8th century BC
The 8th century BC started the first day of 800 BC and ended the last day of 701 BC. The 8th century BC is a period of great change for several significant civilizations. In Egypt, the 23rd and 24th dynasties lead to rule from Nubia in the 25th Dynasty; the Neo-Assyrian Empire reaches the peak of its power, conquering the Kingdom of Israel as well as nearby countries. Greece colonizes other regions of the Mediterranean Black Sea. Rome is founded in 753 BC, the Etruscan civilization expands in Italy; the 8th century BC is conventionally taken as the beginning of Classical Antiquity, with the first Olympiad set at 776 BC, the epics of Homer dated to between 750 and 650 BC. Iron Age India enters the Vedic period. Vedic ritual is annotated in many priestly schools in Brahmana commentaries, the earliest Upanishads mark the beginning of Vedanta philosophy. Late 8th century BC: Earrings and rosettes, from the tomb of Queen Yabay in Kalhu are made, they are now at Baghdad. Discovered in 1988. Second half of the 8th century BC: In the Kingdom of Judah, Jerusalem begins an expansion in population and size, going from a small town into a major city.
797 BC: Thespieus, King of Athens, dies after a reign of 27 years and is succeeded by his son Agamestor. 783 BC: Shalmaneser IV succeeds his father Adad-nirari III as king of Assyria. 782 BC: Founding of Erebuni by the orders of King Argishtis I at the site of current-day Yerevan. 782 BC: Death of King Xuan of Zhou, King of the Zhou Dynasty of China. 781 BC: King You of Zhou becomes King of the Zhou Dynasty of China. 780 BC: The first historic solar eclipse is recorded in China. 778 BC: Agamestor, King of Athens, dies after a reign of 17 years and is succeeded by his son Aeschylus. 776 BC: retrospectively set as the first Olympiad. The history of the Olympic Games is believed to reach as far back as the 13th century BC. 774 BC: End of the reign of king Pygmalion of Tyre. 773 BC: Death of Shoshenq III, king of Egypt. 773 BC: Ashur-Dan III succeeds his brother Shalmaneser IV as king of Assyria. 771 BC: End of the Western Zhou Dynasty in China as "western" barbarian tribes sack the capital Hao. King You of Zhou is killed.
Crown Prince Ji Yijiu will reign as King Ping of Zhou. 770 BC: Beginning of the Eastern Zhou Dynasty in China as King Ping of Zhou becomes the first King of the Zhou to rule from the new capital of Chengzhou. June 15, 763 BC: A solar eclipse at this date is used to fix the chronology of the Ancient Near East. Mid-8th century BC: Model of temple, found in the Sanctuary of Hera, Argos, is made, it is now at Athens. 756 BC: Founding of Cyzicus. 755 BC: Ashur-nirari V succeeds Ashur-Dan III as king of Assyria. 755 BC: Aeschylus, King of Athens, dies after a reign of 23 years and is succeeded by Alcmaeon. 753 BC: Alcmaeon, King of Athens, dies after a reign of 2 years. He is replaced by Harops, elected Archon for a ten-year term. April 21, 753 BC: Rome founded by Romulus. Beginning of the Roman'Ab urbe condita' calendar. February 26, 747 BC: Nabonassar becomes king of Babylon. 747 BC: Meles becomes king of Lydia. 747 BC: The Lusatian culture city at Biskupin is founded. 745 BC: The Crown of Assyria is seized by Pul, who takes the name Tiglath-Pileser III.
743 BC: Duke Zhuang of the Chinese state of Zheng comes to power. 740 BC: Tiglath-Pileser III conquers the city of Arpad in Syria after two years of siege. 740 BC: Start of Ahaz's reign of Judah. 739 BC: Hiram II becomes king of Tyre. 738 BC: King Tiglath-Pileser III of Assyria invades Israel, forcing it to pay tribute. 734 BC: Syracuse was founded as a colony by Corinth. 734 BC: Naxus in Sicily founded as a colony of Chalcis in Euboea. 732 BC: Hoshea becomes the last king of Israel. 730 BC: Osorkon IV succeeds Sheshonq IV as king of the Twenty-second dynasty of Egypt. 730 BC: Piye succeeds his father Kashta as king of the Nubian kingdom of Napata. 730 BC: Mattan II succeeds Hiram II as king of Tyre. 728 BC: Piye invades Egypt, conquering Memphis, receives the submission of the rulers of the Nile Delta. He founds the Twenty-fifth dynasty of Egypt. 727 BC: Babylonia makes itself independent of Assyria. 724 BC: The Assyrians start a four-year siege of Tyre. 724 BC: The diaulos footrace introduced at the Olympics.
