behind the main ridge line; the main facade is five bays wide, with a symmetrical placement of sash windows around the centered entrance. Windows are capped by brownstone lintels, the building corners are finished with brownstone quoining; the main entrance features a doorway with half-round fanlight, a gabled portico supported by slender round columns. The main roof's cornice has dentil moulding, its front face is pierced by three dormers, with peaked or semicircular gables.

The house was built in the 1790s for a well-to-do sea captain. Williams died in 1812, his heirs sold the house to Henry deKoven, it remained in the hands of his descendants until 1942, during which time it was converted to professional use. It underwent a major restoration by architectural historian J. Frederick Kelly shortly before its donation to the Rockfall Foundation; the property was renovated in the 20th century with architectural work by Jeffrey Dale Bianco, AIA. It is "Middletown Heritage Trail Site 4" in a walking trail. National Register of Historic Places listings in Middletown, Connecticut RockFallFoundation

Dublin–Westport/Galway railway line

The Dublin-Westport/Galway line is a major railway route from Dublin to Galway or Westport, County Mayo. The line is part of the greater intercity rail network formed by branches of the main line between Dublin and Cork; the route to Westport and Galway branches away from the main line at Portarlington in County Laois and continues as far as Athlone in County Westmeath, where it splits again, with one branch to Westport and the other to Galway. The Westport line was opened by the MGWR in 1866 to serve what was a major port. At this point, services ran from Broadstone station in Dublin via Mullingar. However, the GSWR route reached Athlone in 1859. Following the rationalisation of the railway network by Córas Iompair Éireann, the GSWR route was made the main route from Dublin to the west coast after 1973; the Galway line was opened by the MGWR in 1851, which became the primary route to the west coast city from Dublin. The GSWR route to Athlone opened in 1859, but the company ran another route in the west of the country, when it purchased the Waterford and Western Railway, which operated the Waterford-Collooney route that called at Athenry.

In 1973, CIÉ made the former GSWR route the main one to Galway, with services on the old MGWR line withdrawn, until they were ended in 1987. As of March 2018 all services to both Westport and Galway are operated under the Intercity brand using the former GSWR route from Dublin Heuston. Services are operated by Iarnród Éireann's 22000 Class DMU. There are nine trains daily in each direction to and from Dublin and Galway on Monday to Thursday with 8 from Heuston to Galway and nine from Galway to Dublin. On Saturday there are 9 trains from 8 from Galway to Heuston. On Sunday there are 6 trains in each direction from Heuston to Galway. There are 4 trains from Heuston to 5 from Westport to Heuston. On Friday there are 5 trains in each direction. On Saturday and Sunday there are 3 trains from Heuston to 4 from Westport to Heuston; these trains operate in 3 to 7 car ICR trains

Kota Bharu

Kota Bharu is a city in Malaysia that serves as the state capital and royal seat of Kelantan. It is the name of the territory or district in which Kota Bharu City is situated; the name means ` new castle/fort' in Malay. Kota Bharu is situated in the northeastern part of Peninsular Malaysia, lies near the mouth of the Kelantan River at 6°8′N 102°15′E; the northeastern Malaysian city is close to the Thailand border. Kota Bharu is home to many mosques, various museums, the unique architecture of the old royal palaces and former royal buildings in the centre of town; the City is served by Keretapi Tanah Melayu's East Coast Line at the nearby Wakaf Bharu Terminal Station, in the town of Wakaf Bharu across the Kelantan River and Sultan Ismail Petra Airport, located in Pengkalan Chepa. Kota Bharu was founded during the late 19th century. Before the establishment, Kota Bharu was home to Kelantan's Royal Palace established by Sultan Muhammad II of Kelantan in 1844 as Kelantan's state capital who wanted the new state capital built in his honour.

Prior to this, Kota Bharu was known as Kuala Kelantan. Before Kota Bharu assumed the role, the Kelantanese capital was divided into two which were Kota Kubang Labu and Kota Pengkalan Datu. During the 19th century, Kelantan was a prosperous and populous state with a population of around 30,000 to 50,000 people including a thousand Chinese. Production from within the state include gold, tin ore, black pepper, areca nut, rattan, bamboo and songket. Kota Bharu acts as entrepot for goods due to its strategic location beside the Kelantan River. Pantai Sabak, about 10 km from Kota Bharu, was the initial landing point of the Japanese invasion forces on 8 December 1941 in their Malayan campaign, when they engaged the British in jungle warfare and captured Singapore; the vast majority of Kota Bharu's population is ethnically Kelantanese Malay. The language spoken in Kota Bharu is Bahasa Melayu Kelantan, a dialect referred to as "Kecek Kelate". There is a large Chinese, a minority Indian and Orang Asli population within the city.

