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Year 863 was a common year starting on Friday of the Julian calendar. September 3 – Battle of Lalakaon: A Byzantine army confronts an invasion by Muslim forces, led by Umar al-Aqta, Emir of Malatya; the Muslims raid deep into Byzantine territory, reaching the Black Sea coast at the port city of Amisos. Petronas annihilates the Arabs near the River Lalakaon, in Paphlagonia. January 25 – Emperor Louis II claims Provence, after the death of his brother Charles. King Lothair II receives a part of the Jura Mountains. King Louis the German suppresses the revolt of his son Carloman, who wants a partition of the East Frankish Kingdom. Viking raiders again plunder a Frankish port on the mouth of the river Rhine, it thereafter disappears from the chronicles. Danish Vikings loot along the Rhine, they settle on an island close by Cologne, but are driven off by the combined forces of Lothair II and the Saxons. The Christianization of Kievan Rus begins; the first written record is made of Smolensk. King Osberht of Northumbria engages with a rival claimant named Ælla.

After Osberht is replaced, Ælla wields power in Northumbria. Duan Chengshi, Chinese author and scholar, writes about the Chinese maritime trade and the Arab-run slave trade in East Africa. Pope Nicholas I sends archbishops Gunther and Theotgaud to a synod of Metz, which confirms the permission given to King Lothair II of Lotharingia to remarry; the Byzantine missionaries Cyril and Methodius arrive with a few disciples in Moravia, by request of Prince Rastislav. Nicholas I excommunicates Patriarch Photios I of Constantinople. Bertha, duchess regent of Lucca and Tuscany Li Decheng, general of Wu Louis III, king of the West Frankish Kingdom Shen Song, chancellor of Wuyue Wang Yanzhang, general of Later Liang January 25 – Charles of Provence, Frankish king June 4 – Charles, archbishop of Mainz June 6 – Abu Musa Utamish, Muslim vizier October 4 – Turpio, Frankish nobleman Ali ibn Yahya al-Armani, Muslim governor Bivin of Gorze, Frankish nobleman Daniél ua Líahaiti, Irish abbot and poet Duan Chengshi, Chinese official and scholar Karbeas, leader of the Paulicians Mucel, bishop of Hereford Muirecán mac Diarmata, king of Leinster Umar al-Aqta, emir of Melitene

Christopher O'Hoski

Christopher O'Hoski is a painter from Stoney Creek, Ontario. He studied at the Sheridan College, the Dundas Valley School of Art and The Royal Conservatory of Music, he took part in workshops at the McMaster University, the University of Toronto, was mentored by fellow Canadian Joseph Devellano. He paints with acrylic and oil, but makes use of watercolour. "I'm not a master, still have much to learn by any means. I continue to be inspired by the look in every artists' eyes. I only hope to grow as an artist, try as many things as possible, continue to have a mind open enough to continue to adapt and change."He has exhibited in New York City, Oakville, Burlington, Hamilton and Long Island. He has been published in the textbook International Contemporary Artists Vol. 1. And his work is a part of various collections in Canada, the United States, Australia, he is affiliated with Artists In Canada, the Society of Canadian Artists, the National Association for Visual Arts, in Australia. He has taught at Grumbacher.

His recent series'Hypnagogia" has received international recognition. Official website Tumblr account, features artwork

2000 Michigan 500

The 2000 Michigan 500 was the eleventh round of the 2000 CART season. It happened at the Michigan International Speedway; the Canadian driver Paul Tracy, from Team Green, set the pole. The American driver Michael Andretti, from Newman/Haas Racing, started alongside him at row 1 At the end of lap 1, the leader was the Colombian driver Juan Pablo Montoya, from Chip Ganassi Racing, he was battling for the lead against Andretti from lap 2. The top 10 at lap 18 was: Montoya, Kenny Bräck, Christian Fittipaldi, Hélio Castroneves, Cristiano da Matta, Adrian Fernández, Gil de Ferran, Patrick Carpentier and Max Papis. At lap 25, Paul Tracy was struggling in the race; the 1st caution came out as Fernández spun in the pit exit. He damaged the front side of his car; the top 6 was: Brack, Fittipaldi, Papis and da Matta. The restart came out at lap 47. At lap 51, Fittipaldi took the lead, but Bräck retook the lead. After 70 laps, Andretti was leading; the Brazilian driver Tony Kanaan, from Mo Nunn was the first driver to retire in this race.

