A crown prince is the male heir apparent to the throne in a royal or imperial monarchy. Its female form is crown princess, which may refer either to an heir apparent or in earlier times, the wife of the person styled crown prince. Crown prince as a descriptive term has been used throughout history for the prince being first in line to a throne and is expected to succeed barring any unforeseen future event preventing this. In certain monarchies, a more specific substantive title may be accorded and become associated with the position of heir apparent. In these monarchies, the term crown prince may be used less than the substantive title; until the late twentieth century, no modern monarchy adopted a system whereby females would be guaranteed to succeed to the throne. A crown princess would therefore more refer to the spouse of a crown prince and would be styled crown princess not in her own right but by courtesy; the term crown prince is not used in monarchies wherein the hereditary sovereign holds a title below that of king/queen, although it is sometimes used as a synonym for heir apparent.
In Europe, where primogeniture governed succession to all monarchies except those of the Papacy and Andorra, the eldest son or eldest child of the current monarch fills the role of crown prince or princess, depending upon whether females of the dynasty enjoy personal succession rights. Primogeniture has been abolished in Belgium, Luxembourg, Sweden, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom; the eldest living child of a monarch is sometimes not the heir apparent or crown prince, because that position can be held by a descendant of a deceased older child who, by "right of representation", inherits the same place in the line of succession that would be held by the ancestor if he or she were still living. In some monarchies, those of the Middle East for example, in which primogeniture is not the decisive factor in dynastic succession, a person may not possess the title or status of crown prince by right of birth, but may obtain it as a result of an official designation made on some other legal or traditional basis, such as former crown prince Hassan bin Talal of Jordan.
Compare heir apparent and heir presumptive. In Scandinavian kingdoms, the heir presumptive to the crown may hold a different title than the heir apparent: hereditary prince, it is the title borne by the heir apparent of Liechtenstein, as well as the heir apparent or presumptive of Monaco. In Luxembourg, the heir apparent bears the title of hereditary grand duke. Many monarchies use or did use substantive titles for their heirs apparent of historical origin: Dauphin Duke of Brabant Duke of Braganza Duke of Cornwall Duke of Rothesay used by the Prince of Wales in place of his Welsh title when in Scotland Grand Prince Margrave of Moravia Prince of Asturias Prince of Girona Prince Imperial Prince of Orange, whether or not the equivalent title is held by the spouse of the titleholder is decided by the Dutch parliament Prince of Piedmont a title conferred by King Joseph Bonaparte to be hereditary on his children and grandchildren in the male and female line. Prince Royal Prince of Turnovo Prince of Viana Rex iunior, lit.
Junior king as he was crowned during the life of the incumbent king Tsesarevich Some monarchies have used a territorial title for heirs apparent which, though perceived as a crown princely title, is not automatically hereditary. It requires a specific conferral by the sovereign, which may be withheld. Current and past titles in this category include: Caesar or Kaisar in honor of Gaius Julius Caesar, distinguished from the senior Augustus Symbasileus, lit. co-emperor but still distinguished from the senior, addressed as Autocrator Aetheling and edling, lit. of the royal family Duke of Estonia and Lolland Prince of Norway.
China the People's Republic of China, is a country in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around 1.404 billion. Covering 9,600,000 square kilometers, it is the third- or fourth-largest country by total area. Governed by the Communist Party of China, the state exercises jurisdiction over 22 provinces, five autonomous regions, four direct-controlled municipalities, the special administrative regions of Hong Kong and Macau. China emerged as one of the world's earliest civilizations, in the fertile basin of the Yellow River in the North China Plain. For millennia, China's political system was based on hereditary monarchies, or dynasties, beginning with the semi-legendary Xia dynasty in 21st century BCE. Since China has expanded, re-unified numerous times. In the 3rd century BCE, the Qin established the first Chinese empire; the succeeding Han dynasty, which ruled from 206 BC until 220 AD, saw some of the most advanced technology at that time, including papermaking and the compass, along with agricultural and medical improvements.
