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Year 823 was a common year starting on Thursday of the Julian calendar. Emperor Michael II defeats the rebel forces under Thomas the Slav in Thrace, he and his supporters are forced to seek refuge in Arkadiopolis. After five months of blockade, Thomas surrenders and is delivered to Michael, seated on a donkey and bound in chains, he is executed. April 5 – Lothair I, eldest son of Emperor Louis I, is crowned co-emperor again by Pope Paschal I at Rome. King Ceolwulf I of Mercia is deposed by Beornwulf. During his rule he rebuilds the Abbey of St. Peter, presides over two synods at Clofesho. May 30 – Emperor Saga abdicates the throne, after a 10-year reign, he is succeeded as the 53rd emperor of Japan. June 13 – Charles the Bald, king of the Franks Ermentrude of Orléans, queen of the Franks Muhammad I, Muslim emir of Córdoba Pepin II, king of Aquitaine Adelochus, archbishop of Strasbourg Boniface I, margrave of Tuscany Ceolwulf I, king of Mercia Gondulphus, bishop of Metz Han Hong, general of the Tang Dynasty b. 765) Ljudevit Posavski, duke of Croatia Thekla, Byzantine empress Thomas the Slav, Byzantine general and usurper Timothy I, Syrian patriarch Wulfheard, bishop of Hereford

La Capital

La Capital is a daily Spanish-language newspaper edited and published in Rosario, province of Santa Fe, Argentina. It was founded on November 15, 1867, it is the oldest Argentine newspaper still in circulation, which has gained it the title of Decano de la Prensa Argentina; the name was chosen by its founder, Ovidio Lagos, as a political statement on the part of those, including him, who were lobbying to move the capital of the federal government to Rosario. Rosario was in fact declared the capital three times by Congress, only to face presidential vetoes each time. At the time of its foundation, La Capital was an afternoon newspaper. Newspapers were just forums of political debate with classified ads. Since the beginning, the heading of La Capital included a motto showing a commitment to public opinion: Las columnas de La Capital pertenecen al pueblo, "La Capital's columns belong to the people". On 19 August 1868 the editorial building was at 104 Santa Fe St. After that, La Capital turned into a morning newspaper, in 1870 it moved to Port St..

In 1874 and again in 1887 new printing machinery was acquired. In 1889 the editorial moved to a new building at 763 Sarmiento St. and acquired a French Marinoni reaction printer. In 1903 the newspaper changed the format of its pages. By 1905 the daily edition had 16 pages, in 1906 it offered a full-color 28-page illustrated supplement. For 111 years, since its foundation, the newspaper employed the "hot type" method, that is, with Linotype typesetting machines where molten lead and antimony were used to cast each line of text. In 1978 La Capital shifted to "cold type". In mid-1998 the new publishing plant at Santiago St. near Rivadavia Ave. received its latest innovation, a Goss Urbanite rotating press which weighs 165 tonnes and measures 36 m in length. The new plant features a number of other technologies. Using this, La Capital started a new edition, with a different layout and format, in color. Besides national and international news, the newspaper covers local news from Rosario and its metropolitan area, plus other towns in the region and four other provinces besides Santa Fe, reaching about 2 million readers.

Online edition: La Capital::: on line This article draws material from this historical note

The Arts Club

The Arts Club is a London private members club founded in 1863 by, amongst others, Charles Dickens, Anthony Trollope, Lord Leighton in Dover Street, Mayfair. It remains a meeting place for men and women involved in the creative arts either professionally or as patrons; the Arts Club was a hub of the arts during the 19th century and, although a social venue, it was known to be a place where influence could be exerted and careers developed. It was seen as the powerhouse behind the dealings of the Royal Academy, its members and guests included Dickens, Whistler, Monet, Rodin and Turgenev. As early as 1891, James Whistler, one of the Arts Club's leading members, broke away to found the rival Chelsea Arts Club; the Arts Club has continued to provide a meeting place for those involved in all the arts. The visual arts predominate the professional artists amongst today's membership. Members not professionally active as artists include art dealers, gallery owners, artists' agents, as well as those who have an amateur or recreational interest in the arts.

Various scandals undermined the club during the last century, including the disappearance of the club's extensive collection of first-edition books and silver during refurbishments as well as fifty artworks from its collection. The Club was refurbished in 2011/12; the original club premises were at Mayfair. After thirty years there, the club moved nearby to its current accommodation, an 18th-century townhouse at 40 Dover Street, just north of the Ritz Hotel on Piccadilly the London home of the family of the Baron Stanley of Alderley, it was badly extensively rebuilt. The Arts Club is looking at expanding its clubhouses, planning venues in Los Angeles and Canary Wharf in London. Current membership includes a number of Royal Academicians, musicians and writers. Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh is the Sir Peter Blake is the President of the Club; the Chairman of the Club is Gary Landesberg and the Chief Operating Officer is Remy Lyse. Current members include Grayson Perry, the photographer Tom Hunter, the actresses Gwyneth Paltrow and Kim Cattrall and Ronnie Wood.