722 BC: Spring and Autumn period of China's history begins as King Ping of Zhou of the Zhou Dynasty reigns in name only. 722 BC: Israel is conquered by Assyrian king Sargon II. 720 BC: End of the Assyrian siege of Tyre. 719 BC: King Huan of Zhou of the Zhou Dynasty becomes ruler of China. 718 BC: Gyges becomes the ruler of Lydia. 717 BC: Assyrian king Sargon conquers the Hittite stronghold of Carchemish. 717 BC: Sargon II founds a new capital for Assyria at Dur-Sharrukin. 716 BC: Roman legend marks this as the date that Romulus ended his rule. 715 BC: Start of the reign of Roman King Numa Pompilius. 713 BC: Numa Pompilius reforms the Roman calendar. 712 BC: Numa Pompilius creates the office of Pontifex Maximus. 706 BC: Spartan immigrants found Taras colony in southern Italy. 705 BC: Sennacherib succeeds Sargon II as king of Assyria. 704 BC: Sennacherib moves the capital of Assyria to Nineveh. 701 BC: King Hezekiah of Judah, backed by Egypt, revolts against king Sennacherib of Assyria. Sennacherib fails in his attempt to take Jerusalem.
700 BC: The Scythians start settling in Cimmerian areas replacing the previous inhabitants. 700 BC: End of the Villanovan culture in northern Italy and rise of the Etruscan civilization. 700 BC: The Upanishads, a sacred text of Hinduism, are written around this time. Greeks colonize Black Seas. Thraco-Cimmerian influence in Central Eu
1st millennium BC
The 1st millennium BC is the period of time between from the year 1000 BC to 1 BC. It encompasses the Iron Age in the Old World and sees the transition from the Ancient Near East to classical antiquity. World population doubled over the course of the millennium, from about 100 million to about 200–250 million; the Neo-Assyrian Empire dominates the Near East in the early centuries of the millennium, supplanted by the Achaemenid Empire in the 6th century. Ancient Egypt is in decline, falls to the Achaemenids in 525 BC. In Greece, Classical Antiquity begins with the colonization of Magna Graecia and peaks with the conquest of the Achaemenids and the subsequent flourishing of Hellenistic civilization; the Roman Republic supplants the Etruscans and the Carthaginians. The close of the millennium sees the rise of the Roman Empire; the early Celts dominate Central Europe. In East Africa, the Nubian Empire and Aksum arise. In South Asia, the Vedic civilization blends into the Maurya Empire; the Scythians dominate Central Asia.
In China, the Spring and Autumn period sees the rise of Confucianism. Towards the close of the millennium, the Han Dynasty extends Chinese power towards Central Asia, where it borders on Indo-Greek and Iranian states. Japan is in the Yayoi period; the Maya civilization rises in Mesoamerica. The first millennium BC is the formative period of the classical world religions, with the development of early Judaism Zoroastrianism in the Near East, Vedic religion and Vedanta and Buddhism in India. Early literature develops in Greek, Hebrew, Sanskrit and Chinese; the term Axial Age, coined by Karl Jaspers, is intended to express the crucial importance of the period of c. the 8th to 2nd centuries BC in world history. World population more than doubled over the course of the millennium, from about an estimated 50–100 million to an estimated 170–300 million. Close to 90% of world population at the end of the first millennium BC lived in the Iron Age civilizations of the Old World; the population of the Americas was below 20 million, concentrated in Mesoamerica.