From lap 76 until lap 81, all the drivers did their 2nd pitstops. At lap 83, the 2nd caution came out due to debris on backstretch; the restart came out at lap 89. At lap 98, the 3rd caution happened. Bräck retired. After 99 laps this was the top 6: Castroneves, Papis, Carpentier, da Matta and Tracy. Jimmy Vasser suffered mechanical problems; the American driver retired at lap 100. Before Vasser, the Brazilian driver Roberto Moreno, from Patrick Racing retired, due to gearbox problems; the restart came out at lap 107. At lap 109, this was the top 6: Tracy, Papis, Montoya, da Matta and Dario Franchitti. At lap 135, the British driver Mark Blundell, from PacWest, retired. Brazilian driver Gil de Ferran, from Penske Racing retired due a suspension failure, he suffered a minor fracture on his finger. Everyone did their pit stops until lap 144. At that lap, Cristiano da Matta, had a fuel problem in the pits, he retired. At lap 162, the Forsythe Racing Canadian driver Alex Tagliani suffered a bad crash at turn 4.

He walked away. 4th caution. The restart came out at lap 171. After 178 laps, the top 5 was: Tracy, Castroneves and Carpentier. From lap 206 until 212, the drivers did their pitstops. Spaniard Oriol Servià had a drive through penalty at lap 212. At lap 222, the 5th caution came out, he complained about ankle pains. The restart came out at lap 230. Montoya and Andretti were battling for the win in an amazing side by side finish. Montoya won giving Toyota their second victory in ChampCar. Montoya became the first driver since Rick Mears in 1991 to win the Indy 500 and Michigan 500 in the same year. Andretti was the new leader of the championship with 100 points; the previous leader, Roberto Moreno was in 2nd with 90 points. Note: Only the top five positions are included for the drivers' standings

List of airlines of Alaska

The following is a list of airlines that are based within the U. S. State of Alaska: Alaska Air Group Alaska Airlines is based in Seattle and owned by the Alaska Air Group out of Washington State, is the primary operator serving Alaskan communities and connecting Alaska with the rest of the U. S. mainland. It operates scheduled commuter and international services from its airline hub in Anchorage. Bering Air is headquartered in Alaska, it operates domestic scheduled passenger and charter services, as well as air ambulance and helicopter services. Its main base is Nome Airport, with hubs at Ralph Wien Memorial Airport in Kotzebue and Unalakleet Airport north of Unalakleet, Alaska. Evergreen Helicopters, a part of Evergreen International Airlines, a cargo airline based in McMinnville, Oregon, USA. Operates out of Anchorage where it offers a diversified fleet of heavy lift, medium lift, light helicopters and fixed wing aircraft to provide extensive helicopter services throughout Alaska. Grant Aviation Peninsula Aviation Services called PenAir, is based in Anchorage.

Owned by RavnAir Group Ravn Alaska Era Alaska, formed by the merger of Era Aviation, Frontier Flying Service, Arctic Circle Air Service, Hageland Aviation Services Rediske Air Servant Air Shared Services Aviation called Shared Services, is based in Anchorage. It is jointly owned by BP and ConocoPhillips for transportation of employees to and from Alaska's North Slope oilfields. Shared Services operates several scheduled flights daily from Anchorage and Fairbanks to Deadhorse, to serve the Greater Prudhoe Bay area, the Ugnu-Kuparuk Airport, for the nearby Kuparuk River oil field. Taquan Air Warbelow's Air Ventures operates domestic scheduled passenger and air ambulance services as well as flight tours, its base is Fairbanks International Airport. Wings of Alaska is a scheduled and charter airline company based in Juneau. Wright Air Service is based in Fairbanks. Alaska Central Express is an airline based in Anchorage, it is an Alaskan-owned cargo and small package express service. Its main base is Ted Stevens Anchorage International Airport.