Well known'non-artist' members include Richard Attenborough, Matthew Parris, Henry Blofeld. There are regular activities and lectures; the Arts Club operates a smart dress code. Membership requirements are a interest in art, literature or science. Members must be seconded by existing members; as of 2012, the Club has no reciprocal clubs in the UK. However, a number of clubs outside the UK of similar character and prestige have reciprocal arrangements, including the Cercle de l'Union interalliée in Paris, The Arts and Letters Club of Toronto, the St. Botolph and Algonquin Clubs in Boston, the Cosmos Club in Washington DC, the Arts Club of Chicago and the Arts Club of Washington DC, the Century Association, The Coffee House, National Arts Club and Salmagundi Club in New York. Rogers, G. A. F; the Arts Club and its members. Lejeune, Anthony; the Gentlemen's Clubs of London. London: MacDonald and Jane's. ISBN 0-354-08504-2. Denvir, Bernard. A Most Agreeable Society: A Hundred and Twenty-Five Years of the Arts Club.

London: The Arts Club. ISBN 1-85170-323-3. Official website

Safety-critical system

A safety-critical system or life-critical system is a system whose failure or malfunction may result in one of the following outcomes: death or serious injury to people loss or severe damage to equipment/property environmental harmA safety-related system comprises everything needed to perform one or more safety functions, in which failure would cause a significant increase in the safety risk for the people and/or environment involved. Safety-related systems are those that do not have full responsibility for controlling hazards such as loss of life, severe injury or severe environmental damage; the malfunction of a safety-involved system would only be that hazardous in conjunction with the failure of other systems or human error. Some safety organizations provide guidance on safety-related systems, for example the Health and Safety Executive in the United Kingdom. Risks of this sort are managed with the methods and tools of safety engineering. A safety-critical system is designed to lose less than one life per billion hours of operation.

Typical design methods include probabilistic risk assessment, a method that combines failure mode and effects analysis with fault tree analysis. Safety-critical systems are computer-based. Several reliability regimes for safety-critical systems exist: Fail-operational systems continue to operate when their control systems fail. Examples of these include elevators, the gas thermostats in most home furnaces, passively safe nuclear reactors. Fail-operational mode is sometimes unsafe. Nuclear weapons launch-on-loss-of-communications was rejected as a control system for the U. S. nuclear forces because it is fail-operational: a loss of communications would cause launch, so this mode of operation was considered too risky. This is contrasted with the Fail-deadly behavior of the Perimeter system built during the Soviet era. Fail-soft systems are able to continue operating on an interim basis with reduced efficiency in case of failure. Most spare tires are an example of this: They come with certain restrictions and lead to lower fuel economy.

Another example is the "Safe Mode" found in most Windows operating systems. Fail-safe systems become safe. Many medical systems fall into this category. For example, an infusion pump can fail, as long as it alerts the nurse and ceases pumping, it will not threaten the loss of life because its safety interval is long enough to permit a human response. In a similar vein, an industrial or domestic burner controller can fail, but must fail in a safe mode. Famously, nuclear weapon systems that launch-on-command are fail-safe, because if the communications systems fail, launch cannot be commanded. Railway signaling is designed to be fail-safe. Fail-secure systems maintain maximum security. For example, while fail-safe electronic doors unlock during power failures, fail-secure ones will lock, keeping an area secure. Fail-Passive systems continue to operate in the event of a system failure. An example includes an aircraft autopilot. In the event of a failure, the aircraft would remain in a controllable state and allow the pilot to take over and complete the journey and perform a safe landing.

Fault-tolerant systems avoid service failure. An example may include control systems for ordinary nuclear reactors; the normal method to tolerate faults is to have several computers continually test the parts of a system, switch on hot spares for failing subsystems. As long as faulty subsystems are replaced or repaired at normal maintenance intervals, these systems are considered safe; the computers, power supplies and control terminals used by human beings must all be duplicated in these systems in some fashion. Software engineering for safety-critical systems is difficult. There are three aspects which can be applied to aid the engineering software for life-critical systems. First is process management. Secondly, selecting the appropriate tools and environment for the system; this allows the system developer to test the system by emulation and observe its effectiveness. Thirdly, address any legal and regulatory requirements, such as FAA requirements for aviation. By setting a standard for which a system is required to be developed under, it forces the designers to stick to the requirements.

