Ancestry. com LLC is a privately held Internet company based in Lehi, United States. The largest for-profit genealogy company in the world, it operates a network of genealogical and historical record websites focused on the United States, as of June 2014, the company provided access to approximately 16 billion historical records and had over 2 million paying subscribers. User-generated content tallies to more than 70 million family trees, and subscribers have added more than 200 million photographs, scanned documents, and written stories. Ancestrys brands include Ancestry, AncestryDNA, AncestryHealth, AncestryProGenealogists, Archives. com, Family Tree Maker, Find a Grave, Fold3, Newspapers. com, and Rootsweb. Under its subsidiaries, Ancestry. com operates foreign sites that provide access to services and these include Australia, China, Brazil, New Zealand, the United Kingdom and several other countries in Europe and Asia. In 1990, Paul B. Allen and Dan Taggart, two Brigham Young University graduates, founded Infobases and began offering Latter-day Saints publications on floppy disks, in 1988, Allen had worked at Folio Corporation, founded by his brother Curt and his brother-in-law Brad Pelo.
Infobases chose to use the Folio infobase technology, which Allen was familiar with, Infobases first products were floppy disks and compact disks sold from the back seat of the founders car. In 1994, Infobases was named among Inc. magazines 500 fastest-growing companies and their first offering on CD was the LDS Collectors Edition, released in April 1995, selling for $299.95, which was offered in an online version in August 1995. Ancestry officially went online with the launched Ancestry. com in 1996, with its roots as a genealogy newsletter started in 1983 by John Sittner, and became an established publishing company in 1984. Ancestry was relaunched as a magazine in January 1994, and went online in 1996, on January 1,1997, Infobases parent company, Western Standard Publishing, purchased Ancestry, Inc. publisher of Ancestry magazine and genealogy books. Western Standard Publishings CEO was Joe Cannon, one of the owners of Geneva Steel. In July 1997, Allen and Taggart purchased Western Standards interest in Ancestry, at the time, Brad Pelo was president and CEO of Infobases, and president of Western Standard.
Less than six months earlier, he had been president of Folio Corporation, in March 1997, Folio was sold to Open Market for $45 million. The first public evidence of the change in ownership of Ancestry Magazine came with the July/August 1997 issue and that issues masthead included the first use of the Ancestry. com web address. More growth for Infobases occurred in July 1997, when Ancestry, Inc. purchased Bookcraft, Infobases had published many of Bookcrafts books as part of its LDS Collectors Library. Pelo announced that Ancestrys product line would be expanded in both CDs and online. Alan Ashton, an investor in Infobases and founder of WordPerfect, was its chairman of the board. Allen and Taggart began running Ancestry, Inc. independently from Infobases in July 1997, included in the sale were the rights to Infobases LDS Collectors Library on CD
BMT Sea Beach Line
The line north of 86th Street is served by a few W trains during rush hours in the peak direction. The modern line begins as a split from the BMT Fourth Avenue Line at a junction immediately south of 59th Street. After passing the junction with the line to the shore. All stations have two platforms with no platform access to the express tracks anywhere on the Sea Beach right-of-way. Before and after Kings Highway, there are switches to the southbound express track from the northbound express track. On both sides of Kings Highway, crossovers exist to express trains to switch to the local tracks before the station or local trains to switch to express after the station. The express tracks end south of 86th Street as the line becomes double-tracked, after several yard connections, the line ends at the Coney Island–Stillwell Avenue terminal. The express tracks were intended to host the Coney Island Express. Though these expresses are thought of as being Sea Beach Expresses, the express tracks on the Sea Beach had other uses over the years.
Most new equipment, especially cars, was broken in on these tracks. The tracks were used for training and set up with a short stretch of 1950s-era automation to test the ill-fated system used on one track of the IRT 42nd Street Shuttle. Historically, the two tracks were an absolute block, that is, there was no signal control between one end of the tracks near Sixth Avenue and Kings Highway. A train was not supposed to enter the block until any train in front of it had departed the block, the express tracks section on this block was allowed to deteriorate severely as did much of the system from the 1970s on. In 1998, it was decided to rehabilitate the express tracks in this area, only the northbound track was rehabilitated, for two-way traffic from its northern end to Kings Highway if needed. The southbound track remains unused, being disconnected from the three tracks and inaccessible from 59th Street to Kings Highway. The New York and Sea Beach Railroad was organized on September 25,1876 as an excursion railroad.