Empire Airlines Scheduled FedEx Cargo Feeder Everts Air Cargo scheduled and charter freight with hubs at Anchorage and Fairbanks. Lynden Air Cargo Northern Air Cargo is based in Anchorage, it operates services to Canada and the continental United States. Its main base is Ted Stevens Anchorage International Airport, with a hub at Fairbanks International Airport. Ryan Air Services. Alaska Coastal Airlines was formed in 1939 as a result of a merger between Alaska Air Transport and Marine Airways. Having absorbed Ellis Air Lines in 1962, Alaska Coastal Airlines was itself taken over by Alaska Airlines in 1968. Barnhill & McGee Airways was founded in Anchorage in 1931, one of the earliest air services in Anchorage. While it lasted only a few years, it was the forerunner of McGee Airways, a forerunner of Alaska Airlines. Cape Smythe Air Flight Alaska was an American cargo airline based in Anchorage. Ceased operations in 2017 and assets bought by Ravn Alaska. L. A. B. Flying Service was based in Haines, it operated scheduled and sightseeing flights in Southeast Alaska.

Its main base was Haines Airport, with a hub at Juneau International Airport. As of July 2008, L. A. B.'s carrier permit has been subject to an emergency revocation by the FAA. MarkAir was a regional airline, it had its headquarters in Anchorage. It ceased operations and liquidated in 1995. McGee Airways was founded in Anchorage in 1932, it grew to a fleet of seven black and silver Stinson airplanes. The company was acquired by Star Air Service in late 1934. Pacific Alaska Airways was a subsidiary of Pan American World Airways that flew routes around Alaska; the airline was completely absorbed into Pan Am in 1941. The airline restarted service under its own name in the 1970s but ceased operations in 1986. Reeve Aleutian Airways flew in parts of Canada and Russia as well as Alaska, they ceased operations in December, 2000. Skagway Air Service closed operations in 2007 after being in business since 1964 Star Air Service was founded in Anchorage in 1932. Through a long series of acquisitions and mergers became Star Air Lines in 1937 Alaska Star Airlines in 1942, Alaska Airlines in 1944.

Wien Air Alaska was formed from Wien Alaska Airways. The company was famous for being the first airline in Alaska, one of the first in the United States. History of aviation in Alaska

Centro Direzionale di Milano

The Centro Direzionale di Milano is a business district in Milan, part of the Zone 9 administrative division. It is located north-west of the city centre, between the major railway stations of Milano Centrale and Milano Porta Garibaldi; the district developed in the second half of the 20th century. Coherently with this plan, the district is occupied by modern office buildings, including several of Milan's skyscrapers; the district was designed to accommodate office buildings for tertiary activities. A relevant part of the design effort focused on the realization of adequate infrastructures supporting heavy daily commute, although only some of the corresponding projects were implemented; the main transportation hub in the area is Porta Garibaldi railway station, with connection to the Milan Metro, the suburban network and national rail lines. Overall, the realization of the new district took place between 1955 and 1962, but was suspended as a consequence of the lack of an actual regulation preventing tertiary activities to be established in the city centre.

For several years thereafter, the Centro Direzionale remained an sparse area. Some skyscrapers were built but other areas remained undeveloped and fell in decay. A major example of the inconsistent use of urban areas in the district was the establishment of the Varesine "Luna Park" amidst a office and financial district; the development of the district was resumed in the early 21st century, when a new project was approved by the city authorities. Centro Direzionale is now a large working site, with several urban renewal works in progress; these include the realization of a large shopping mall devoted to fashion, residential blocks, new skyscrapers, a large city park. Maurizio Grandi and Attilio Pracchi, "Il Centro direzionale", in Milano. Guida all'architettura moderna, Zanichelli, pp. 320–327. ISBN 88-08-05210-9. Official site of the "Porta Nuova" urban renewal project