The population of Oceania was less than one million people. 10th century BC Near East: Neo-Assyrian Empire Near East: Shoshenq I invades Canaan Aegean: Helladic period ends 9th century BC Egypt: 872 BC: Nile floods the Temple of Luxor Egypt: 836 BC: Civil war in Egypt North Africa: 814 BC: Carthage founded China: 841 BCndash. Greece: Archaic Greece, Greek alphabet Greece: Homer 776 BC: Greece: First Olympiad 753 BC: Europe: foundation of Rome 7th century BC 671 BC: Assyrian conquest of Egypt Near East: 631 BC: Death of Ashurbanipal, decline of the Assyrian Empire 6th century BC Egypt: 592 BC: Psamtik II sacks Napata Sudan: Aspelta moves the Kushite capital to Meroe Near East: 539 BC: Achaemenid conquest of Babylon under Cyrus the Great South Asia: Śramaṇa movement and "second urbanisation" South Asia: Early Buddhism Europe: 509 BC: Roman Republic 5th century BC China: 479 BC: death of Confucius China: 476 BC: Warring States period China: 486 BC: Grand Canal construction begins Near East: Second Temple Judaism, redaction of the Hebrew Bible Greece: beginning of the classical period.
Greece: Greco-Persian Wars Greece: 440 BC: Herodotus' Histories Greece: 431 BC: Peloponnesian War Oceania: Austronesian expansion reaches Western Polynesia 4th century BC Greece: 395 BC: Corinthian War Egypt: 343 BC: Achaemenid conquest Greece/Asia/Egypt: 330s BC: conquests of Alexander the Great, end of the Achaemenid Empire, Macedonian Empire, beginning of the Hellenistic period South Asia: Mauryan Empire 3rd century BC China: Qin Unified China China: 206 BC: Han Dynasty South Asia: 261 BC: Kalinga war Rome: Roman expansion in Italy Rome/Carthage: Punic Wars 264 BC: First Punic War 218 BC Second Punic War 2nd century BC Rome/Carthage: 149 BC Third Punic War, Roman province of Africa Rome/Greece: 146 BC Battle of Corinth, beginning of the Roman era South Asia: 185 BC: Fall of the Maurya Empire China: Confucianism became the state ideology of China 1st century BC China: 91 BC: Records of the Grand Historian finished Rome/Europe: 58-50 BC Gallic Wars Rome: 32/30 BC: Final War of the Roman Republic Rome/Egypt: 31 BC: Roman conquest of Egypt Rome/Europe/West Asia/Africa: 27 BC: Roman Empire Some of the central figures of the Axial Age are legendary or semi-legendary, with no contemporary written records available RulersChina: Dynasties in Chinese history, List of Chinese monarchs Egypt: Third Intermediate Period of Egypt Carthage: List of monarchs of Carthage Assyrian Empire: List of Assyrian kings Babylonia: Neo-Babylonian_dynasty Canaan / Biblical Levant: Kings of Israel and Judah Achaemenid Persia: List of monarchs of Persia Kingdom of Kush: List of monarchs of Kush Classical Greece: Monarchs: List of kings of Sparta, Thirty Tyrants Athenian democracy: Pericles Macedon: List of ancient Macedonians, Argead dynasty Hellenistic period: Ptolemaic Dynasty, Antigonid dynasty, Hasmonean dynasty Rome: kings of Rome, List of Roman consuls Parthian Empire: List of Parthian kings India: List of Indian monarchsReligion, p
The Zhou dynasty was a Chinese dynasty that followed the Shang dynasty and preceded the Qin dynasty. The Zhou dynasty lasted longer than any other dynasty in Chinese history; the military control of China by the royal house, surnamed Ji, lasted from 1046 until 771 BC for a period known as the Western Zhou and the political sphere of influence it created continued well into Eastern Zhou for another 500 years. During the Zhou Dynasty, centralized power decreased throughout the Spring and Autumn period until the Warring States period in the last two centuries of the Zhou Dynasty. In this period, the Zhou court had little control over its constituent states that were at war with each other until the Qin state consolidated power and formed the Qin dynasty in 221 BC; the Zhou Dynasty had formally collapsed only 35 years earlier, although the dynasty had only nominal power at that point. This period of Chinese history produced; the Zhou dynasty spans the period in which the written script evolved into its almost-modern form with the use of an archaic clerical script that emerged during the late Warring States period.