It opened from a junction with the Brooklyn and Coney Island Railroad and concurrently-opened New York, Bay Ridge and Jamaica Railroad to Coney Island on July 18,1877. After a delay of two years, it was opened to the Bay Ridge Ferry on July 17,1879, except at its two ends, the railroad used the same route as the current Sea Beach Line
W (New York City Subway service)
The W Broadway Local is a rapid transit service of the New York City Subways B Division. Its route emblem, or bullet, is colored sunflower yellow since it uses the BMT Broadway Line in Manhattan, the W operates only on weekdays. Some W trains operate to/from Gravesend-86th Street due to capacity issues on the lower level at City Hall. The W is internally staffed and scheduled as part of the N, introduced on July 22,2001, the W initially ran until June 25,2010, when it was eliminated due to the Metropolitan Transportation Authoritys financial crisis. The MTA restored the route on November 7,2016, using its original emblem and 2004–2010 routing, the W was originally conceived as an extra Broadway Line local service running on the Astoria and Broadway lines to Whitehall Street. This service was essentially a variant of the N route, which in the 1970s and 1980s ran express between Queens and Brooklyn, with trains running local between Queens and Whitehall Street. However, reconstruction of the Manhattan Bridge between 1986 and 2004 forced the N, which normally ran express on the Broadway Line and on the Bridge and this service change precluded W local service from running as envisioned.
The W bullet appeared on signs as a yellow diamond bullet. The W appeared on the signs of the R44s and R46s with any route. The W was introduced on July 22,2001 when the Manhattan Bridge north tracks closed for reconstruction, the Bridges south side tracks, which led to the Broadway Line, reopened after being closed since 1988. This split had already made from 1986 to 1988, when a part-time orange B only ran north of 34th Street–Herald Square on the Sixth Avenue Line. At the same time, a full-time yellow B ran from Coney Island in Brooklyn across the side of the bridge. This old pattern was restored in 2001, but instead of having two B services, the yellow B was instead named the W. This route began at Coney Island and ran up the West End Line, BMT Fourth Avenue Line, Manhattan Bridge south tracks, Broadway Line, and BMT Astoria Line to Astoria–Ditmars Boulevard. Evening service ended at 57th Street–Seventh Avenue in Manhattan, late night service at 36th Street in Brooklyn, and weekend service at Atlantic Avenue–Pacific Street in Brooklyn.
After September 11,2001, Broadway Line service in Lower Manhattan was suspended and it made all stops except in Brooklyn north of 36th Street. During late nights, it ran in two sections, between Ditmars Boulevard and 34th Street, skipping 49th Street in the direction, and in Brooklyn between 36th Street and Coney Island. Normal service on both routes resumed on October 28,2001, the Astoria express service, being unpopular with residents, was discontinued on January 15,2002
Rapid transit, known as heavy rail, subway, tube, or underground, is a type of high-capacity public transport generally found in urban areas. The stations typically have high platforms, without steps inside the trains and they are typically integrated with other public transport and often operated by the same public transport authorities. However, some transit systems have at-grade intersections between a rapid transit line and a road or between two rapid transit lines. It is unchallenged in its ability to transport large numbers of people quickly over short distances with little use of land, variations of rapid transit include people movers, small-scale light metro, and the commuter rail hybrid S-Bahn. The worlds first rapid-transit system was the partially underground Metropolitan Railway which opened as a railway in 1863. In 1868, New York opened the elevated West Side and Yonkers Patent Railway, china has the largest number of rapid transit systems in the world. The worlds longest single-operator rapid transit system by length is the Shanghai Metro.
The worlds largest single rapid transit service provider by both length of revenue track (665 miles and number of stations is the New York City Subway. The busiest rapid transit systems in the world by annual ridership are the Tokyo subway system, the Seoul Metropolitan Subway, the Moscow Metro, the Beijing Subway, Metro is the most common term for underground rapid transit systems used by non-native English speakers. One of these terms may apply to a system, even if a large part of the network runs at ground level. In Scotland, the Glasgow Subway underground rapid transit system is known as the Subway, in the US, underground mass transit systems are primarily known as subways, whereas the term metro is a shortened reference to a metropolitan area. In that vein, Chicagos commuter rail system, serving the area, is called Metra. Exceptions in naming rapid transit systems are Washington DCs subway system the Washington Metro, Los Angeles Metro Rail, and the Miami Metrorail, the opening of Londons steam-hauled Metropolitan Railway in 1863 marked the beginning of rapid transit.