The invention of gunpowder and movable type in the Tang dynasty and Northern Song completed the Four Great Inventions. Tang culture spread in Asia, as the new Silk Route brought traders to as far as Mesopotamia and Horn of Africa. Dynastic rule ended in 1912 with the Xinhai Revolution; the Chinese Civil War resulted in a division of territory in 1949, when the Communist Party of China established the People's Republic of China, a unitary one-party sovereign state on Mainland China, while the Kuomintang-led government retreated to the island of Taiwan. The political status of Taiwan remains disputed. Since the introduction of economic reforms in 1978, China's economy has been one of the world's fastest-growing with annual growth rates above 6 percent. According to the World Bank, China's GDP grew from $150 billion in 1978 to $12.24 trillion by 2017. Since 2010, China has been the world's second-largest economy by nominal GDP and since 2014, the largest economy in the world by purchasing power parity.
China is the world's largest exporter and second-largest importer of goods. China is a recognized nuclear weapons state and has the world's largest standing army and second-largest defense budget; the PRC is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council as it replaced the ROC in 1971, as well as an active global partner of ASEAN Plus mechanism. China is a leading member of numerous formal and informal multilateral organizations, including the Shanghai Cooperation Organization, WTO, APEC, BRICS, the BCIM, the G20. In recent times, scholars have argued that it will soon be a world superpower, rivaling the United States; the word "China" has been used in English since the 16th century. It is not a word used by the Chinese themselves, it has been traced through Portuguese and Persian back to the Sanskrit word Cīna, used in ancient India."China" appears in Richard Eden's 1555 translation of the 1516 journal of the Portuguese explorer Duarte Barbosa. Barbosa's usage was derived from Persian Chīn, in turn derived from Sanskrit Cīna.
Cīna was first used including the Mahābhārata and the Laws of Manu. In 1655, Martino Martini suggested that the word China is derived from the name of the Qin dynasty. Although this derivation is still given in various sources, it is complicated by the fact that the Sanskrit word appears in pre-Qin literature; the word may have referred to a state such as Yelang. The meaning transferred to China as a whole; the origin of the Sanskrit word is still a matter of debate, according to the Oxford English Dictionary. The official name of the modern state is the "People's Republic of China"; the shorter form is "China" Zhōngguó, from zhōng and guó, a term which developed under the Western Zhou dynasty in reference to its royal demesne. It was applied to the area around Luoyi during the Eastern Zhou and to China's Central Plain before being used as an occasional synonym for the state under the Qing, it was used as a cultural concept to distinguish the Huaxia people from perceived "barbarians". The name Zhongguo is translated as "Middle Kingdom" in English.
Archaeological evidence suggests that early hominids inhabited China between 2.24 million and 250,000 years ago. The hominid fossils of Peking Man, a Homo erectus who used fire, were discovered in a cave at Zhoukoudian near Beijing; the fossilized teeth of Homo sapiens have been discovered in Fuyan Cave in Hunan. Chinese proto-writing existed in Jiahu around 7000 BCE, Damaidi around 6000 BCE, Dadiwan from 5800–5400 BCE, Banpo dating from the 5th millennium BCE; some scholars have suggested. According to Chinese tradition, the first dynasty was the Xia, which emerged around 2100 BCE; the dynasty was considered mythical by historians until scientific excavations found early Bronze Age sites at Erlitou, Henan in 1959. It remains unclear whether these sites are the remains of the Xia dynasty or of another culture from the same period; the succeeding Shang dynasty is the earliest to be confirmed by contemporary records. The Shang ruled the plain of the Yellow River in eastern China from the 17th to the 11th century BCE.
Their oracle bone script
King Usermaatre Setepenre/Setepenamun Shoshenq III ruled Egypt's 22nd Dynasty for 39 years according to contemporary historical records. Two Apis Bulls were buried in the fourth and 28th years of his reign and he celebrated his Heb Sed Jubilee in his regnal year 30. Little is known of the precise basis for his successful claim to the throne since he was not a son of Osorkon II and Shoshenq's parentage and family ties are unknown. From Shoshenq III's eighth regnal year, his reign was marked by the loss of Egypt's political unity, with the appearance of Pedubast I at Thebes. Henceforth, the kings of the 22nd Dynasty only controlled Lower Egypt; the Theban High Priest Osorkon B did date his activities at Thebes and to Shoshenq III's reign, but this was for administrative reasons since Osorkon did not declare himself king after the death of his father, Takelot II. On the basis of Osorkon B's well known Chronicle, most Egyptologists today accept that Takelot II's 25th regnal year is equivalent to Shoshenq III's 22nd year.