The avionics industry has succeeded in producing standard methods for producing life-critical avionics software. Similar standards exist for industry, in general, automotive and nuclear industries specifically; the standard approach is to code, document, test and analyze the system. Another approach is to certify a production system, a compiler, generate the system's code from specifications. Another approach uses formal methods to generate proofs. All of these approaches improve the software quality in safety-critical systems by testing or eliminating manual steps in the development process, because people make mistakes, these mistakes are the most common cause of potential life-threatening errors. Circuit breaker Emergency services dispatch systems Electricity generation and distribution Fire alarm Fire sprinkler Fuse Fuse Life support systems Telecommunications Burner Control systems The technology requirements can go beyond avoidance of failure, can facilitate medical intensive care, life support.

Heart-lung machines Mechanical ventila

Kent Institution

Kent Institution is a Correctional Service of Canada facility located in Agassiz, British Columbia. Opened in 1979, Kent is the only maximum security federal penitentiary in the CSC's Pacific region, which includes the province of British Columbia and the Yukon territory; the majority of prisoners at the facility are sentenced in other provinces. Educational programs, as well as socialization and employment, play a significant role at the institution; the facility employs over 300 people. The capacity is 298. June 19, 1990 – Two prisoners, Robert Lee Ford and David Thomas, escape when a hijacked helicopter lands in the courtyard. Correctional Officer R. KIRBY survived. May 1999 – Eighty-four prisoners rioted and barricaded themselves in the gym before the ERT could be called in to defuse the situation. June 2003 – One prisoner was stabbed to death while prisoners in three units rioted, setting fires and barricading doors until the ERT responded and locked down the institution. January 5, 2004 - A 19-year-old prisoner was stabbed twice in the abdomen.

April 6, 2004 - A prisoner was stabbed. May 9, 2004 - A prisoner was stabbed while inside his cell. May 18, 2004 - A prisoner was stabbed numerous times. August 20, 2004 - A prisoner was stabbed. November 2008 – One prisoner, Andrew Robert Craig, was stabbed to death in the institution's gymnasium. Four prisoners have since been charged with first degree murder, which indicates the police have evidence that the crime was premeditated. March 18, 2009 - A prisoner commits suicide. January 28, 2010 - Two assaults against officers at Kent Institution. A warning shot was fired. March 19, 2010 - A prisoner was stabbed in the gymnasium. Warning shots were fired by staff. April 16, 2010 - Officers seize 19 grams of heroin. August 4, 2010 - A prisoner was stabbed on a living unit. Warning shots were fired by officers. November 14, 2010 - A prisoner was stabbed in the gymnasium. March 27, 2011 - A prisoner was stabbed in the weight training area of the gymnasium. May 20, 2011 - A prisoner was stabbed. July 13, 2011 - A prisoner was found dead in his cell.

May 2013 - Jesse Lahn, 33, was found hanging in his cell in segregation. William Faulder "Fats" Robertson Terry Driver Stephen Reid Robert Pickton Michael Wayne McGray Lenford Crawford, conspirator in the murder of Bich-Ha Pan and the attempted murder of Hann Pan, masterminded by Jennifer Pan Eric Carty, conspirator in the Pan murders.

Solid-state lighting

Solid-state lighting is a type of lighting that uses semiconductor light-emitting diodes, organic light-emitting diodes, or polymer light-emitting diodes as sources of illumination rather than electrical filaments, plasma, or gas. Solid state electroluminescence is used in SSL as opposed to incandescent bulbs or fluorescent tubes. Compared to incandescent lighting, SSL creates visible light with reduced heat generation and less energy dissipation. Most common "white LEDs” convert blue light from a solid-state device to an white light spectrum using photoluminescence, the same principle used in conventional fluorescent tubes; the small mass of a solid-state electronic lighting device provides for greater resistance to shock and vibration compared to brittle glass tubes/bulbs and long, thin filament wires. They eliminate filament evaporation increasing the life span of the illumination device. Solid-state lighting is used in traffic lights and is used in modern vehicle lights and parking lot lights, train marker lights, building exteriors, remote controls etc.

Controlling the light emission of LEDs may be done most by using the principles of nonimaging optics. Solid-state lighting has made significant advances in industry. In the entertainment lighting industry, standard incandescent tungsten-halogen lamps are being replaced by solid-state light lighting fixtures. L Prize LED lamp List of light sources Smart lighting Assessment of Advanced Solid State Lighting. National Academies Press. 2013. Kho, Mu-Jeong, Javed, T. Mark, R. Maier, E. and David, C.'Final Report: OLED Solid State Lighting: Kodak European Research' MOTI Project, Judge Business School of the University of Cambridge and Kodak European Research, Final Report presented on 4 March 2008 at Kodak European Research at Cambridge Science Park, Cambridge, UK. pages 1–12. EUROPEAN METROLOGY RESEARCH PROJECT - METROLOGY FOR SOLID STATE LIGHTING Solid State Lighting, International Energy Agency research project DOE SSL roadmap Lighting Research Center - Solid-State Lighting Program OLLA: finished European academic-industrial research project into OLED lighting OLED100.

EU: successor to the OLLA project