Initial experiences with steam engines, despite ventilation, were unpleasant, experiments with pneumatic railways failed in their extended adoption by cities. Electric traction was more efficient and cleaner than steam, in 1890 the City & South London Railway was the first electric-traction rapid transit railway, which was fully underground. Both railways were merged into London Underground. The 1893 Liverpool Overhead Railway was designed to use electric traction from the outset, budapest in Hungary and Glasgow and New York all converted or purpose-designed and built electric rail services. Advancements in technology have allowed new automated services, hybrid solutions have evolved, such as tram-train and premetro, which incorporate some of the features of rapid transit systems
A metro station or subway station is a railway station for a rapid transit system, which as a whole is usually called a Metro or Subway. The station provides a means for passengers to purchase tickets, access trains stopping at its platforms, the location of a metro station is carefully planned to provide easy access to important urban facilities such as roads, commercial centers, major buildings and other transport nodes. Most stations are located underground, with entrances/exits leading up to ground or street level, the bulk of the station typically positioned under land reserved for public thoroughfares or parks. This is especially important where the station is serving high-density urban precincts, in other cases, a station may be elevated above a road, or at ground level depending on the level of the train tracks. The physical and economic impact of the station and its operations will be greater, planners will often take metro lines or parts of lines at or above ground where urban density decreases, extending the system further for less cost.
Metros are most commonly used in cities, with great populations. Alternatively, a railway land corridor is re-purposed for rapid transit. At street level the logo of the company marks the entrances/exits of the station. Usually, signage shows the name of the station and describes the facilities of the station, often there are several entrances for one station, saving pedestrians from needing to cross a street and reducing crowding. A metro station typically provides ticket vending and ticket validating systems, the station is divided into an unpaid zone connected to the street, and a paid zone connected to the train platforms. The ticket barrier allows passengers with tickets to pass between these zones. The barrier may operated by staff or more typically with automated turnstiles or gates that open when a pass is scanned or detected. Some small metro systems dispense with paid zones and validate tickets with staff in the train carriages, access from the street to ticketing and the train platform is provided by stairs, escalators and tunnels.
The station will be designed to minimise overcrowding and improve flow, permanent or temporary barriers may be used to manage crowds. Some metro stations have connections to important nearby buildings. Most jurisdictions mandate that people with disabilities must have unassisted use of the station and this is resolved with elevators, taking a number of people from street level to the unpaid ticketing area, and from the paid area to the platform. In addition, there will be stringent requirements for emergencies, with lighting, emergency exits. Stations are a part of the evacuation route for passengers escaping from a disabled or troubled train
In civil engineering, a cut or cutting is where soil or rock material from a hill or mountain is cut out to make way for a canal, road or railway line. In cut and fill construction it keeps the route straight and/or flat, contrary to the general meaning of cutting, a cutting in construction is mechanically excavated or blasted out with explosives. Some cuts are make on one side of a slope, others directly through the middle or top of a hill, generally, a cut is open at the top. A cut is the opposite of an embankment, cuts are typically used to reduce the length and the grade of a route. Cuts can be created by multiple passes of a shovel, scraper or excavator, or by blasting, one unusual means of creating a cut is to remove the roof of a tunnel through daylighting. Material removed from cuts is ideally balanced by material needed for fills along the same route, the word is used in the same sense in mining, as in an open cut mine. The term cutting appears in the 19th century literature to designate rock cuts developed to moderate grades of railway lines, railway Ages Comprehensive Railroad Dictionary defines a cut as a passage cut for the roadway through an obstacle of rock or dirt.