According to Chinese mythology, the Zhou lineage began when Jiang Yuan, a consort of the legendary Emperor Ku, miraculously conceived a child, Qi "the Abandoned One", after stepping into the divine footprint of Shangdi. Qi was a culture hero credited with surviving three abandonments by his mother and with improving Xia agriculture, to the point where he was granted lordship over Tai and the surname Ji by his own Xia king and a posthumous name, Houji "Lord of Millet", by the Tang of Shang, he received sacrifice as a harvest god. The term Hòujì was a hereditary title attached to a lineage. Qi's son, or rather that of the Hòujì, Buzhu is said to have abandoned his position as Agrarian Master in old age and either he or his son Ju abandoned agriculture living a nomadic life in the manner of the Xirong and Rongdi. Ju's son Liu, led his people to prosperity by restoring agriculture and settling them at a place called Bin, which his descendants ruled for generations. Tai led the clan from Bin to Zhou, an area in the Wei River valley of modern-day Qishan County.
The duke passed over his two elder sons Taibo and Zhongyong to favor Jili, a warrior who conquered several Xirong tribes as a vassal of the Shang kings Wu Yi and Wen Ding before being treacherously killed. Taibo and Zhongyong had already fled to the Yangtze delta, where they established the state of Wu among the tribes there. Jili's son Wen moved the Zhou capital to Feng. Around 1046 BC, Wen's son Wu and his ally Jiang Ziya led an army of 45,000 men and 300 chariots across the Yellow River and defeated King Zhou of Shang at the Battle of Muye, marking the beginning of the Zhou dynasty; the Zhou enfeoffed a member of the defeated Shang royal family as the Duke of Song, held by descendants of the Shang royal family until its end. This practice was referred to Three Reverences. According to Nicholas Bodman, the Zhou appear to have spoken a language not different in vocabulary and syntax from that of the Shang. A recent study by David McCraw, using lexical statistics, reached the same conclusion.
The Zhou emulated extensively Shang cultural practices to legitimize their own rule, became the successors to Shang culture. At the same time, the Zhou may have been connected to the Xirong, a broadly defined cultural group to the west of the Shang, which the Shang regarded as tributaries. According to the historian Li Feng, the term "Rong" during the Western Zhou period was used to designate political and military adversaries rather than cultural and ethnic'others.' King Wu maintained the old capital for ceremonial purposes but constructed a new one for his palace and administration nearby at Hao. Although Wu's early death left a young and inexperienced heir, the Duke of Zhou assisted his nephew King Cheng in consolidating royal power. Wary of the Duke of Zhou's increasing power, the "Three Guards", Zhou princes stationed on the eastern plain, rose in rebellion against his regency. Though they garnered the support of independent-minded nobles, Shang partisans and several Dongyi tribes, the Duke of Zhou quelled the rebellion, further expanded the Zhou Kingdom into the east.
To maintain Zhou authority over its expanded territory and prevent other revolts, he set up the fengjian system. Furthermore, he countered Zhou's crisis of legitimacy by expounding the doctrine of the Mandate of Heaven while accommodating important Shang rituals at Wangcheng and Chengzhou. Over time, this decentralized system became strained as the familial relationships between the Zhou kings and the regional dynasties thinned over the generations. Peripheral territories developed local prestige on par with that of the Zhou; when King You demoted and exiled his Jiang queen in favor of the beautiful commoner Bao Si, the disgraced queen's father the Marquis of Shen joined with Zeng and the Quanrong barbarians to sack Hao in 771 BC. Some modern scholars have surmised that the sack of Haojing might have been connected to a Scythian raid from the Altai before their westward expansion. With King You dead, a conclave of nobles declared the Marquis's grandson King Ping; the capital was moved eastward to Wangcheng, marking the end of the "Western Zhou" and the beginning of the "Eastern Zhou" dynasty.
The Eastern Zhou was characterized by an accelerating collapse of royal authority, although the king's ritual importance allowed over five more cent
10th century BC
The 10th century BC started the first day of 1000 BC and ended the last day of 901 BC. This period followed the Late Bronze Age collapse in the Near East, the century saw the Early Iron Age take hold there; the Greek Dark Ages which had come about in 1200 BC continued. The Neo-Assyrian Empire is established towards the end of the 10th century BC. In the Iron Age in India, the Vedic period is ongoing. In China, the Zhou dynasty is in power. Bronze Age Europe continued with Urnfield culture. Japan was inhabited by an evolving hunter-gatherer society during the Jōmon period. 1000 BC: India—Iron Age of India. Iron Age kingdoms rule India—Panchala, Kosala, Videha are Janapada states. 993 BC: Amenemope succeeds Psusennes I as king of Egypt. 993 BC: Archippus, Archon of Athens dies after a reign of 19 years and is succeeded by his son Thersippus. 984 BC: Osorkon the Elder succeeds Amenemope as king of Egypt. 982 BC: The end of first period by Sau Yung's concept of the I Ching and history. 978 BC: Siamun succeeds Osorkon the Elder as king of Egypt.