Shoshenq III married Djed-Bast-Es-Ankh, the daughter of Takelot, a High Priest of Ptah at Memphis, Tjesbastperu, Osorkon II's daughter. He had at least 4 sons and 1 daughter: Ankhesen-Shoshenq, Bakennefi A, Pashedbast B, Pimay the'Great Chief of the Ma', Takelot C, a Generalissimo. A certain Padehebenbast may have been another son of Shoshenq III, but this is not certain, they all appear to have predeceased their father through his nearly four-decade-long rule. Shoshenq III's third son, was once thought to be identical with king Pami, but it is now believed that they are two different individuals, due to the separate orthography and meaning of their names. Instead, it was an unrelated individual named Shoshenq IV who succeeded Shoshenq III. Shoshenq III was buried in the looted Royal Tomb NRT V at Tanis
The Zhou dynasty was a Chinese dynasty that followed the Shang dynasty and preceded the Qin dynasty. The Zhou dynasty lasted longer than any other dynasty in Chinese history; the military control of China by the royal house, surnamed Ji, lasted from 1046 until 771 BC for a period known as the Western Zhou and the political sphere of influence it created continued well into Eastern Zhou for another 500 years. During the Zhou Dynasty, centralized power decreased throughout the Spring and Autumn period until the Warring States period in the last two centuries of the Zhou Dynasty. In this period, the Zhou court had little control over its constituent states that were at war with each other until the Qin state consolidated power and formed the Qin dynasty in 221 BC; the Zhou Dynasty had formally collapsed only 35 years earlier, although the dynasty had only nominal power at that point. This period of Chinese history produced; the Zhou dynasty spans the period in which the written script evolved into its almost-modern form with the use of an archaic clerical script that emerged during the late Warring States period.
According to Chinese mythology, the Zhou lineage began when Jiang Yuan, a consort of the legendary Emperor Ku, miraculously conceived a child, Qi "the Abandoned One", after stepping into the divine footprint of Shangdi. Qi was a culture hero credited with surviving three abandonments by his mother and with improving Xia agriculture, to the point where he was granted lordship over Tai and the surname Ji by his own Xia king and a posthumous name, Houji "Lord of Millet", by the Tang of Shang, he received sacrifice as a harvest god. The term Hòujì was a hereditary title attached to a lineage. Qi's son, or rather that of the Hòujì, Buzhu is said to have abandoned his position as Agrarian Master in old age and either he or his son Ju abandoned agriculture living a nomadic life in the manner of the Xirong and Rongdi. Ju's son Liu, led his people to prosperity by restoring agriculture and settling them at a place called Bin, which his descendants ruled for generations. Tai led the clan from Bin to Zhou, an area in the Wei River valley of modern-day Qishan County.
The duke passed over his two elder sons Taibo and Zhongyong to favor Jili, a warrior who conquered several Xirong tribes as a vassal of the Shang kings Wu Yi and Wen Ding before being treacherously killed. Taibo and Zhongyong had already fled to the Yangtze delta, where they established the state of Wu among the tribes there. Jili's son Wen moved the Zhou capital to Feng. Around 1046 BC, Wen's son Wu and his ally Jiang Ziya led an army of 45,000 men and 300 chariots across the Yellow River and defeated King Zhou of Shang at the Battle of Muye, marking the beginning of the Zhou dynasty; the Zhou enfeoffed a member of the defeated Shang royal family as the Duke of Song, held by descendants of the Shang royal family until its end. This practice was referred to Three Reverences. According to Nicholas Bodman, the Zhou appear to have spoken a language not different in vocabulary and syntax from that of the Shang. A recent study by David McCraw, using lexical statistics, reached the same conclusion.
The Zhou emulated extensively Shang cultural practices to legitimize their own rule, became the successors to Shang culture. At the same time, the Zhou may have been connected to the Xirong, a broadly defined cultural group to the west of the Shang, which the Shang regarded as tributaries. According to the historian Li Feng, the term "Rong" during the Western Zhou period was used to designate political and military adversaries rather than cultural and ethnic'others.' King Wu maintained the old capital for ceremonial purposes but constructed a new one for his palace and administration nearby at Hao. Although Wu's early death left a young and inexperienced heir, the Duke of Zhou assisted his nephew King Cheng in consolidating royal power. Wary of the Duke of Zhou's increasing power, the "Three Guards", Zhou princes stationed on the eastern plain, rose in rebellion against his regency. Though they garnered the support of independent-minded nobles, Shang partisans and several Dongyi tribes, the Duke of Zhou quelled the rebellion, further expanded the Zhou Kingdom into the east.