There are at least two types of cut, sidehill cut and through cut, the former permits passage of a transportation route alongside of or around a hill, where the slope is transverse to the roadway. A sidehill cut can be formed by means of sidecasting, i. e. cutting on the high side balanced by moving the material to build up the low side to achieve a flat surface for the route. In contrast, through cuts, where the adjacent grade is higher on both sides of the route, require removal of material from the area since it cannot be dumped alongside the route. S. Route 23 in Kentucky Cut-and-cover Embankment Trench Dashrath Manjhi Flying arch, use of a dummy arch bridge to stabilise cutting walls against landslip
A side platform is a platform positioned to the side of a pair of tracks at a railway station, tram stop, or transitway. Dual side platform stations, one for direction of travel, is the basic station design used for double-track railway lines. Side platforms may result in a wider overall footprint for the station compared with a platform where a single width of platform can be shared by riders using either track. In some stations, the two platforms are connected by a footbridge running above and over the tracks. While a pair of platforms is often provided on a dual-track line. Where the station is close to a crossing the platforms may either be on the same side of the crossing road or alternatively may be staggered in one of two ways. With the near-side platforms configuration, each platform appears before the intersection, in some situations a single side platform can be served by multiple vehicles simultaneously with a scissors crossing provided to allow access mid-way along its length. Normally, the facilities of the station are located on the Up platform with the other platform accessed from a footbridge.
However, in cases the stations main buildings are located on whichever side faces the town or village the station serves. Larger stations may have two platforms with several island platforms in between. Some are in a Spanish solution format, with two platforms and an island platform in between, serving two tracks
Gravesend is a neighborhood in the south-central section of the New York City borough of Brooklyn, in the U. S. state of New York. As of 2010, Gravesend had a population of 29,436, Gravesend was one of the original towns in the Dutch colony of New Netherland and became one of the six original towns of Kings County in colonial New York. It was the only English chartered town in what became Kings County and was designated the Shire Town when the English assumed control, courts were removed to Flatbush in 1685. Gravesend is notable for being founded by a woman, Lady Deborah Moody, a prominent early settler was Anthony Janszoon van Salee. When the town was first laid out, almost half were salt marsh wetlands, Gravesend was annexed by the City of Brooklyn in 1894. The derivation of the name Gravesend is unclear, some speculate that it was named after the English seaport of Gravesend, Kent. An alternative explanation suggests that it was named by Willem Kieft for the Dutch settlement of s- Gravesande, there is a town in the Netherlands called s-Gravenzande.
The modern neighborhood of Gravesend lies between Coney Island Avenue to the east, Stillwell Avenue to the west, Kings Highway to the north, to the east of Gravesend is Sheepshead Bay, to the northeast Midwood, to the northwest Bensonhurst, and to the west Bath Beach. To the south, across Coney Island Creek, lies the neighborhood of Coney Island, next to, and parallel with the van Sicklen Family Cemetery is the Old Gravesend Cemetery, where Lady Moody is purported to be interred. Gravesend Cemeterys most exotic occupant is Egyptian émigré Mohammad Ben Misoud, Gravesend is served by three lines of the New York City Subway system. The Coney Island subway yard is in the neighborhood, Gravesend is patrolled by the NYPDs 60th, 61st, and 62nd Precincts. The island and its environs were first inhabited by bands of the Lenape, the first known European to set foot in the area that would become Gravesend was Henry Hudson, whose ship, the Half Moon, landed on Coney Island in the fall of 1609. Due to clashes with the native tribes the town wasnt completed until 1645.
But when the charter was finally signed and granted it became one of the first such titles to ever be awarded to a woman in the new world. The town Lady Moody established was one of the earliest planned communities in America and it consisted of a perfect square surrounded by a 20-foot-high wooden palisade. The town was bisected by two roads, Gravesend Road running from north to south, and Gravesend Neck Road. These roads divided the town into four quadrants which were subdivided into ten plots of land each, at the center of town, where the two main roads met, a town hall was constructed where town meetings were held once a month. Today, Lady Moody is believed to be buried in Old Gravesend Cemetery, in 1654 the people of Gravesend purchased Coney Island from the local natives for about $15 worth of seashells and gunpowder
Avenue U (BMT Sea Beach Line)
Avenue U is a local station on the BMT Sea Beach Line of the New York City Subway. Located at the intersection of Avenue U and West Seventh Street, it is served by the N train at all times and this station, which opened on June 22,1915, has four tracks and two side platforms. The two center tracks are not normally used, but both are available for rerouted trains. The platforms are in an open cut, the concrete walls are painted beige and the columns are blue. In 2005, the station was listed on the National Register of Historic Places and this station, along with eight others along the Sea Beach Line, is scheduled for a rehabilitation starting in 2015. The Manhattan-bound platform at this station was closed on January 18,2016, with an expected reopening in spring 2017. Nycsubway. org – BMT Sea Beach Line, Avenue U Station Reporter — N Train The Subway Nut — Avenue U Pictures Avenue U entrance from Google Maps Street View Avenue T entrance from Google Maps Street View