The total population of Kota Bharu city as of 2010 is 314,964. Kota Bharu city's population is 93% Muslim with the remainder consisting of Buddhists and Christians; the indigenous people that reside in the city's outskirts are practicing Christians. The predominantly urban local Chinese community practices Buddhism; the local state government is helmed by the Pan-Malaysian Islamic Party and thus has pursued a stricter form of Islam in the city and state. Morality police are apprehend people who engage in acts perceived as immoral; the Jawi script is used in street restaurants. Social activities that do not contradict Islamic norms are allowed. Government offices and many stores are closed on Fridays and Saturdays, but the vibrant markets remain open except during Islamic prayer times; the conservative Kelantanese state government under PAS has implemented some Islamic laws. These include switching on lights in cinemas during screening time until cinemas were closed down, separate check-out counters in supermarkets for males and females, khalwat, the Islamic rule on proximity between males and females.

The Kota Bharu Municipal Council, the local government authority, discourages the use of "indecent attire" by female employees in retail outlets and restaurants. Those who are caught for "dressing indecently" may be fined up to RM 500; the definition of "indecent dressing" includes "body hugging outfits which show off the body, blouses which show the navel, see through blouses, mini-skirts and tight pants." The Kelantanese culture is distinctive as compared to other state of Malaysia but with some influences from Thailand due to its geographical proximity. The Chinese and Indians are much more assimilated to local culture than those in other parts of Malaysia. Much of the food is sweet, with rice as the primary staple. Traditional dances like Mak Yong and Wayang Kulit were once practised, but are suppressed by local authorities because of perceived Hindu influences thought to contradict Islam. Nasi berlauk, nasi dagang, nasi lemak and nasi kerabu are popular elements of the local cuisine. Sweet cakes, or kuih, are popular amongst the Kelantanese.

Other popular foods include nasi tumpang, apom, lompat tikam, pisang goreng, curry puffs. Kota Bharu features a tropical monsoon climate bordering on a tropical rainforest climate. Kota Bharu does not have a true dry season although the city experiences noticeably heavier rainfall from August through January. Kota Bharu experiences cooler temperatures between December and February than during the rest of the year, making it one of the most "seasonal" cities in Malaysia; the city sees on average about 2,600 millimetres of precipitation annually. Grab Car services, available for 24 hours a day, are provided in Kota Bharu since April 2017. Kota Bharu is serviced by Sultan Ismail Petra Airport, the busiest airport in east coast of Peninsular Malaysia; the closest railway station is the Wakaf Bharu station on the other side of the river, 6 km from the city centre. Highway 8 is the main highway leading Kota Bharu to the federal capital Kuala Lumpur. Highway 3 connects Kota Bharu to Pasir Mas and the Thailand border in the west, or Kuala Terengganu, Kuantan or Johor Bahru due south.

Connection to Penang is possible via highway 4. The Lebuhraya Rakyat, or

Ceanothus americanus

Ceanothus americanus is a species of shrub native to North America. Common names include New Jersey tea, Jersey tea ceanothus, variations of red root, mountain sweet, wild snowball. New Jersey tea was a name coined during the American Revolution, because its leaves were used as a substitute for imported tea. Ceanothus americanus is a shrub growing between 42 in high, having many thin branches, its root system is thick with fibrous root hairs close to the surface, but with stout, woody roots that reach deep into the earth—root systems may grow large in the wild, to compensate after repeated exposures to wildfires. White flowers grow in clumpy inflorescences on axillary peduncles. Fruits are dry, seed capsules. Ceanothus americanus is common on dry plains, prairies, or similar untreed areas, on soils that are sandy or rocky, it can be located in forest clearings or verges, on banks or lakeshores, on gentle slopes. Ceanothus americana is found in Ontario and Quebec. In the U. S. it is found in Alabama.

The flowers of C. americanus are used as food by butterflies in the genus Celastrina, including spring azure, summer azure. Ceanothus americanus; the red roots and root bark of New Jersey tea were used by North American Indians for infections of the upper respiratory tract. These Indigenous medicinal practices continue today; the leaves have a fresh scent of wintergreen and were utilized by the white colonizers as a tea substitute and stimulating caffeine-free beverage. The root bark of the plant is used by herbalists today, are used notably in remedies for problems of the lymph system; the root contains astringent tannins and a number of peptide alkaloids, including ceanothine A-E, zizyphine and the adouetines. They have a mild hypotensive effect. Root and flower extracts can be used as dyes. Media related to Ceanothus americanus at Wikimedia Commons