To maintain Zhou authority over its expanded territory and prevent other revolts, he set up the fengjian system. Furthermore, he countered Zhou's crisis of legitimacy by expounding the doctrine of the Mandate of Heaven while accommodating important Shang rituals at Wangcheng and Chengzhou. Over time, this decentralized system became strained as the familial relationships between the Zhou kings and the regional dynasties thinned over the generations. Peripheral territories developed local prestige on par with that of the Zhou; when King You demoted and exiled his Jiang queen in favor of the beautiful commoner Bao Si, the disgraced queen's father the Marquis of Shen joined with Zeng and the Quanrong barbarians to sack Hao in 771 BC. Some modern scholars have surmised that the sack of Haojing might have been connected to a Scythian raid from the Altai before their westward expansion. With King You dead, a conclave of nobles declared the Marquis's grandson King Ping; the capital was moved eastward to Wangcheng, marking the end of the "Western Zhou" and the beginning of the "Eastern Zhou" dynasty.
The Eastern Zhou was characterized by an accelerating collapse of royal authority, although the king's ritual importance allowed over five more cent
8th century BC
The 8th century BC started the first day of 800 BC and ended the last day of 701 BC. The 8th century BC is a period of great change for several significant civilizations. In Egypt, the 23rd and 24th dynasties lead to rule from Nubia in the 25th Dynasty; the Neo-Assyrian Empire reaches the peak of its power, conquering the Kingdom of Israel as well as nearby countries. Greece colonizes other regions of the Mediterranean Black Sea. Rome is founded in 753 BC, the Etruscan civilization expands in Italy; the 8th century BC is conventionally taken as the beginning of Classical Antiquity, with the first Olympiad set at 776 BC, the epics of Homer dated to between 750 and 650 BC. Iron Age India enters the Vedic period. Vedic ritual is annotated in many priestly schools in Brahmana commentaries, the earliest Upanishads mark the beginning of Vedanta philosophy. Late 8th century BC: Earrings and rosettes, from the tomb of Queen Yabay in Kalhu are made, they are now at Baghdad. Discovered in 1988. Second half of the 8th century BC: In the Kingdom of Judah, Jerusalem begins an expansion in population and size, going from a small town into a major city.
797 BC: Thespieus, King of Athens, dies after a reign of 27 years and is succeeded by his son Agamestor. 783 BC: Shalmaneser IV succeeds his father Adad-nirari III as king of Assyria. 782 BC: Founding of Erebuni by the orders of King Argishtis I at the site of current-day Yerevan. 782 BC: Death of King Xuan of Zhou, King of the Zhou Dynasty of China. 781 BC: King You of Zhou becomes King of the Zhou Dynasty of China. 780 BC: The first historic solar eclipse is recorded in China. 778 BC: Agamestor, King of Athens, dies after a reign of 17 years and is succeeded by his son Aeschylus. 776 BC: retrospectively set as the first Olympiad. The history of the Olympic Games is believed to reach as far back as the 13th century BC. 774 BC: End of the reign of king Pygmalion of Tyre. 773 BC: Death of Shoshenq III, king of Egypt. 773 BC: Ashur-Dan III succeeds his brother Shalmaneser IV as king of Assyria. 771 BC: End of the Western Zhou Dynasty in China as "western" barbarian tribes sack the capital Hao. King You of Zhou is killed.
Crown Prince Ji Yijiu will reign as King Ping of Zhou. 770 BC: Beginning of the Eastern Zhou Dynasty in China as King Ping of Zhou becomes the first King of the Zhou to rule from the new capital of Chengzhou. June 15, 763 BC: A solar eclipse at this date is used to fix the chronology of the Ancient Near East. Mid-8th century BC: Model of temple, found in the Sanctuary of Hera, Argos, is made, it is now at Athens. 756 BC: Founding of Cyzicus. 755 BC: Ashur-nirari V succeeds Ashur-Dan III as king of Assyria. 755 BC: Aeschylus, King of Athens, dies after a reign of 23 years and is succeeded by Alcmaeon. 753 BC: Alcmaeon, King of Athens, dies after a reign of 2 years. He is replaced by Harops, elected Archon for a ten-year term. April 21, 753 BC: Rome founded by Romulus. Beginning of the Roman'Ab urbe condita' calendar. February 26, 747 BC: Nabonassar becomes king of Babylon. 747 BC: Meles becomes king of Lydia. 747 BC: The Lusatian culture city at Biskupin is founded. 745 BC: The Crown of Assyria is seized by Pul, who takes the name Tiglath-Pileser III.