967 BC: Solomon becomes king of the Israelites, according to the Books of Kings. 967 BC: Tiglath-Pileser II becomes King of Assyria. 965 BC: David, king of the ancient Israelites, dies. 962 BC: Solomon becomes king of Israel, following the death of his father, King David. 959 BC: Psusennes II succeeds Siamun as king of Egypt. 957 BC: Solomon completes the construction of the First Temple in Jerusalem. C. 953 BC: Alternative date to the founding of Rome. 952 BC: Thersippus, King of Athens dies after a reign of 41 years and is succeeded by his son Phorbas. 947 BC: Death of King Mo of Zhou, King of the Zhou Dynasty of China. 946 BC: King Gong of Zhou becomes King of the Zhou Dynasty of China. 945 BC: Egypt: Psusennes III dies, the last king of the Twenty-first Dynasty. Shoshenq I succeeds him, the founder of the Twenty-second Dynasty. 935 BC: Death of King Gong of Zhou, King of the Zhou Dynasty of China. 935 BC: Death of Tiglath-Pileser II king of Assyria. 925 BC: Solomon, king of the ancient Israelites, dies.
C. 925 BC: Partition of ancient Israel into the Kingdoms of Judah and Israel. 924 BC: Osorkon I succeeds his father Shoshenq I as king of Egypt. 922 BC: Phorbas, Archon of Athens, dies after a reign of 30 years and is succeeded by his son Megacles. 912 BC: Adad-nirari II succeeds his father Ashur-Dan II as king of Assyria. 911 BC: Abijah, king of Judah, dies. 910 BC: Kamil Xashi assassinates King Baraxow of the Gudaye dynasty bringing an end to the 2000 year old Kingdom of Punt 909 BC: Jeroboam, the first king of the northern Hebrew kingdom of Israel, dies and is succeeded by his son Nadab. 900s BC: India—Vedic India—Yajnavalkya writes the Shatapatha Brahmana, in which he describes the motions of the sun and the moon. C. 900 BC: the Villanovan culture emerges in northern Italy. C. 900 BC: Foundation of Anuradhapura, Sri Lanka. C. 900 BC — the [[Adichanallur relics, from Tamilnadu Culture, India is 2,900 yrs old 900 BC: Kingdom of Kush. Late 10th century BC: Centaur, from Lefkandi, Euboea is made.
It is now at the Archaeological Museum of Eretria in Greece. Foundation of Sparta; the kingdom of Ethiopia is founded by Menelik I, who according to legend was the son of Solomon and the Queen of Sheba. First extant evidence of written Aramaic language; the earliest known settlement in Plymouth, England dates back to this era. Creation of ceremonial golden hats in Central Europe. David, king of the ancient Israelites Snake Spine Ajaw of Palenque, semi legendary (967 BC-? Solomon, king of the ancient Israelites Zoroaster, ancient Iranian prophet Kamil Xashi, ancestor of the Hashiyah clan See: List of sovereign states in the 10th century BC
History of China
The earliest known written records of the history of China date from as early as 1250 BC, from the Shang dynasty, during the king Wu Ding's reign, recorded as the twenty-first Shang king by the written records of Shang dynasty unearthed. Ancient historical texts such as the Records of the Grand Historian and the Bamboo Annals describe a Xia dynasty before the Shang, but no writing is known from the period, Shang writings do not indicate the existence of the Xia; the Shang ruled in the Yellow River valley, held to be the cradle of Chinese civilization. However, Neolithic civilizations originated at various cultural centers along both the Yellow River and Yangtze River; these Yellow River and Yangtze civilizations arose millennia before the Shang. With thousands of years of continuous history, China is one of the world's oldest civilizations, is regarded as one of the cradles of civilization; the Zhou dynasty supplanted the Shang, introduced the concept of the Mandate of Heaven to justify their rule.