Controversies relating to the Six-Day War

The Six-Day War was fought between June 5 and June 10, 1967, by Israel and the neighboring states of Egypt and Syria. The Six-Day War began with a large-scale surprise air strike by Israel on Egypt and ended with a major victory by Israel. A number of controversies have arisen out of the causes and conduct of the war, namely: whether Israel's action was a preemptive strike justified by the threat of an imminent attack by the Arab states or an unjustified and unprovoked attack. Both Egypt and Israel announced that they had been attacked by the other country. Gideon Rafael, the Israeli Ambassador to the UN, received a message from the Israeli foreign office: "inform the President of the Sec. Co. that Israel is now engaged in repelling Egyptian land and air forces." At 3:10 am, Rafael woke ambassador Hans Tabor, the Danish President of the Security Council for June, with the news that Egyptian forces had "moved against Israel". and that Israel was responding to a "cowardly and treacherous" attack from Egypt…" At the Security Council meeting of June 5, both Israel and Egypt claimed to be repelling an invasion by the other, "Israeli officials – Eban and Evron – swore that Egypt had fired first".

On June 5 Egypt, supported by the USSR, charged Israel with aggression. Israel claimed that Egypt had struck first, telling the council that "in the early hours of this morning Egyptian armoured columns moved in an offensive thrust against Israel’s borders. At the same time Egyptian planes struck out towards Israel. Egyptian artillery in the Gaza strip shelled the Israel villages of Kissufim, Nahal-Oz and Ein Hashelosha..." In fact, this was not the case, The US Office of Current Intelligence "...soon concluded that the Israelis – contrary to their claims – had fired first" and it is now known the war started by a surprise Israeli attack against Egypt's air forces that left its ground troops vulnerable to further Israeli air strikes. Though Israel had struck first, Israel claimed that it was attacked first, it claimed that its attack was a preemptive strike in the face of a planned invasion. Israel justifies its preemptive action with a review of the context of its position: Economic strangulation through the shipping blockade in the Straits of Tiran, the imminence of war on three fronts, possible social and economic difficulty of maintaining a civilian army draft indefinitely.

According to Israeli historian and former Israeli ambassador to the United States, Michael Oren, the Arabs, "had planned the conquest of Israel and the expulsion or murder of much of its Jewish inhabitants in 1967". Some historians state that the neighboring Arab countries had not begun any military actions against Israel so as to warrant an attack. Along with this view, there is a small, yet significant view that the war was an effort for Israel to expand its borders. This, according to Oren, is patently incorrect: Israel had little choice in the matter. "Preemption was the only option." Israel's attack is cited as an example of a preemptive attack and according to a journal published by the US State Department it is "perhaps the most cited example". One scholar has referred to Israel’s actions as an act of "interceptive self-defense." According to this view, though no single Egyptian step may have qualified as an armed attack, Egypt’s collective actions that included the closure of the Straits of Tiran, the expulsion of UN peacekeepers, the massive armed deployment along Israel’s borders and her constant saber rattling, made clear that Egypt was bent on armed attack against Israel.

In 2002 radio broadcast NPR correspondent Mike Shuster stated that "he prevailing view among historians is that although Israel struck first, the Israeli strike was defensive in nature."Oren has acknowledged that both US and Israeli intelligence indicated that troop movements in Egypt, taken by themselves, had only defensive, not offensive, purposes. However, he notes that the deployed Egyptian troops in the Sinai would move against Israel in the event that Israel undertook an invasion of Syria toward Damascus in response to repeated provocations by Syrian materiel and raids by fedayeen operating in Syrian territory; this fact was mentioned by Israeli PM Menachem Begin, who, in order to argue for an Israeli invasion of Lebanon in the 80s, reminded the Israeli Knesset that preemptive strikes were part of Israel's history and that waiting for her enemies to choose the time of coordinated warfare is a losing policy, remarking in regards to the 1967 war that, "The Egyptian army concentrations in the Sinai approaches do not prove that Nasser was about to attack us.

We decided to attack him". But, he added in that speech, the 1967 war was not an act of aggression, but of response to multiple acts of aggression designed to debilitate Israel step by step as a preliminary to outright war; the Arab view was. M. A. El Kony, Permanent Representative of the United Arab Republic, remarked at a UN session that "Israel has committed a treacherous premeditated aggression against the United Arab Republic... While we in the United Arab Republic...have declared our intention not to initiate any offensive action and have co-operated in the attempts that were made to relieve the tension in the area". After the war, Israeli officials admitted that Israel wasn't expecting to be attacked