743 BC: Duke Zhuang of the Chinese state of Zheng comes to power. 740 BC: Tiglath-Pileser III conquers the city of Arpad in Syria after two years of siege. 740 BC: Start of Ahaz's reign of Judah. 739 BC: Hiram II becomes king of Tyre. 738 BC: King Tiglath-Pileser III of Assyria invades Israel, forcing it to pay tribute. 734 BC: Syracuse was founded as a colony by Corinth. 734 BC: Naxus in Sicily founded as a colony of Chalcis in Euboea. 732 BC: Hoshea becomes the last king of Israel. 730 BC: Osorkon IV succeeds Sheshonq IV as king of the Twenty-second dynasty of Egypt. 730 BC: Piye succeeds his father Kashta as king of the Nubian kingdom of Napata. 730 BC: Mattan II succeeds Hiram II as king of Tyre. 728 BC: Piye invades Egypt, conquering Memphis, receives the submission of the rulers of the Nile Delta. He founds the Twenty-fifth dynasty of Egypt. 727 BC: Babylonia makes itself independent of Assyria. 724 BC: The Assyrians start a four-year siege of Tyre. 724 BC: The diaulos footrace introduced at the Olympics.
722 BC: Spring and Autumn period of China's history begins as King Ping of Zhou of the Zhou Dynasty reigns in name only. 722 BC: Israel is conquered by Assyrian king Sargon II. 720 BC: End of the Assyrian siege of Tyre. 719 BC: King Huan of Zhou of the Zhou Dynasty becomes ruler of China. 718 BC: Gyges becomes the ruler of Lydia. 717 BC: Assyrian king Sargon conquers the Hittite stronghold of Carchemish. 717 BC: Sargon II founds a new capital for Assyria at Dur-Sharrukin. 716 BC: Roman legend marks this as the date that Romulus ended his rule. 715 BC: Start of the reign of Roman King Numa Pompilius. 713 BC: Numa Pompilius reforms the Roman calendar. 712 BC: Numa Pompilius creates the office of Pontifex Maximus. 706 BC: Spartan immigrants found Taras colony in southern Italy. 705 BC: Sennacherib succeeds Sargon II as king of Assyria. 704 BC: Sennacherib moves the capital of Assyria to Nineveh. 701 BC: King Hezekiah of Judah, backed by Egypt, revolts against king Sennacherib of Assyria. Sennacherib fails in his attempt to take Jerusalem.
700 BC: The Scythians start settling in Cimmerian areas replacing the previous inhabitants. 700 BC: End of the Villanovan culture in northern Italy and rise of the Etruscan civilization. 700 BC: The Upanishads, a sacred text of Hinduism, are written around this time. Greeks colonize Black Seas. Thraco-Cimmerian influence in Central Eu
Hedjkheperre Setepenre Takelot II Si-Ese was a pharaoh of the Twenty-third Dynasty of Ancient Egypt in Middle and Upper Egypt. He has been identified as the High Priest of Amun Takelot F, son of the High Priest of Amun Nimlot C at Thebes and, the son of Nimlot C and grandson of king Osorkon II according to the latest academic research. Based on two lunar dates belonging to Takelot II, this Upper Egyptian pharaoh is today believed to have ascended to the throne of a divided Egypt in either 845 BC or 834 BC. Most Egyptologists today, including Aidan Dodson, Gerard Broekman, Jürgen von Beckerath, M. A. Leahy and Karl Jansen-Winkeln accept David Aston's hypothesis that Shoshenq III was Osorkon II's actual successor at Tanis, rather than Takelot II; as Aidan Dodson and Dyan Hilton write in their comprehensive book on the royal families of Ancient Egypt: Takelot II is to have been identical with the High Priest Takelot F, stated in Karnak inscriptions to have been a son of Nimlot C, whose period of office falls neatly just before Takelot II's appearance.