The central Zhou government began to weaken due to external and internal pressures in the 8th century BC, the country splintered into smaller states during the Spring and Autumn period. These states became warred with one another in the following Warring States period. Much of traditional Chinese culture and philosophy first developed during those troubled times. In 221 BC, Qin Shi Huang conquered the various warring states and created for himself the title of Huangdi or "emperor" of the Qin, marking the beginning of imperial China. However, the oppressive government fell soon after his death, was supplanted by the longer-lived Han dynasty. Successive dynasties developed bureaucratic systems that enabled the emperor to control vast territories directly. In the 21 centuries from 206 BC until AD 1912, routine administrative tasks were handled by a special elite of scholar-officials. Young men, well-versed in calligraphy, history and philosophy, were selected through difficult government examinations.
China's last dynasty was the Qing, replaced by the Republic of China in 1912, in the mainland by the People's Republic of China in 1949, resulting in two de facto states claiming to be the legitimate government of all China. Chinese history has alternated between periods of political unity and peace, periods of war and failed statehood – the most recent being the Chinese Civil War. China was dominated by steppe peoples, most of whom were assimilated into the Han Chinese culture and population. Between eras of multiple kingdoms and warlordism, Chinese dynasties have ruled parts or all of China. Traditional culture, influences from other parts of Asia and the Western world, form the basis of the modern culture of China. What is now China was inhabited by Homo erectus more than a million years ago. Recent study shows that the stone tools found at Xiaochangliang site are magnetostratigraphically dated to 1.36 million years ago. The archaeological site of Xihoudu in Shanxi Province has evidence of use of fire by Homo erectus, dated 1.27 million years ago, Homo erectus fossils in China include the Yuanmou Man, the Lantian Man and the Peking Man.
Fossilised teeth of Homo sapiens dating to 125,000–80,000 BC have been discovered in Fuyan Cave in Dao County in Hunan. Evidence of Middle Palaeolithic Levallois technology has been found in the lithic assemblage of Guanyindong Cave site in southwest China, dated to 170,000–80,000 years ago; the Neolithic age in China can be traced back to about 10,000 BC. The earliest evidence of cultivated rice, found by the Yangtze River, is carbon-dated to 8,000 years ago. Early evidence for proto-Chinese millet agriculture is radiocarbon-dated to about 7000 BC. Farming gave rise to the Jiahu culture. At Damaidi in Ningxia, 3,172 cliff carvings dating to 6000–5000 BC have been discovered, "featuring 8,453 individual characters such as the sun, stars and scenes of hunting or grazing"; these pictographs are reputed to be similar to the earliest characters confirmed to be written Chinese. Chinese proto-writing existed in Jiahu around 7000 BC, Dadiwan from 5800 BC to 5400 BC, Damaidi around 6000 BC and Banpo dating from the 5th millennium BC.
Some scholars have suggested. Excavation of a Peiligang culture site in Xinzheng county, found a community that flourished in 5,500 to 4,900 BC, with evidence of agriculture, constructed buildings and burial of the dead. With agriculture came increased population, the ability to store and redistribute crops, the potential to support specialist craftsmen and administrators. In late Neolithic times, the Yellow River valley began to establish itself as a center of Yangshao culture, the first villages were founded. Yangshao culture was superseded by the Longshan culture, centered on the Yellow River from about 3000 BC to 2000 BC. Bronze artifacts have been found at the Majiayao culture site, The Bronze Age is represented at the Lower Xiajiadian culture site in northeast China. Sanxingdui located in what is now Sichuan province is believed to be the site of a major ancient city, of a unknown Bronze Age culture; the site was first discovered in 1929 and re-dis
King Li of Zhou
King Li of Zhou was the tenth king of the Chinese Zhou Dynasty. Estimated dates of his reign are 877–841 BC or 857–842 BC. King Li was a decadent king. To pay for his pleasures and vices, King Li caused misery among his subjects, it is said that he barred the commoners from profiting from the communal lakes. He enstated a new law, by death, who dared to speak against him. King Li's bad rule soon forced many peasants and soldiers into revolt, Li was sent into exile at a place called Zhi near Linfen, his son was hidden. When Li died in exile in 828 BC, power was passed to his son. Family tree of ancient Chinese emperors