Takelot II rather ruled a separate kingdom that embraced Middle and Upper Egypt, distinct from the Tanite Twenty-second Dynasty which only controlled Lower Egypt. Takelot F, the son and successor of the High Priest of Amun Nimlot C, served for a period of time under Osorkon II as a High Priest of Amun before he proclaimed himself as king Takelot II in the final three regnal years of Osorkon II; this situation is attested by the relief scenes on the walls of Temple J at Karnak, dedicated by Takelot F – in his position as High Priest – to Osorkon II, depicted as the celebrant and king. All the documents which mention Takelot II Si-Ese and his son, Osorkon B, originate from either Middle or Upper Egypt and a royal tomb at Tanis which named a king Hedjkheperre Setepenre Takelot along with a Year 9 stela from Bubastis are now recognised as belonging to Takelot I. While both Takelot I and II used the same prenomen, Takelot II added the epithet Si-Ese to his royal titulary both to affiliate himself with Thebes and to distinguish his name from Takelot I.
Takelot II controlled Middle and Upper Egypt during the final 3 Years of Osorkon II and the first 2 decades of Shoshenq III. The majority of Egyptologists today concede that king Osorkon III was the illustrious "Crown Prince and High Priest Osorkon B," son of Takelot II. A misunderstanding arose over his identity because in the Crown Prince's famous Chronicle, carved on the Bubastite Portal at Karnak, Osorkon dates his actions by both the regnal years of Takelot II —with a short year 25 left unmentioned — and by those of the Tanite king, Shoshenq III. While Kenneth Kitchen has interpreted this to mean that Shoshenq III succeeded Takelot II at Tanis, in fact Takelot II and Shoshenq III were close contemporaries because after the death of his father in year 25 of Takelot II, Osorkon B started dating his activities to year 22, not year 1, of Shoshenq III onwards. There was never a two decade long break in Osorkon B's struggle to regain control of Thebes as Kitchen's chronology implies because year 25 of Takelot II is equivalent to year 22 of Sheshonq III.
Osorkon B did not ascend to his father's throne because he was involved in a prolonged civil war with his rival Pedubast I and Shoshenq VI, for control of Thebes. Instead, he dated his activities to the serving Dynasty 22 Pharaoh at Tanis: Shoshenq III; the Crown Prince Osorkon B was not outmaneuvered to the throne of Tanis by Shoshenq III because both men ruled over separate kingdoms with the 22nd Dynasty controlling Lower Egypt, Takelot II/Osorkon B ruling over most of Upper Egypt from Herakleopolis Magna to Thebes, where they are monumentally attested. In 1983, a donation stela was discovered by Japanese excavators at Tehna which reveals that Osorkon III was once a High Priest of Amun himself; this person can only be the well-known High Priest Osorkon B since no other Theban High Priests named Osorkon are known until the reign of Takelot III half a century when the latter's son Osorkon F served in this office. In Year 11 of Takelot II, an insurrection began under Pedubast I whose followers challenged this king's authority at Thebes.
Takelot reacted by dispatching his son, Osorkon B, to sail southwards to Thebes and quell the uprising. Osorkon B succeeded in retaining control of the city and proclaimed himself as the new High Priest of Amun; some of the rebels' bodies were deliberately burned by Osorkon to permanently deny their souls any hope of an afterlife. However, just four years in year 15 of Takelot II, a second major revolt broke out and this time Osorkon B's forces were expelled from Thebes by Pedubast I; this caused a prolonged period of turmoil and instability in Upper Egypt as a prolonged struggle broke out between the competing factions of Takelot II/Osorkon B and Pedubast I/Shoshenq VI for control of Thebes. This conflict would last for 27 long years – from Year 15 to Year 25 of Takelot II and from Year 22 to Year 39 of Shoshenq III when Osorkon B defeated his enemies and conquered this great city. Osorkon B proclaimed himself as king Osorkon III sometime after his victory. On other matters, the Chronicle of Prince Osorkon B, carved on the Bubastis Portal at Karnak, records Osorkon's activities between regnal years 11 and 24 of his father and from regnal years 22 through 29 of Shoshenq III.
However, Takelot II's brief 25th year is attested by a donation stela made by his son in his position as High Priest at Thebes shortly before Takelot died.
Tyre, sometimes romanized as Sour, is a district capital in the South Governorate of Lebanon. There were 117,000 inhabitants in 2003. However, the government of Lebanon has released only rough estimates of population numbers since 1932, so an accurate statistical accounting is not possible. Tyre is located about 80 km south of Beirut; the name of the city means "rock" after the rocky formation on which the town was built. The adjective for Tyre is Tyrian, the inhabitants are Tyrians. Tyre is the legendary birthplace of Europa and Dido. Today it is the fourth largest city in Lebanon after Beirut, Tripoli and Sidon. and houses one of the nation's major ports. Tourism is a major industry; the city has a number of ancient sites, including its Roman Hippodrome, added to UNESCO's list of World Heritage Sites in 1979. Tyre consisted of two distinct urban centres: Tyre itself, on an island just off shore, the associated settlement of Ushu on the adjacent mainland. Alexander the Great connected the island to the mainland by constructing a causeway during his siege of the city, demolishing the old city to reuse its cut stone.
The original island city had two harbours, one on the south side and the other on the north side of the island. It was the two harbours; the harbour on the south side has silted over. In ancient times, the island-city of Tyre was fortified and the mainland settlement called Ushu was more like a line of suburbs than any one city and was used as a source of water and timber for the main island city. Josephus records that the two fought against each other on occasion, but most of the time, they supported one another because they both benefited from the island city's wealth from maritime trade and the mainland area's source of timber and burial grounds. According to Herodotus, Tyre was founded around 2750 BC and built as a walled city upon the mainland. Tyre's name appears on monuments as early as 1300 BC. Philo of Byblos quotes the antiquarian authority Sanchuniathon as stating that it was first occupied by Hypsuranius. Sanchuniathon's work is said to be dedicated to "Abibalus king of Berytus"—possibly the Abibaal, king of Tyre.
There are ten Amarna letters dated 1350 BC from the mayor, written to Akenaten. The subject is water and the Habiru overtaking the countryside of the mainland and how that affected the island-city. Commerce from throughout ancient world was gathered into the warehouses of Tyre. Tyrian merchants were the first. Tyre became one of the more powerful cities in Phoenicia. One of its kings, the priest Ithobaal, ruled Phoenicia as far north as Beirut, part of Cyprus. Carthage was founded in 814 BC under Pygmalion of Tyre; the collection of city-states constituting Phoenicia came to be characterized by outsiders and the Phoenicians as Sidonia or Tyria. Phoenicians and Canaanites alike were called Sidonians or Tyrians, as one Phoenician city came to prominence after another; the city of Tyre was known for the production of a rare and extraordinarily expensive sort of purple dye, produced from the murex shellfish, known as Tyrian purple. The colour was, in ancient cultures, reserved for the use of royalty or at least the nobility.
Phoenicians from Tyre settled in houses around Memphis in Egypt, south of the temple of Hephaestus in a district called the Tyrian Camp. Tyre was attacked by Egypt and was besieged by Assyrian king Shalmaneser V, assisted by the Phoenicians of the mainland, for five years. From 586 until 573 BC, the city was besieged by Nebuchadnezzar II of Babylon until it agreed to pay a tribute; the Achaemenid Empire of King Cyrus the Great conquered the city in 539 BC and kept it under its rule until 332 BC. The Persians divided Phoenicia into four vassal kingdoms: Sidon, Tyre and Byblos, they prospered. Phoenician influence declined after this. After his conquest of Persia, Alexander the Great moved his armies south towards Lebanon sieging and sacking the City of Tyre. Alexander the Great connected the island to the mainland by constructing a causeway during his siege of the city in 332 BC, demolishing the old city to reuse its cut stone. In 315 BC, Alexander's former general Antigonus began his own siege of Tyre, taking the city a year later.
In 126 BC, Tyre regained its independence from the Seleucid Empire. Tyre was allowed to keep much of its independence, as a "civitas foederata", when the area became a Roman province in 64 BC. Tyre continued to maintain much of its commercial importance until the Common Era; the Tyrians, or "people of Tyre" during the Roman period, extended their areas of hegemony over the adjoining regions, such as in northern Palestine region, settling in cities such as Kedesh, Mount Carmel and north of Baca. It is stated in the New Testament that Jesus